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Wet NanoBonding of Semiconducting Surfaces Optimized via Surface Energy Modification using Three Liquid Contact Angle Analysis as a Metrology

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Semiconductor wafers are analyzed and their total surface energy γT is measured in three components according to the van Oss theory: (1) γLW, surface energy due to Lifshitz-van der Waals

Semiconductor wafers are analyzed and their total surface energy γT is measured in three components according to the van Oss theory: (1) γLW, surface energy due to Lifshitz-van der Waals forces or dipole interactions, (2) γ+, surface energy due to interactions with electron donors, and (3) γ–, surface energy due to interactions with electron acceptors. Surface energy is measured via Three Liquid Contact Angle Analysis (3LCAA), a method of contact angle measurement using the sessile drop technique and three liquids: water, glycerin, and α-bromonaphthalene. This research optimizes the experimental methods of 3LCAA, proving that the technique produces reproducible measurements for surface energy on a variety of surfaces. Wafer surfaces are prepared via thermal oxidation, rapid thermal oxidation, ion beam oxidation, rapid thermal annealing, hydrofluoric acid etching, the RCA clean, the Herbots-Atluri (H-A) process, and the dry and wet anneals used for Dry and Wet NanoBonding™, respectively.
NanoBonding™ is a process for growing molecular bonds between semiconducting surfaces to create a hermetic seal. NanoBonding™ prevents fluid percolation, protecting integrated electronic sensors from corrosive mobile ion species such as sodium. This can extend the lifetime of marine sensors and glucose sensors from less than one week to over two years, dramatically reducing costs and improving quality of life for diabetic patients. Surface energy measurement is critical to understanding and optimizing NanoBonding™. Surface energies are modified through variations on the H-A process, and measured via 3LCAA. The majority of this research focuses on silicon oxide surfaces.
This is the first quantitative measurement of gallium arsenide surface energy in three components. GaAs is a III-V semiconductor with potential commercial use in transistors, but its oxide layer slowly evaporates over time. In subsequent research, 3LCAA may prove key to developing a stable GaAs oxide layer.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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In Vivo Clinical Animal Trials for an Anti-Fog Coating on Surgical Lenses

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One major issue that surgeons face during closed body cavity surgery is fogging of the lens surfaces. The cloudy and opaque lens surface caused by water vapor present in closed

One major issue that surgeons face during closed body cavity surgery is fogging of the lens surfaces. The cloudy and opaque lens surface caused by water vapor present in closed body cavities forces the surgeon to repeatedly remove the endoscope, wipe it, and reinsert it back into the patient. This presents several risks such as increased surgery time, greater scarring, and an increased chance of infection. In order to address this issue, the development of the Thin Fluid Film Device (TFFD™) VitreOx™ aims to render the lens surface hydrophilic, whereas it is typically hydrophobic. By creating a hydrophilic polymeric nanomesh, the 3-D water droplets can be trapped to lie flatter, thus resulting in a flatter 2-D sheeting effect. The light can no longer be refracted at different angles off of the 3-dimensional water beads, thus eliminating the opacity of the lens surface.
Two animal trials were performed involving a rat and two pigs in order to prove the efficacy of VitreOx™ in addition to being compared with competitor, Covidien Clearify. A laparoscopy was performed on each animal, and the length of time that the endoscope took to fog was measured post product application. The results of the optimized animal clinical trials involving two Yucatan pigs showed that the scope treated with Covidien’s Clearify began fogging within 8 minutes and continued to do so for the remained of the surgery, as opposed to the scope with VitreOx™ which remained fog free for the full 90-minute procedure. The results proved the efficacy of our product.
The second part of the thesis aimed to optimize HemoClear™, the blood evacuating TFFD™. This was done by testing a higher concentration of 6 mg/mL fibrinogen as compared to previous work. After conducting an experiment designed to mimic closed-body cavity surgery it was determined that the HemoClear™ eliminated fog 67% of the time and evacuated blood with a success of 83%. Future work aims to continue testing at this concentration with variances in mixing and application technique.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05