Matching Items (14)

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Accurate Articulation of /r/: Relationships between Signal Processing Analysis of Speech and Ultrasound Images of the Tongue

Description

Research on /r/ production previously used formant analysis as the primary acoustic analysis, with particular focus on the low third formant in the speech signal. Prior imaging of speech used

Research on /r/ production previously used formant analysis as the primary acoustic analysis, with particular focus on the low third formant in the speech signal. Prior imaging of speech used X-Ray, MRI, and electromagnetic midsagittal articulometer systems. More recently, the signal processing technique of Mel-log spectral plots has been used to study /r/ production in children and female adults. Ultrasound imaging of the tongue also has been used to image the tongue during speech production in both clinical and research settings. The current study attempts to describe /r/ production in three different allophonic contexts; vocalic, prevocalic, and postvocalic positions. Ultrasound analysis, formant analysis, Mel-log spectral plots, and /r/ duration were measured for /r/ production in 29 adult speakers (10 male, 19 female). A possible relationship between these variables was also explored. Results showed that the amount of superior constriction in the postvocalic /r/ allophone was significantly lower than the other /r/ allophones. Formant two was significantly lower and the distance between formant two and three was significantly higher for the prevocalic /r/ allophone. Vocalic /r/ had the longest average duration, while prevocalic /r/ had the shortest duration. Signal processing results revealed candidate Mel-bin values for accurate /r/ production for each allophone of /r/. The results indicate that allophones of /r/ can be distinguished based the different analyses. However, relationships between these analyses are still unclear. Future research is needed in order to gather more data on /r/ acoustics and articulation in order to find possible relationships between the analyses for /r/ production.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Coarticulation: Testing the Universality of Glide Epenthesis, Stop Epenthesis, and Intervocalic Voicing of Stops

Description

The objective of this study was to examine the universality of three coarticulatory processes: glide epenthesis, stop epenthesis, and intervocalic voicing of stops. Five contrastive languages were selected to test

The objective of this study was to examine the universality of three coarticulatory processes: glide epenthesis, stop epenthesis, and intervocalic voicing of stops. Five contrastive languages were selected to test these processes. These languages included English, Spanish, Mandarin, Arabic, and Navajo. All languages varied in phonemic inventory, stress patterns, phonological processes, and syllabic constructs. 16 participants were selected with relatively limited English exposure based on questionnaire responses regarding their language history. The participants went through a series of trainings and tasks to elicit these coarticulatory processes in several phonemic contexts. Part 1 of the study attempted to elicit the processes solely through imitation, while Part 2 attempted to do so through a spontaneous elicitation task. Although the results indicated that a universal use of these processes was not supported, the data suggested that glide epenthesis played a frequent role within English, Spanish, and Arabic. This was expected since glides are often used in the presence of diphthongs in these languages. Additionally, intervocalic voicing of stops was observed in English and Spanish, suggesting a language specific tendency. However, it was only noted when the voiceless stop occurred in the coda of the syllable and not in the onset of the syllable. Lastly, the use of stop epenthesis was not observed in any of the languages tested.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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The Development of Expressive Past Tense in Children Learning English as a Second Language

Description

Research regarding typical English language development in children who are bilingual is of interest for speech-language pathologists, but often this information is not available to them. As a result, many

Research regarding typical English language development in children who are bilingual is of interest for speech-language pathologists, but often this information is not available to them. As a result, many individuals find themselves believing false stereotypes about children who are bilingual, such as the idea that bilingualism causes developmental delay or disorders. For example, individuals do not realize the differences in past tense development for bilingual children versus monolingual children, a form that is often difficult for monolingual English-speaking children with developmental language delays. By focusing on a specific aspect of language development, such as English past tense acquisition of children who are bilingual, and observing changes in MLU and grammaticality that accompany acquisition, this study seeks to increase the existing knowledge on bilingualism and language development. Specifically, we will answer the following questions: a) At which grade level do Spanish-English bilingual children master English past tense after they enter English-only schooling in preschool? b) What types of errors do the children make with regular past tense? c) what types of errors do they make with irregular past tense? and d) What is the level of English grammaticality and MLUw at each grade level in English after children enter preschool? This study examined past-tense accuracy, MLU, and grammaticality development over a period of 5 years, in 13 children who were participants in a larger project called the Language and Reading Research Consortium (LARRC). Children were followed from preschool to third grade. They provided a yearly language sample by retelling one of the wordless Marianna Meyer and Mercer Meyer frog books, such as Frog on His Own or A Boy a Dog a Frog and a Friend. The language samples were then transcribed, coded, and analyzed using the Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT) software. Results indicate that children progressively improved over the years, with children reaching over 80% accuracy with past tense by year 3 or first grade; they demonstrated the most improvement in MLU between years 2 to 3 and years 3 to 4; and they showed a gradual improvement in grammaticality each year, with the exception of no increase between years 4 to 5. Findings from the study indicate that there is leveling in all three areas after 2nd grade. These results contribute to our understanding of normal English language development in bilingual children and may improve assessment when we evaluate their performance in English as a second language.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-12

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Language-based Interventions Incorporated into Third Grade General Education

Description

Research in the last decade has indicated that collaboration between speech-language pathologists (SLP) and general education teachers is a necessary component for effective instruction. Students that have language difficulties should

Research in the last decade has indicated that collaboration between speech-language pathologists (SLP) and general education teachers is a necessary component for effective instruction. Students that have language difficulties should have the necessary support to help them succeed in the general education classroom. Despite the overwhelming evidence that supports that collaboration is the best practice, it does not take place due to lack of training, time, and funding. My creative project includes a template and website that allows SLPs and teachers to collaborate to enrich instruction targeted towards third grade students diagnosed with a language disorder. This template is designed for the SLP to contribute specific language-based strategies that they implement during their therapy sessions. In turn, the general educator can access the template and easily integrate those strategies into her lessons to support the language skills of her students so that the student has more opportunities to generalize their skills. The template is formatted around the IEP goals of the students and aligned to the Common Core standards. The purpose of the template is to provide SLPs and general education teachers a means to collaborate without having to take additional time from each other's limited schedules and eliminates the need for in-person training to implement these strategies to effectively support students with language disabilities struggling in the general education classroom.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-12

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Using Acoustic Analysis to Identify Orofacial Myofunctional Disorder in Speakers

Description

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between acoustic indicators in speech and the presence of orofacial myofunctional disorder (OMD). This study analyzed the first and second

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between acoustic indicators in speech and the presence of orofacial myofunctional disorder (OMD). This study analyzed the first and second formant frequencies (F1 and F2) of the four corner vowels [/i/, /u/, /æ/ and /ɑ/] found in the spontaneous speech of thirty participants. It was predicted that speakers with orofacial myofunctional disorder would have a raised F1 and F2 because of habitual low and anterior tongue positioning. This study concluded no significant statistical differences in the formant frequencies. Further inspection of the total vowel space area of the OMD speakers suggested that OMD speakers had a smaller, more centralized vowel space. We concluded that more study of the total vowel space area for OMD speakers is warranted.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Predicting /r/ Acquisition: A Longitudinal Analysis Using Signal Processing

Description

The purpose of this longitudinal study was to predict /r/ acquisition using acoustic signal processing. 19 children, aged 5-7 with inaccurate /r/, were followed until they turned 8 or acquired

The purpose of this longitudinal study was to predict /r/ acquisition using acoustic signal processing. 19 children, aged 5-7 with inaccurate /r/, were followed until they turned 8 or acquired /r/, whichever came first. Acoustic and descriptive data from 14 participants were analyzed. The remaining 5 children continued to be followed. The study analyzed differences in spectral energy at the baseline acoustic signals of participants who eventually acquired /r/ compared to that of those who did not acquire /r/. Results indicated significant differences between groups in the baseline signals for vocalic and postvocalic /r/, suggesting that the acquisition of certain allophones may be predictable. Participants’ articulatory changes made during the progression of acquisition were also analyzed spectrally. A retrospective analysis described the pattern in which /r/ allophones were acquired, proposing that vocalic /r/ and the postvocalic variant of consonantal /r/ may be acquired prior to prevocalic /r/, and /r/ followed by low vowels may be acquired before /r/ followed by high vowels, although individual variations exist.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Ultrasound Imaging of Swallowing Subsequent to Feeding and Myofunctional Intervention

Description

The purpose of this study was to examine swallowing patterns using ultrasound technology subsequent to the implementation of two therapeutic interventions. Baseline swallow patterns were compared to swallows after implementation

The purpose of this study was to examine swallowing patterns using ultrasound technology subsequent to the implementation of two therapeutic interventions. Baseline swallow patterns were compared to swallows after implementation of therapeutic interventions common in both feeding therapy (FT) and orofacial myofunctional therapy (OMT). The interventions consist of stimulation of the tongue by z-vibe and tongue pops. Changes in swallowing patterns are described, and similarities of interventions across the two professions are discussed. Ultrasound research in the realm of swallowing is sparse despite having potential clinical application in both professions. In using ultrasound, this study outlines a protocol for utilization of a hand-held probe and reinforces a particular protocol described in the literature. Real-time ultrasound recordings of swallows for 19 adult female subjects were made. Participants with orofacial myofunctional disorder are compared to a group with typical swallowing and differences in swallowing patterns are described. Three stages of the oral phase of the swallow were assigned based on ultrasonic observation of the tongue shape. Analysis involves total duration of the swallow, duration of the three stages in relation to the total duration of the swallow, and the number of swallows required for the bolus to be cleared from the oral cavity. No significant effects of either intervention were found. Swallowing patterns showed a general trend to become faster in total duration subsequent to each intervention. An unexpected finding showed significant changes in the relationship between the bolus preparation stage and the bolus transportation stage when comparing the group classified as having a single swallow and the group classified as having multiple swallows.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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EFFECTS OF STIMULATION THERAPY THROUGH THE USE OF A CRAFT BOOK

Description

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of a craft book used for stimulation therapy on the phonetic sounds /ŋ/, /r/, /s/, /ʃ/, /tʃ/, and /θ/. The

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of a craft book used for stimulation therapy on the phonetic sounds /ŋ/, /r/, /s/, /ʃ/, /tʃ/, and /θ/. The book is specifically geared toward children who do not qualify for speech remediation services but who may be at risk of a speech sound disorder. Four children participated in the study with ages ranging from 4;3-7;6. The study lasted for four weeks in which data was collected on a weekly basis via Likert Scale surveys in accordance with two conversational speech samples. The speech samples were phonetically transcribed with minimal differences pre and post use of the craft book. Data from the surveys give insight to the children’s favorite crafts, the level of difficulty of each craft, and the likelihood of the craft book to be used as part of a remediation program. The study had limitations in sample size, duration, and number of craft activities. Future revisions should include increasing the number of crafts available per chapter and incorporating into the introduction an educational component for parents.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Determining Predictors of Acquisition for /r/ Using Acoustic Signal Processing

Description

This longitudinal study aimed to determine whether significant differences existed between the baseline inaccurate signals of the /r/ phoneme for children that eventually acquire or do not acquire /r/. Seventeen

This longitudinal study aimed to determine whether significant differences existed between the baseline inaccurate signals of the /r/ phoneme for children that eventually acquire or do not acquire /r/. Seventeen participants ages 5-8 who had not acquired /r/ in any of its allophonic contexts were recorded approximately every 3 months from the age of recruitment until they either acquired /r/ in conversation (80% accuracy) or turned eight years old. The recorded audio files were trimmed and labelled using Praat, and signal processing was used to compare initial and final recordings of three allophonic variations of /r/ (vocalic, prevocalic, postvocalic) for each participant. Differences were described using Mel-log Spectral plots. For each age group, initial recordings of participants that eventually acquired /r/ were compared to those of participants that did not acquire /r/. Participants that had not acquired /r/ and had yet to turn eight years old were compared by whether they were perceived to be improving or perceived not to be improving. Significant differences in Mel-log spectral plots will be discussed, and the implications of baseline differences will be highlighted, specifically with respect to the feasibility of identifying predictive markers for acquisition
on-acquisition of the difficult /r/ phoneme.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Test Instrument, Bolus size, Multiple Swallows and Ultrasound in the Evaluation of Oral-Stage Swallow

Description

A previous study identified a subset of participants who required multiple swallows to clear a single bolus (Weinhold & McKay, 2017). Presence of multiple swallows was positively correlated with orofacial

A previous study identified a subset of participants who required multiple swallows to clear a single bolus (Weinhold & McKay, 2017). Presence of multiple swallows was positively correlated with orofacial myofunctional disorder (OMD), suggesting that multiple swallows might be a potential screening marker for OMD. Since bolus size was not controlled in the study, reviewers questioned whether multiple swallows might have been a consequence of larger bolus size. In 2018, Pennington and Weinhold replicated this study by using a consistent 5ml bolus and revealed a similar correlation between OMD and multiple swallows. However, the test instrument used in that study to identify OMD yielded an OMD incidence of 60%. Accordingly, a new test instrument was developed to increase specificity of scoring for future studies. The new instrument identified 30% of participants as having OMD, which is more in line with the literature. The current study replicated Weinhold & McKay (2017) by utilizing the new test instrument as well as a predetermined average sip size for each participant. Utilizing both a controlled bolus of 5ml, and a participant-specific bolus size failed to eliminate multiple swallows. Linear regression revealed no significant relationship between size of bolus and number of swallows for either study; therefore, the hypothesis that the size of the unmeasured boluses in Weinhold & McKay caused differences in number of swallows was rejected. The suggestion that multiple swallows are indicative of OMD was strengthened, prompting further investigation into the relationship between number of swallows per bolus and OMD. Ultrasound images of three stages of the oral swallow were compared for the OMD and non-OMD groups. No statistical differences were noted in tongue constriction, which did not support our hypothesis that the OMD participants would display less constriction. However, baseline tongue position of /𝑎/ for participants with OMD was significantly lower than the baseline of participants without OMD. Pertinence of these findings relative to the oral stages of the swallow are addressed, as well as implications of oral stage dysfunction in general.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05