Matching Items (32)

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Creating Paramagnetically-Labeled PF4 Mutants to Evaluate Interactions with Mac-1 in NMR

Description

PF4 (CXCL4) is a cationic platelet chemokine that has been identified as a ligand for the integrin Mac-1 (αMβ2). The interaction between PF4 and Mac-1 has been shown to cause

PF4 (CXCL4) is a cationic platelet chemokine that has been identified as a ligand for the integrin Mac-1 (αMβ2). The interaction between PF4 and Mac-1 has been shown to cause leukocyte migration, improve phagocytosis, and trigger the up-regulation of Mac-1 expression in leukocytes, thereby increasing leukocytic adhesion. Though Mac-1 is known to serve as the site of interaction between PF4 and the leukocyte, the PF4 binding site of Mac-1 remains unknown. 1H-15N HSQC NMR spectroscopy of the interaction between PF4 and Mac-1’s binding site, the αMI domain, can provide this data. This project seeks to create PF4 mutants with site-directed spin labels to enhance the sensitivity of NMR for future experiments that seek to locate the PF4-Mac-1 binding site. It was hypothesized that the mutants created would adopt the native conformation and accept an MTSL label. Two mutants were successfully created and harvested, PF4 S17C and PF4 S26C. Both were soluble and the Sanger sequencing results show that primary structure was conserved except for the substitutions of structurally similar residues indicating the protein folds and likely adopts native conformation. PF4 S26C was labeled with MTSL, and 1H-15N HSQC NMR spectroscopy was performed on unlabeled PF4 S26C (at pH 3.40), MTSL-labeled PF4 S26C (at pH 3.15), and MTSL-labeled PF4 S26C exposed to ascorbic acid (at pH 3.15) to evaluate if the mutant accepts the label and, resultantly, experiences reduced signal intensity. Significant change in signal intensity occurred without change in location of the peaks between the unlabeled and labeled spectra, showing that PF4 S26C accepts the spin label without changing the protein structure and that the label works as expected; however, no change occurred after reducing the spin label with ascorbic acid, preventing confirmation that signal changes were exclusively caused by the MTSL-label. Therefore, though these mutants show potential for future titration with the αMI domain and the hypothesis is supported, a future attempt to reduce MTSL-labeled PF4 S26C at a higher pH (approximately pH 5) is required. Additionally, PF4 S17C should also be evaluated with the methodology used to assess PF4 S26C before its employment in future projects.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Determining Magnesium Metal Affinity of Alpha L- Id in pH 5

Description

Integrin is a protein in cells that manage cell adhesion. They are crucial to the biochemical functions of cells. L 2 is one type of integrin. Its I domain is

Integrin is a protein in cells that manage cell adhesion. They are crucial to the biochemical functions of cells. L 2 is one type of integrin. Its I domain is responsible for ligand binding. Scientists understand how Alpha L I domain binds Mg2+ at a pH of 7 but not in acidic environments. Knowing the specificity of integrin at a lower pH is important because when tissues become inflamed, they release acidic compounds. We have cloned, expressed, and purified L I-domain and using NMR analysis, we determined that wild type Alpha L I domain does not bind to Mg2+ at a pH of 5.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Optimizing Transfection, Expression, and Purification of the Human Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (hTRPM8) from HEK293 cells

Description

Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8) is a non-selective cation channel notable as a primary cold sensor in humans. It is also involved in a variety of (patho)physiological events including

Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8) is a non-selective cation channel notable as a primary cold sensor in humans. It is also involved in a variety of (patho)physiological events including pain sensation, chronic cough, diabetes, obesity, and cancer. TRPM8 is modulated by a variety of stimuli including pH, temperature, cooling agents, voltage, lipid, and other proteins. However, the molecular mechanism underlining its function has not yet clear raising the need for isolated proteins to be well-characterized. Over 20 years, E. coli has been a heterologous expression system of interest due to its low cost and high yield. However, the lack of post-translational modifications and chaperone may cause a misfolding or affect protein function. Mammalian expression system addresses these drawbacks and is a good candidate for the functional study of complex human protein. Here I describe my research in optimizing the transfection, expression, and purification of the human TRPM8 from adherent Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK293) cells which can be used for small-scale studies including, but not limited to, planar lipid bilayer electrophysiology.

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Date Created
  • 2017-12

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Expression of Pleiotrophin as Separate Domains to Examine Glycosaminoglycan Binding Sites

Description

Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) binding by the cytokine pleiotrophin (PTN) was examined by expressing both thrombospondin 1 type-1 repeat domains of PTN separately, as PTN-N and PTN-C. PTN-N contains residues 31-89, and

Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) binding by the cytokine pleiotrophin (PTN) was examined by expressing both thrombospondin 1 type-1 repeat domains of PTN separately, as PTN-N and PTN-C. PTN-N contains residues 31-89, and PTN-C contains residues 90-146. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments were conducted on both PTN-N and PTN-C to elucidate GAG binding regions. Titration with heparin dp6 showed a twofold increase in affinity when expressing PTN-N and PTN-C separately rather than as intact PTN. Paramagnetic relaxation rate enhancement experiments and surface paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) perturbation experiments were used to determine which residues were involved in GAG binding. One binding site was observed in PTN-N, around residue T82, and two binding sites were observed in PTN-C, one around residue K93 and the other around residue G142. These observed binding sites agree with the binding sites already proposed by the Wang lab group and other studies. Future work on the subject could be done on confirming that other varieties and length GAGs bind at the same sites, as well as examining the effect longer GAG fragments have on the affinity of intact PTN versus separate domains.

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Date Created
  • 2015-12

Highly multiplexed single-cell in situ RNA and DNA analysis with biorthogonal cleavable fluorescent oligonucleotides

Description

The understanding of normal human physiology and disease pathogenesis shows great promise for progress with increasing ability to profile genomic loci and transcripts in single cells in situ. Using biorthogonal

The understanding of normal human physiology and disease pathogenesis shows great promise for progress with increasing ability to profile genomic loci and transcripts in single cells in situ. Using biorthogonal cleavable fluorescent oligonucleotides, a highly multiplexed single-cell in situ RNA and DNA analysis is reported. In this report, azide-based cleavable linker connects oligonucleotides to fluorophores to show nucleic acids through in situ hybridization. Post-imaging, the fluorophores are effectively cleaved off in half an hour without loss of RNA or DNA integrity. Through multiple cycles of hybridization, imaging, and cleavage this approach proves to quantify thousands of different RNA species or genomic loci because of single-molecule sensitivity in single cells in situ. Different nucleic acids can be imaged by shown by multi-color staining in each hybridization cycle, and that multiple hybridization cycles can be run on the same specimen. It is shown that in situ analysis of DNA, RNA and protein can be accomplished using both cleavable fluorescent antibodies and oligonucleotides. The highly multiplexed imaging platforms will have the potential for wide applications in both systems biology and biomedical research. Thus, proving to be cost effective and time effective.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Maximizing Yield and Modification of 13C/15N Labeled Heparosan From E. coli K5 Culture

Description

Understanding glycosaminoglycans’ (GAG) interaction with proteins is of growing interest for therapeutic applications. For instance, heparin is a GAG exploited for its ability to inhibit proteases, therefore inducing anticoagulation. For

Understanding glycosaminoglycans’ (GAG) interaction with proteins is of growing interest for therapeutic applications. For instance, heparin is a GAG exploited for its ability to inhibit proteases, therefore inducing anticoagulation. For this reason, heparin is extracted in mass quantities from porcine intestine in the pharmaceutical field. Following a contamination in 2008, alternative sources for heparin are desired. In response, much research has been invested in the extraction of the naturally occurring polysaccharide, heparosan, from Escherichia coli K5 strain. As heparosan contains the same structural backbone as heparin, modifications can be made to produce heparin or heparin-like molecules from this source. Furthermore, isotopically labeled batches of heparosan can be produced to aid in protein-GAG interaction studies. In this study, a comparative look between extraction and purification methods of heparosan was taken. Fed-batch fermentation of this E. coli strain followed by subsequent purification yielded a final 13C/15N labeled batch of 90mg/L of heparosan which was then N-sulfated. Furthermore, a labeled sulfated disaccharide from this batch was utilized in a protein interaction study with CCL5. With NMR analysis, it was found that this heparin-like molecule interacted with CCL5 when its glucosamine residue was in a β-conformation. This represents an interaction reliant on a specific anomericity of this GAG molecule.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Measuring the Activity of Φ29 DNA Polymerase

Description

The major goal of this large project is to develop a Recognition Tunneling Nanopore (RTP) device that will be used for determining the structure of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). The RTP device

The major goal of this large project is to develop a Recognition Tunneling Nanopore (RTP) device that will be used for determining the structure of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). The RTP device is composed of a recognition tunneling junction that is embedded in a nanopore. In order to translocate the GAG molecule through the nanopore, researchers have designed a scheme in which the GAG molecule of interest will be attached to the 5’ end of a DNA primer (figure 1) and the DNA primer will be extended by a biotinylated Φ29 DNA polymerase that is anchored in the nanoslit using streptavidin. This research project specifically is part of a larger project with the main goal of comparing the activity of the wild-type Φ29 DNA polymerase which I have expressed and purified with the mutated Φ29 DNA polymerase devoid of 3’ - 5’ exonuclease activity which was made by Dr. Deng.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Total Synthesis of Dolastatin 16 and the Silstatins: Cyclic Depsipeptides from the Sea

Description

The 23-step total synthesis of dolastatin 16, a cyclic depsipeptide of marine origin, is presented. Included are syntheses of nonnatural amino acids dolamethylleuine and dolaphenvaline. The biological activity of the

The 23-step total synthesis of dolastatin 16, a cyclic depsipeptide of marine origin, is presented. Included are syntheses of nonnatural amino acids dolamethylleuine and dolaphenvaline. The biological activity of the synthetic product differed from naturally isolated dolastatin 16, which may indicate the initial screening identified an inactive compound and the active one was not detected initially, or may be a result of the conformational dynamics induced by the proline residues. Additionally, a family of structural analogues to the bacillistatins, another cyclic marine depsipeptide, were synthesized. These were deemed the silstatins. 8 modifications were produced. The alterations aimed to introduce a heteroatomic residue for further derivatization, such as producing an antibody-drug conjugate. This introduction did in general decrease the neoplastic activity of these agents, as expected, but by modulating the lipophilicity of the compound we were able to salvage much of the potency of the bacillistatins while potentially allowing prodrug development.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Exploring Structure and Function of Human Cold Sensing Protein TRPM8 with ROSETTA Comparative Models

Description

Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels are a diverse class of ion channels notable as polymodal sensors. TRPM8 is a TRP channel implicated in cold sensation, nociception, and a variety of

Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) channels are a diverse class of ion channels notable as polymodal sensors. TRPM8 is a TRP channel implicated in cold sensation, nociception, and a variety of human diseases, including obesity and cancer. Despite sustained interest in TRPM8 since its discovery in 2001, many of the molecular mechanisms that underlie function are not yet clear. Knowledge of these properties could have implications for medicine and physiological understanding of sensation and signaling. Structures of TRP channels have proven challenging to solve, but recent Cryoelectron microscopy (Cryo-EM) structures of TRPV1 provide a basis for homology-based modeling of TRP channel structures and interactions. I present an ensemble of 11,000 Rosetta computational homology models of TRPM8 based on the recent Cryo-EM apo structure of TRPV1 (PDB code:3J5P). Site-directed mutagenesis has provided clues about which residues are most essential for modulatory ligands to bind, so the models presented provide a platform to investigate the structural basis of TRPM8 ligand modulation complementary to existing functional and structural information. Menthol and icilin appear to interact with interfacial residues in the sensor domain (S1-S4). One consensus feature of these sites is the presence of local contacts to the S4 helix, suggesting this helix may be mechanistically involved with the opening of the pore. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2)has long been known to interact with the C-terminus of TRPM8, and some of the homology models contain plausible binding pockets where PIP2 can come into contact with charged residues known to be essential for PIP2 modulation. Future in silico binding experiments could provide testable hypothesis for in vitro structural studies, and experimental data (e.g. distance constraints from electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy [EPR]) could further refine the models.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Electronic single-molecule identification of carbohydrate isomers by recognition tunnelling

Description

Carbohydrates are one of the four main building blocks of life, and are categorized as monosaccharides (sugars), oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Each sugar can exist in two alternative anomers (in which

Carbohydrates are one of the four main building blocks of life, and are categorized as monosaccharides (sugars), oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Each sugar can exist in two alternative anomers (in which a hydroxy group at C-1 takes different orientations) and each pair of sugars can form different epimers (isomers around the stereocentres connecting the sugars). This leads to a vast combinatorial complexity, intractable to mass spectrometry and requiring large amounts of sample for NMR characterization. Combining measurements of collision cross section with mass spectrometry (IM–MS) helps, but many isomers are still difficult to separate. Here, we show that recognition tunnelling (RT) can classify many anomers and epimers via the current fluctuations they produce when captured in a tunnel junction functionalized with recognition molecules. Most importantly, RT is a nanoscale technique utilizing sub-picomole quantities of analyte. If integrated into a nanopore, RT would provide a unique approach to sequencing linear polysaccharides.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12-21