Matching Items (37)

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Size-Dependent Melting Behavior of Colloidal In, Sn, and Bi Nanocrystals

Description

Colloidal nanocrystals are a technologically important class of nanostructures whose phase change properties have been largely unexplored. Here we report on the melting behavior of In, Sn, and Bi nanocrystals

Colloidal nanocrystals are a technologically important class of nanostructures whose phase change properties have been largely unexplored. Here we report on the melting behavior of In, Sn, and Bi nanocrystals dispersed in a polymer matrix. This polymer matrix prevents the nanocrystals from coalescing with one another and enables previously unaccessed observations on the melting behavior of colloidal nanocrystals. We measure the melting temperature, melting enthalpy, and melting entropy of colloidal nanocrystals with diameters of approximately 10 to 20 nm. All of these properties decrease as nanocrystal size decreases, although the depression rate for melting temperature is comparatively slower than that of melting enthalpy and melting entropy. We also observe an elevated melting temperature during the initial melt-freeze cycle that we attribute to surface stabilization from the organic ligands on the nanocrystal surface. Broad endothermic melting valleys and very large supercoolings in our calorimetry data suggest that colloidal nanocrystals exhibit a significant amount of surface pre-melting and low heterogeneous nucleation probabilities during freezing.

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  • 2015-11-17

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Thermal Energy Storage Using Organic and Metallic Phase Change Materials

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Concentrated Solar Power and Thermal Energy Storage are two technologies that are currently being explored as environmentally friendly methods of energy generation. The two technologies are often combined in an

Concentrated Solar Power and Thermal Energy Storage are two technologies that are currently being explored as environmentally friendly methods of energy generation. The two technologies are often combined in an overall system to increase efficiency and reliability of the energy generation system. A collaborative group of researchers from Australia and the United States formed a project to design solar concentrators that utilize Concentrated Solar Power and Thermal Energy Storage. The collaborators from Arizona State designed a Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage system for the project. It was initially proposed that the system utilize Dowtherm A as the Heat Transfer Fluid and a tin alloy as the storage material. Two thermal reservoirs were designed as part of the system; one reservoir was designed to be maintained at 240˚ C, while the other reservoir was designed to be maintained at 210˚ C. The tin was designed to receive heat from the hot reservoir during a charging cycle and discharge heat to the cold reservoir during a discharge cycle. From simulation, it was estimated that the system would complete a charging cycle in 17.5 minutes and a discharging cycle in 6.667 minutes [1]. After the initial design was fabricated and assembled, the system proved ineffective and did not perform as expected. Leaks occurred within the system under high pressure and the reservoirs could not be heated to the desired temperatures. After adding a flange to one of the reservoirs, it was decided that the system would be run with one reservoir, with water as the Heat Transfer Fluid. The storage material was changed to paraffin wax, because it would achieve phase change at a temperature lower than the boiling point of water. Since only one reservoir was available, charging cycle tests were performed on the system to gain insight on system performance. It was found that the paraffin sample only absorbs 3.29% of the available heat present during a charging cycle. This report discusses the tests performed on the system, the analysis of the data from these tests, the issues with the system that were revealed from the analyses, and potential design changes that would increase the efficiency of the system.

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  • 2016-12

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A Bench-Top Demonstration of a Novel Material Thermal Storage System Test Apparatus

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As part of a United States-Australian Solar Energy Collaboration on a Micro Urban Solar Integrated Concentrator project, the purpose of the research was to design and build a bench-top apparatus

As part of a United States-Australian Solar Energy Collaboration on a Micro Urban Solar Integrated Concentrator project, the purpose of the research was to design and build a bench-top apparatus of a solar power concentrator thermal storage unit. This prototype would serve to be a test apparatus for testing multiple thermal storage mediums and heat transfer fluids for verification and optimization of the larger system. The initial temperature range for the system to test a wide variety of thermal storage mediums was 100°C to 400°C. As for the thermal storage volume it was decided that the team would need to test volumes of about 100 mL. These design parameters later changed to a smaller range for the initial prototype apparatus. This temperature range was decided to be 210°C to 240°C using tin as a phase change material (PCM). It was also decided a low temperature (<100°C) test using paraffin as the PCM would be beneficial for troubleshooting purposes.

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  • 2015-05

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Development of a Measurement System for Thin Film Electrical Properties

Description

With the world's ever growing need for sustainable energy solutions, the field of thermoelectrics has seen rejuvenated interest. Specifically, modern advances in nanoscale technology have resulted in predictions that thermoelectric

With the world's ever growing need for sustainable energy solutions, the field of thermoelectrics has seen rejuvenated interest. Specifically, modern advances in nanoscale technology have resulted in predictions that thermoelectric devices will soon become a viable waste heat recovery energy source, among other things. In order to achieve these predictions, however, key structure-property relationships must first be understood. Currently, the Thermal Energy and Nanomaterials Lab at Arizona State University is attempting to solve this problem. This project intends to aid the groups big picture goal by developing a robust and user friendly measurement platform which is capable of reporting charge carrier mobility, electrical conductivity, and Seebeck coefficient values. To date, the charge carrier mobility and electrical conductivity measurements have been successfully implemented and validated. First round analysis has been performed on β-In2Se3 thin film samples. Future work will feature a more comprehensive analysis of this material.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

Metal Matrix-Metal Nanoparticle Composites with Tunable Melting Temperature and High Thermal Conductivity for Phase-Change Thermal Storage

Description

Phase-change materials (PCMs) are of broad interest for thermal storage and management applications. For energy-dense storage with fast thermal charging/discharging rates, a PCM should have a suitable melting temperature, large

Phase-change materials (PCMs) are of broad interest for thermal storage and management applications. For energy-dense storage with fast thermal charging/discharging rates, a PCM should have a suitable melting temperature, large enthalpy of fusion, and high thermal conductivity. To simultaneously accomplish these traits, we custom design nanocomposites consisting of phase-change Bi nanoparticles embedded in an Ag matrix. We precisely control nanoparticle size, shape, and volume fraction in the composite by separating the nanoparticle synthesis and nanocomposite formation steps. We demonstrate a 50–100% thermal energy density improvement relative to common organic PCMs with equivalent volume fraction. We also tune the melting temperature from 236–252 °C by varying nanoparticle diameter from 8.1–14.9 nm. Importantly, the silver matrix successfully prevents nanoparticle coalescence, and no melting changes are observed during 100 melt–freeze cycles. The nanocomposite’s Ag matrix also leads to very high thermal conductivities. For example, the thermal conductivity of a composite with a 10% volume fraction of 13 nm Bi nanoparticles is 128 ± 23 W/m-K, which is several orders of magnitude higher than typical thermal storage materials. We complement these measurements with calculations using a modified effective medium approximation for nanoscale thermal transport. These calculations predict that the thermal conductivity of composites with 13 nm Bi nanoparticles varies from 142 to 47 W/m-K as the nanoparticle volume fraction changes from 10 to 35%. Larger nanoparticle diameters and/or smaller nanoparticle volume fractions lead to larger thermal conductivities.

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Date Created
  • 2015-02-01

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Thermal Interface Materials

Description

This thesis project explains what thermal interface materials (TIMs) are, what they are used for, and how to measure their properties. Thermal interface materials are typically either a grease like

This thesis project explains what thermal interface materials (TIMs) are, what they are used for, and how to measure their properties. Thermal interface materials are typically either a grease like paste or a soft polymer pad that is placed between two solids to increase the heat transfer rate. Solids in contact with each other experience a very large thermal contact resistance, this creates a thermal bottleneck which severely decreases the heat transfer from one solid to another. To solve this, particles with a high thermal conductivity are used as filler material in either a grease or polymer. A common application for TIMs is in computer components, where a TIM is used to remove the heat generated from computer chips. These materials allow for computer chips to run faster without overheating or throttling performance. However, further improvements to TIMs are still desired, which are needed for more powerful computer chips. In this work, a Stepped Bar Apparatus (SBA) is used to evaluate the thermal properties of TIMs. The SBA is based on Fourier’s Law of one-dimensional heat transfer. This work explains the fundamentals of the SBA measurement, and develops a reliable way to confirm the SBA’s measurement consistency through the use of reference samples. Furthermore, this work evaluates the effects of volume fraction and magnetic alignment on the performance of nickel flakes mixed into a polymer to create a soft TIM composite pad. Magnets are used to align the nickel flakes into a column like arrangement in the direction that heat will travel. Magnetic alignment increases the thermal conductivity of the composite pads, and has peak performance at low compression.

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  • 2019-12

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Nonlinear Electrothermal Monte Carlo Device Simulation

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A model of self-heating is incorporated into a Cellular Monte Carlo (CMC) particle-based device simulator through the solution of an energy balance equation (EBE) for phonons. The EBE

A model of self-heating is incorporated into a Cellular Monte Carlo (CMC) particle-based device simulator through the solution of an energy balance equation (EBE) for phonons. The EBE self-consistently couples charge and heat transport in the simulation through a novel approach to computing the heat generation rate in the device under study. First, the moments of the Boltzmann Transport equation (BTE) are discussed, and subsequently the EBE of for phonons is derived. Subsequently, several tests are performed to verify the applicability and accuracy of a nonlinear iterative method for the solution of the EBE in the presence of convective boundary conditions, as compared to a finite element analysis solver as well as using the Kirchhoff transformation. The coupled electrothermal characterization of a GaN/AlGaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) is then performed, and the effects of non-ideal interfaces and boundary conditions are studied.

The proposed thermal model is then applied to a novel $\Pi$-gate architecture which has been suggested to reduce hot electron generation in the device, compared to the conventional T-gate. Additionally, small signal ac simulations are performed for the determination of cutoff frequencies using the thermal model as well.

Finally, further extensions of the CMC algorithm used in this work are discussed, including 1) higher-order moments of the phonon BTE, 2) coupling to phonon Monte Carlo simulations, and 3) application to other large-bandgap, and therefore high-power, materials such as diamond.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Fundamentals of Soft, Stretchable Heat Exchanger Design

Description

Deformable heat exchangers could provide a multitude of previously untapped advantages ranging from adaptable performance via macroscale, dynamic shape change (akin to dilation/constriction seen in blood vessels) to enhanced heat

Deformable heat exchangers could provide a multitude of previously untapped advantages ranging from adaptable performance via macroscale, dynamic shape change (akin to dilation/constriction seen in blood vessels) to enhanced heat transfer at thermal interfaces through microscale, surface deformations. So far, making deformable, ‘soft heat exchangers’ (SHXs) has been limited by the low thermal conductivity of materials with suitable mechanical properties. The recent introduction of liquid-metal embedded elastomers by Bartlett et al1 has addressed this need. Specifically, by remaining soft and stretchable despite the addition of filler, these thermally conductive composites provide an ideal material for the new class of “soft thermal systems”, which is introduced in this work. Understanding such thermal systems will be a key element in enabling technology that require high levels of stretchability, such as thermoregulatory garments, soft electronics, wearable electronics, and high-powered robotics. Shape change inherent to SHX operation has the potential to violate many conventional assumptions used in HX design and thus requires the development of new theoretical approaches to predict performance. To create a basis for understanding these devices, this work highlights two sequential studies. First, the effects of transitioning to a surface deformable, SHX under steady state static conditions in the setting of a liquid cooling device for thermoregulation, electronics and robotics applications was explored. In this study, a thermomechanical model was built and validated to predict the thermal performance and a system wide analysis to optimize such devices was carried out. Second, from a more fundamental perspective, the effects of SHXs undergoing transient shape deformation during operation was explored. A phase shift phenomenon in cooling performance dependent on stretch rate, stretch extent and thermal diffusivity was discovered and explained. With the use of a time scale analysis, the extent of quasi-static assumption viability in modeling such systems was quantified and multiple shape modulation regime limits were defined. Finally, nuance considerations and future work of using liquid metal-silicone composites in SHXs were discussed.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Opto-thermal Energy Transport with Selective Metamaterials and Solar Thermal Characterization of Selective Metafilm Absorbers

Description

The objective of this dissertation is to study the use of metamaterials as narrow-band and broadband selective absorbers for opto-thermal and solar thermal energy conversion. Narrow-band selective absorbers have applications

The objective of this dissertation is to study the use of metamaterials as narrow-band and broadband selective absorbers for opto-thermal and solar thermal energy conversion. Narrow-band selective absorbers have applications such as plasmonic sensing and cancer treatment, while one of the main applications of selective metamaterials with broadband absorption is efficiently converting solar energy into heat as solar absorbers.

This dissertation first discusses the use of gold nanowires as narrow-band selective metamaterial absorbers. An investigation into plasmonic localized heating indicated that film-coupled gold nanoparticles exhibit tunable selective absorption based on the size of the nanoparticles. By using anodized aluminum oxide templates, aluminum nanodisc narrow-band absorbers were fabricated. A metrology instrument to measure the reflectance and transmittance of micro-scale samples was also developed and used to measure the reflectance of the aluminum nanodisc absorbers (220 µm diameter area). Tuning of the resonance wavelengths of these absorbers can be achieved through changing their geometry. Broadband absorption can be achieved by using a combination of geometries for these metamaterials which would facilitate their use as solar absorbers.

Recently, solar energy harvesting has become a topic of considerable research investigation due to it being an environmentally conscious alternative to fossil fuels. The next section discusses the steady-state temperature measurement of a lab-scale multilayer solar absorber, named metafilm. A lab-scale experimental setup is developed to characterize the solar thermal performance of selective solar absorbers. Under a concentration factor of 20.3 suns, a steady-state temperature of ~500 degrees Celsius was achieved for the metafilm compared to 375 degrees Celsius for a commercial black absorber under the same conditions. Thermal durability testing showed that the metafilm could withstand up to 700 degrees Celsius in vacuum conditions and up to 400 degrees Celsius in atmospheric conditions with little degradation of its optical and radiative properties. Moreover, cost analysis of the metafilm found it to cost significantly less ($2.22 per square meter) than commercial solar coatings ($5.41-100 per square meter).

Finally, this dissertation concludes with recommendations for further studies like using these selective metamaterials and metafilms as absorbers and emitters and using the aluminum nanodiscs on glass as selective filters for photovoltaic cells to enhance solar thermophotovoltaic energy conversion.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Effect of helium ion irradiation on the tunneling behavior in niobium/aluminum/aluminum oxide/niobium Josephson junctions

Description

The study of high energy particle irradiation effect on Josephson junction tri-layers is relevant to applications in space and radioactive environments. It also allows us to investigate the influence of

The study of high energy particle irradiation effect on Josephson junction tri-layers is relevant to applications in space and radioactive environments. It also allows us to investigate the influence of defects and interfacial intermixing on the junction electrical characteristics. In this work, we studied the influence of 2MeV Helium ion irradiation with doses up to 5.2×1016 ions/cm2 on the tunneling behavior of Nb/Al/AlOx/Nb Josephson junctions. Structural and analytical TEM characterization, combined with SRIM modeling, indicates that over 4nm of intermixing occurred at the interfaces. EDX analysis after irradiation, suggests that the Al and O compositions from the barrier are collectively distributed together over a few nanometers. Surprisingly, the IV characteristics were largely unchanged. The normal resistance, Rn, increased slightly (<20%) after the initial dose of 3.5×1015 ions/cm2 and remained constant after that. This suggests that tunnel barrier electrical properties were not affected much, despite the significant changes in the chemical distribution of the barrier's Al and O shown in SRIM modeling and TEM pictures. The onset of quasi-particle current, sum of energy gaps (2Δ), dropped systematically from 2.8meV to 2.6meV with increasing dosage. Similarly, the temperature onset of the Josephson current dropped from 9.2K to 9.0K. This suggests that the order parameter at the barrier interface has decreased as a result of a reduced mean free path in the Al proximity layer and a reduction in the transition temperature of the Nb electrode near the barrier. The dependence of Josephson current on the magnetic field and temperature does not change significantly with irradiation, suggesting that intermixing into the Nb electrode is significantly less than the penetration depth.

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Date Created
  • 2012