Matching Items (14)

128250-Thumbnail Image.png

In situ drug-receptor binding kinetics in single cells: a quantitative label-free study of anti-tumor drug resistance

Description

Many drugs are effective in the early stage of treatment, but patients develop drug resistance after a certain period of treatment, causing failure of the therapy. An important example is

Many drugs are effective in the early stage of treatment, but patients develop drug resistance after a certain period of treatment, causing failure of the therapy. An important example is Herceptin, a popular monoclonal antibody drug for breast cancer by specifically targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2). Here we demonstrate a quantitative binding kinetics analysis of drug-target interactions to investigate the molecular scale origin of drug resistance. Using a surface plasmon resonance imaging, we measured the in situ Herceptin-Her2 binding kinetics in single intact cancer cells for the first time, and observed significantly weakened Herceptin-Her2 interactions in Herceptin-resistant cells, compared to those in Herceptin-sensitive cells. We further showed that the steric hindrance of Mucin-4, a membrane protein, was responsible for the altered drug-receptor binding. This effect of a third molecule on drug-receptor interactions cannot be studied using traditional purified protein methods, demonstrating the importance of the present intact cell-based binding kinetics analysis.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-10-14

128460-Thumbnail Image.png

Kinetics of small molecule interactions with membrane proteins in single cells measured with mechanical amplification

Description

Measuring small molecule interactions with membrane proteins in single cells is critical for understanding many cellular processes and for screening drugs. However, developing such a capability has been a difficult

Measuring small molecule interactions with membrane proteins in single cells is critical for understanding many cellular processes and for screening drugs. However, developing such a capability has been a difficult challenge. We show that molecular interactions with membrane proteins induce a mechanical deformation in the cellular membrane, and real-time monitoring of the deformation with subnanometer resolution allows quantitative analysis of small molecule–membrane protein interaction kinetics in single cells. This new strategy provides mechanical amplification of small binding signals, making it possible to detect small molecule interactions with membrane proteins. This capability, together with spatial resolution, also allows the study of the heterogeneous nature of cells by analyzing the interaction kinetics variability between different cells and between different regions of a single cell.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-10-23

129428-Thumbnail Image.png

Plasmonic imaging of protein interactions with single bacterial cells

Description

Quantifying the interactions of bacteria with external ligands is fundamental to the understanding of pathogenesis, antibiotic resistance, immune evasion, and mechanism of antimicrobial action. Due to inherent cell-to-cell heterogeneity in

Quantifying the interactions of bacteria with external ligands is fundamental to the understanding of pathogenesis, antibiotic resistance, immune evasion, and mechanism of antimicrobial action. Due to inherent cell-to-cell heterogeneity in a microbial population, each bacterium interacts differently with its environment. This large variability is washed out in bulk assays, and there is a need of techniques that can quantify interactions of bacteria with ligands at the single bacterium level. In this work, we present a label-free and real-time plasmonic imaging technique to measure the binding kinetics of ligand interactions with single bacteria, and perform statistical analysis of the heterogeneity. Using the technique, we have studied interactions of antibodies with single Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells and demonstrated a capability of determining the binding kinetic constants of single live bacteria with ligands, and quantify heterogeneity in a microbial population.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-01-15

158165-Thumbnail Image.png

Time-Lapse Large-Volume Light Scattering Imaging Cytometry

Description

Cytometry is a method used to measure and collect the physical and chemical characteristics of a population of cells. In modern medical settings, the trend of precision and personalized medicines

Cytometry is a method used to measure and collect the physical and chemical characteristics of a population of cells. In modern medical settings, the trend of precision and personalized medicines has imposed a need for rapid point-of-care diagnostic technologies. A rapid cytometric method, which aims at detecting and analyzing cells in direct patient samples, is therefore desirable. This dissertation presents the development of light-scattering-based imaging methods for detecting and analyzing cells and applies the technology in four applications. The first application is tracking phenotypic features of single particles, thereby differentiating bacterial cells from non-living particles in a label-free manner. The second application is a culture-free antimicrobial susceptibility test that rapidly tracks multiple, antimicrobial-induced phenotypic changes of bacterial cells with results obtained within 30 – 90 minutes. The third application is rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of bacterial cell growth directly in-patient urine samples, without a pre-culture step, within 90 min. This technology demonstrated rapid (90 min) detection of Escherichia coli in 24 clinical urine samples with 100% sensitivity and 83% specificity and rapid (90 min) AST in 12 urine samples with 87.5% categorical agreement with two antibiotics, ampicillin and ciprofloxacin. The fourth application is a multi-dimensional imaging cytometry system that integrates multiple light sources from different angles to simultaneously capture time-lapse, forward scattering and side scattering images of blood cells. The system has demonstrated capacity to detect red blood cell agglutination, assess red blood cell lysis, and differentiate red and white blood cells for potential implementation in clinical hematology analyses. These large-volume, light-scattering cytometric technologies can be used and applied in clinical and research settings to study, detect, and analyze cells. These studies developed rapid point-of-care diagnostic and imaging technologies for collectively advancing modern medicine and global health.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

157785-Thumbnail Image.png

Charge sensitive and label-free detection of molecules

Description

Quantifying molecular interactions is pivotal for understanding biological processes at molecular scale and for screening drugs. Although various detection technologies have been developed, it is still challenging to quantify the

Quantifying molecular interactions is pivotal for understanding biological processes at molecular scale and for screening drugs. Although various detection technologies have been developed, it is still challenging to quantify the binding kinetics of small molecules because the sensitivities of the mainstream technologies scale down with the size of the molecule. To address this problem, two different optical detection methods, charge sensitive optical detection (CSOD) and virion
ano-oscillators, are developed to measure the binding-induced charge change instead of the mass change, which enables quantification of the binding kinetics for both large and small molecules.

In particular, the nano-oscillator approach provides a unique capability to image individual nanoparticles and measure the size and charge of each nanoparticle simultaneously. This approach is applied to measure one of the smallest biological particles - single protein molecules. By tracking the oscillation of each protein molecule, the size, charge, and mobility are measured in real-time with high precision. This capability also allows to monitor the conformation and charge changes of single protein molecules upon ligand binding. Measuring the size and charge of single proteins opens a new revenue to protein analysis and disease biomarker detection at the single molecule level.

The virion
ano-oscillators and the single protein approach employ a scheme where a particle is tethered to the surface with a polymer molecule. The dynamics of the particle is governed by two important forces: One is entropic force arising from the conformational change of the molecular tether, and the other is solvent damping on the particle and the molecule. The dynamics is studied by varying the type of the tether molecule, size of the particle, and viscosity of the solvent. The findings provide insights into single molecule studies using not only tethered particles, but also other approaches, including force spectroscopy using atomic force microscopy and nanopores.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

155688-Thumbnail Image.png

Rapid Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Based on Bacterial Motion Tracking

Description

Antibiotic resistant bacteria are a worldwide epidemic threatening human survival. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests (ASTs) are important for confirming susceptibility to empirical antibiotics and detecting resistance in bacterial isolates. Current ASTs

Antibiotic resistant bacteria are a worldwide epidemic threatening human survival. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests (ASTs) are important for confirming susceptibility to empirical antibiotics and detecting resistance in bacterial isolates. Current ASTs are based on bacterial culturing, which take 2-14 days to complete depending on the microbial growth rate. Considering the high mortality and morbidity rates for most acute infections, such long time frames are clinically impractical and pose a huge risk to a patient's life. A faster AST will reduce morbidity and mortality rates, as well as help healthcare providers, administer narrow spectrum antibiotics at the earliest possible treatment stage.

In this dissertation, I developed a nonculture-based AST using an imaging and cell tracking technology. I track individual Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli (UPEC) cells, widely implicated in food-poisoning outbreaks and urinary tract infections respectively. Cells tethered to a surface are tracked on the nanometer scale, and phenotypic motion is correlated with bacterial metabolism. Antibiotic action significantly slows down motion of tethered bacterial cells, which is used to perform antibiotic susceptibility testing. Using this technology, the clinical minimum bactericidal concentration of an antibiotic against UPEC pathogens was calculated within 2 hours directly in urine samples as compared to 3 days using current gold standard tools.

Such technologies can make a tremendous impact to improve the efficacy and efficiency of infectious disease treatment. This has the potential to reduce the antibiotic mis-prescription steeply, which can drastically decrease the annual 2M+ hospitalizations and 23,000+ deaths caused due to antibiotic resistance bacteria along with saving billions of dollars to payers, patients, and hospitals.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

153997-Thumbnail Image.png

Methods for detection of small molecule-protein interactions

Description

Detection of molecular interactions is critical for understanding many biological processes, for detecting disease biomarkers, and for screening drug candidates. Fluorescence-based approach can be problematic, especially when applied to the

Detection of molecular interactions is critical for understanding many biological processes, for detecting disease biomarkers, and for screening drug candidates. Fluorescence-based approach can be problematic, especially when applied to the detection of small molecules. Various label-free techniques, such as surface plasmon resonance technique are sensitive to mass, making it extremely challenging to detect small molecules. In this thesis, novel detection methods for molecular interactions are described.

First, a simple detection paradigm based on reflectance interferometry is developed. This method is simple, low cost and can be easily applied for protein array detection.

Second, a label-free charge sensitive optical detection (CSOD) technique is developed for detecting of both large and small molecules. The technique is based on that most molecules relevant to biomedical research and applications are charged or partially charged. An optical fiber is dipped into the well of a microplate. It detects the surface charge of the fiber, which does not decrease with the size (mass) of the molecule, making it particularly attractive for studying small molecules.

Third, a method for mechanically amplification detection of molecular interactions (MADMI) is developed. It provides quantitative analysis of small molecules interaction with membrane proteins in intact cells. The interactions are monitored by detecting a mechanical deformation in the membrane induced by the molecular interactions. With this novel method small molecules and membrane proteins interaction in the intact cells can be detected. This new paradigm provides mechanical amplification of small interaction signals, allowing us to measure the binding kinetics of both large and small molecules with membrane proteins, and to analyze heterogeneous nature of the binding kinetics between different cells, and different regions of a single cell.

Last, by tracking the cell membrane edge deformation, binding caused downstream event – granule secretory has been measured. This method focuses on the plasma membrane change when granules fuse with the cell. The fusion of granules increases the plasma membrane area and thus the cell edge expands. The expansion is localized at the vesicle release location. Granule size was calculated based on measured edge expansion. The membrane deformation due to the granule release is real-time monitored by this method.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

154668-Thumbnail Image.png

Optical methods for studying cell mechanics

Description

Mechanical properties of cells are important in maintaining physiological functions of biological systems. Quantitative measurement and analysis of mechanical properties can help understand cellular mechanics and its functional relevance and

Mechanical properties of cells are important in maintaining physiological functions of biological systems. Quantitative measurement and analysis of mechanical properties can help understand cellular mechanics and its functional relevance and discover physical biomarkers for diseases monitoring and therapeutics.

This dissertation presents a work to develop optical methods for studying cell mechanics which encompasses four applications. Surface plasmon resonance microscopy based optical method has been applied to image intracellular motions and cell mechanical motion. This label-free technique enables ultrafast imaging with extremely high sensitivity in detecting cell deformation. The technique was first applied to study intracellular transportation. Organelle transportation process and displacement steps of motor protein can be tracked using this method. The second application is to study heterogeneous subcellular membrane displacement induced by membrane potential (de)polarization. The application can map the amplitude and direction of cell deformation. The electromechanical coupling of mammalian cells was also observed. The third application is for imaging electrical activity in single cells with sub-millisecond resolution. This technique can fast record actions potentials and also resolve the fast initiation and propagation of electromechanical signals within single neurons. Bright-field optical imaging approach has been applied to the mechanical wave visualization that associated with action potential in the fourth application. Neuron-to-neuron viability of membrane displacement was revealed and heterogeneous subcellular response was observed.

All these works shed light on the possibility of using optical approaches to study millisecond-scale and sub-nanometer-scale mechanical motions. These studies revealed ultrafast and ultra-small mechanical motions at the cellular level, including motor protein-driven motions and electromechanical coupled motions. The observations will help understand cell mechanics and its biological functions. These optical approaches will also become powerful tools for elucidating the interplay between biological and physical functions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

158302-Thumbnail Image.png

Computer Vision Methods for Urinary Tract Infection Diagnostics

Description

Antibiotic resistance is a very important issue that threatens mankind. As bacteria

are becoming resistant to multiple antibiotics, many common antibiotics will soon

become ineective. The ineciency of current methods for diagnostics

Antibiotic resistance is a very important issue that threatens mankind. As bacteria

are becoming resistant to multiple antibiotics, many common antibiotics will soon

become ineective. The ineciency of current methods for diagnostics is an important

cause of antibiotic resistance, since due to their relative slowness, treatment plans

are often based on physician's experience rather than on test results, having a high

chance of being inaccurate or not optimal. This leads to a need of faster, pointof-

care (POC) methods, which can provide results in a few hours. Motivated by

recent advances on computer vision methods, three projects have been developed

for bacteria identication and antibiotic susceptibility tests (AST), with the goal of

speeding up the diagnostics process. The rst two projects focus on obtaining features

from optical microscopy such as bacteria shape and motion patterns to distinguish

active and inactive cells. The results show their potential as novel methods for AST,

being able to obtain results within a window of 30 min to 3 hours, a much faster

time frame than the gold standard approach based on cell culture, which takes at

least half a day to be completed. The last project focus on the identication task,

combining large volume light scattering microscopy (LVM) and deep learning to

distinguish bacteria from urine particles. The developed setup is suitable for pointof-

care applications, as a large volume can be viewed at a time, avoiding the need

for cell culturing or enrichment. This is a signicant gain compared to cell culturing

methods. The accuracy performance of the deep learning system is higher than chance

and outperforms a traditional machine learning system by up to 20%.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

152247-Thumbnail Image.png

Small molecule detection by surface plasmon resonance: improvements in sensitivity and kinetic measurement

Description

Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has emerged as a popular technique for elucidating subtle signals from biological events in a label-free, high throughput environment. The efficacy of conventional SPR sensors, whose

Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) has emerged as a popular technique for elucidating subtle signals from biological events in a label-free, high throughput environment. The efficacy of conventional SPR sensors, whose signals are mass-sensitive, diminishes rapidly with the size of the observed target molecules. The following work advances the current SPR sensor paradigm for the purpose of small molecule detection. The detection limits of two orthogonal components of SPR measurement are targeted: speed and sensitivity. In the context of this report, speed refers to the dynamic range of measured kinetic rate constants, while sensitivity refers to the target molecule mass limitation of conventional SPR measurement. A simple device for high-speed microfluidic delivery of liquid samples to a sensor surface is presented to address the temporal limitations of conventional SPR measurement. The time scale of buffer/sample switching is on the order of milliseconds, thereby minimizing the opportunity for sample plug dispersion. The high rates of mass transport to and from the central microfluidic sensing region allow for SPR-based kinetic analysis of binding events with dissociation rate constants (kd) up to 130 s-1. The required sample volume is only 1 μL, allowing for minimal sample consumption during high-speed kinetic binding measurement. Charge-based detection of small molecules is demonstrated by plasmonic-based electrochemical impedance microscopy (P-EIM). The dependence of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) on surface charge density is used to detect small molecules (60-120 Da) printed on a dextran-modified sensor surface. The SPR response to an applied ac potential is a function of the surface charge density. This optical signal is comprised of a dc and an ac component, and is measured with high spatial resolution. The amplitude and phase of local surface impedance is provided by the ac component. The phase signal of the small molecules is a function of their charge status, which is manipulated by the pH of a solution. This technique is used to detect and distinguish small molecules based on their charge status, thereby circumventing the mass limitation (~100 Da) of conventional SPR measurement.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013