Matching Items (65)

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Switchable wavelength-selective and diffuse metamaterial absorber/emitter with a phase transition spacer layer

Description

We numerically demonstrate a switchable metamaterial absorber/emitter by thermally turning on or off the excitation of magnetic resonance upon the phase transition of vanadium dioxide (VO2). Perfect absorption peak exists

We numerically demonstrate a switchable metamaterial absorber/emitter by thermally turning on or off the excitation of magnetic resonance upon the phase transition of vanadium dioxide (VO2). Perfect absorption peak exists around the wavelength of 5 lm when the excitation of magnetic resonance is supported with the insulating VO2 spacer layer. The wavelength-selective absorption is switched off when the magnetic resonance is disabled with metallic VO2 that shorts the top and bottom metallic structures. The resonance wavelength can be tuned with different geometry, and the switchable metamaterial exhibits diffuse behaviors at oblique angles. The results would facilitate the design of switchable metamaterials for active control in energy and sensing applications.

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Date Created
  • 2014-08-19

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Elastic, magnetic and electronic properties of iridium phosphide Ir2P

Description

Cubic (space group: Fmm) iridium phosphide, Ir[subscript 2]P, has been synthesized at high pressure and high temperature. Angle-dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements on Ir[subscript 2]P powder using a diamond-anvil cell

Cubic (space group: Fmm) iridium phosphide, Ir[subscript 2]P, has been synthesized at high pressure and high temperature. Angle-dispersive synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements on Ir[subscript 2]P powder using a diamond-anvil cell at room temperature and high pressures (up to 40.6 GPa) yielded a bulk modulus of B[subscript 0] = 306(6) GPa and its pressure derivative B[subscript 0]′ = 6.4(5). Such a high bulk modulus attributed to the short and strongly covalent Ir-P bonds as revealed by first – principles calculations and three-dimensionally distributed [IrP[subscript 4]] tetrahedron network. Indentation testing on a well–sintered polycrystalline sample yielded the hardness of 11.8(4) GPa. Relatively low shear modulus of ~64 GPa from theoretical calculations suggests a complicated overall bonding in Ir[subscript 2]P with metallic, ionic, and covalent characteristics. In addition, a spin glass behavior is indicated by magnetic susceptibility measurements.

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Date Created
  • 2016-02-24

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Near-field thermal radiation between homogeneous dual uniaxial electromagnetic metamaterials

Description

Recently, near-field thermal radiation has attracted much attention in several fields since it can exceed the Planck blackbody limit through the coupling of evanescent waves. In this work, near-field radiative

Recently, near-field thermal radiation has attracted much attention in several fields since it can exceed the Planck blackbody limit through the coupling of evanescent waves. In this work, near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite dual uniaxial electromagnetic metamaterials with two different material property sets is theoretically analyzed. The near-field radiative heat transfer is calculated using fluctuational electrodynamics incorporated with anisotropic wave optics. The underlying mechanisms, namely, magnetic hyperbolic mode, magnetic surface polariton, electrical hyperbolic mode, and electrical surface polariton, between two homogeneous dual uniaxial electromagnetic metamaterials are investigated by examining the transmission coefficient and the spectral heat flux. The effect of vacuum gap distance is also studied, which shows that the enhancement at smaller vacuum gap is mainly due to hyperbolic mode and surface plasmon polariton modes. In addition, the results show that the contribution of s-polarized waves is significant and should not be excluded due to the strong magnetic response regardless of vacuum gap distances. The fundamental understanding and insights obtained here will facilitate the finding and application of novel materials for near-field thermal radiation.

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Date Created
  • 2016-06-07

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Fuel Cell Integrated Gas Turbine Hybrid System Under Various Conditions

Description

A novel concept for integration of flame-assisted fuel cells (FFC) with a gas turbine is analyzed in this paper. Six different fuels (CH4, C3H8, JP-4, JP-5, JP-10(L), and H2) are

A novel concept for integration of flame-assisted fuel cells (FFC) with a gas turbine is analyzed in this paper. Six different fuels (CH4, C3H8, JP-4, JP-5, JP-10(L), and H2) are investigated for the analytical model of the FFC integrated gas turbine hybrid system. As equivalence ratio increases, the efficiency of the hybrid system increases initially then decreases because the decreasing flow rate of air begins to outweigh the increasing hydrogen concentration. This occurs at an equivalence ratio of 2 for CH4. The thermodynamic cycle is analyzed using a temperature entropy diagram and a pressure volume diagram. These thermodynamic diagrams show as equivalence ratio increases, the power generated by the turbine in the hybrid setup decreases. Thermodynamic analysis was performed to verify that energy is conserved and the total chemical energy going into the system was equal to the heat rejected by the system plus the power generated by the system. Of the six fuels, the hybrid system performs best with H2 as the fuel. The electrical efficiency with H2 is predicted to be 27%, CH4 is 24%, C3H8 is 22%, JP-4 is 21%, JP-5 is 20%, and JP-10(L) is 20%. When H2 fuel is used, the overall integrated system is predicted to be 24.5% more efficient than the standard gas turbine system. The integrated system is predicted to be 23.0% more efficient with CH4, 21.9% more efficient with C3H8, 22.7% more efficient with JP-4, 21.3% more efficient with JP-5, and 20.8% more efficient with JP-10(L). The sensitivity of the model is investigated using various fuel utilizations. When CH4 fuel is used, the integrated system is predicted to be 22.7% more efficient with a fuel utilization efficiency of 90% compared to that of 30%.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Study of Hexane Diffusion through Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-68

Description

Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks (ZIFs) are a promising technology for the separation of gases. ZIFs represent a type of hybrid material that is a subset of metal organic frameworks while displaying

Zeolitic Imidazolate Frameworks (ZIFs) are a promising technology for the separation of gases. ZIFs represent a type of hybrid material that is a subset of metal organic frameworks while displaying zeolite properties. ZIFs have tunable pore metrics, high thermal stability, and large surface areas giving them advantages over traditional zeolites. The experiment sought to determine the flux of hexane vapor through ZIF-68 with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) mapping. FTIR mapping was used to obtain three spectra per crystal and the concentration gradient was analyzed to determine the flux. ZIF-68 was completely stable when loaded with hexane and exposed to the atmosphere. There was no hexane diffusion out of the crystal. As a result, ZIF-68 was heated to 50°C to increase diffusion and calculate the flux. ZIF-68 adhered to Knudsen Diffusion, and the flux was calculated to be 2.00*10-5 kg mol/s*m2. The small flux occurred because almost no concentration gradient was obtained through the crystal. It was hypothesized that the resistance in the crystal was substantially lower than the resistance at the boundary layer, which would have caused a small concentration gradient. Using film mass transfer theory, the resistance inside the crystal was found to be 1200 times lower than the resistance at the boundary layer confirming the hypothesis.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Development of Tuning Fork-Based Metrology for Study of Casimir Forces Across Nanometric Gaps

Description

This paper discusses the theoretical approximation and attempted measurement of the quantum <br/>force produced by material interactions though the use of a tuning fork-based atomic force microscopy <br/>device. This device

This paper discusses the theoretical approximation and attempted measurement of the quantum <br/>force produced by material interactions though the use of a tuning fork-based atomic force microscopy <br/>device. This device was built and orientated specifically for the measurement of the Casimir force as a <br/>function of separation distance using a piezo actuator for approaching and a micro tuning fork for the <br/>force measurement. This project proceeds with an experimental measurement of the ambient Casmir force <br/>through the use of a tuning fork-based AFM to determine its viability in measuring the magnitude of the <br/>force interaction between an interface material and the tuning fork probe. The ambient measurements <br/>taken during the device’s development displayed results consistent with theoretical approximations, while<br/>demonstrating the capability to perform high-precision force measurements. The experimental results<br/>concluded in a successful development of a device which has the potential to measure forces of <br/>magnitude 10−6 to 10−9 at nanometric gaps. To conclude, a path to material analysis using an approach <br/>stage, alternative methods of testing, and potential future experiments are speculated upon.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Dynamic Cryothermal Measurements of VO2-Based Fabry-Perot Emitter

Description

This work summarizes the development of a dynamic measurement platform in a cryostat to measure sample temperature response to space-like conditions and the creation a MATLAB theoretical model to predict

This work summarizes the development of a dynamic measurement platform in a cryostat to measure sample temperature response to space-like conditions and the creation a MATLAB theoretical model to predict sample temperature responses in the platform itself. An interesting variable-emittance sample called a Fabry-Perot emitter was studied for its thermal homeostasis behavior using the two developments. Using the measurement platform, it was shown that there was no thermal homeostatic behavior demonstrated by the sample at steady state temperatures. Theoretical calculations show other ways to demonstrate the cooling homeostasis behavior through time-varying heat inputs. Factors within the system such as heat loss and thermal mass contributed to an inhibited sample performance in the platform. Future work will have to be conducted, not only to verify the findings of the initial experiments but also to improve the measurement platform and the theoretical model.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Switchable Mid-Infrared Filter Based on Thermochromic Vanadium Dioxide

Description

A thermochromic mid-infrared filter is designed, where a spectrally-selective transmittance peak exists while vanadium dioxide layers are below their transition temperature but broad opaqueness is observed below the transition temperature.

A thermochromic mid-infrared filter is designed, where a spectrally-selective transmittance peak exists while vanadium dioxide layers are below their transition temperature but broad opaqueness is observed below the transition temperature. This filter takes advantage of interference effects between a silicon spacer and insulating vanadium dioxide to create the transmittance peak and the drastic optical property change between insulating and metallic vanadium dioxide. The theoretical performance of the filter in energy dissipation and thermal camouflaging applications is analyzed and can be optimized by tuning the thicknesses of the thin-film layers.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Tunable Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer Exceeding Blackbody Limit with Vanadium Dioxide Thin Film

Description

This paper investigates near-field thermal radiation as the primary source of heat transfer between two parallel surfaces. This radiation takes place extremely close to the heated surfaces in study so

This paper investigates near-field thermal radiation as the primary source of heat transfer between two parallel surfaces. This radiation takes place extremely close to the heated surfaces in study so the experimental set-up to be used will be done at the nanometer scale. The primary theory being investigated is that near-field radiation generates greater heat flux that conventional radiation governed by Planck’s law with maximum for blackbodies. Working with a phase shift material such as VO2 enables a switch-like effect to occur where the total amount of heat flux fluctuates as VO2 transitions from a metal to an insulator. In this paper, the theoretical heat flux and near-field radiation effect are modeled for a set-up of VO2 and SiO2 layers separated by different vacuum gaps. In addition, a physical experimental set-up is validated for future near-field radiation experiments.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Plasmonic light trapping in an ultrathin photovoltaic layer with film-coupled metamaterial structures

Description

A film-coupled metamaterial structure is numerically investigated for enhancing the light absorption in an ultrathin photovoltaic layer of crystalline gallium arsenide (GaAs). The top subwavelength concave grating and the bottom

A film-coupled metamaterial structure is numerically investigated for enhancing the light absorption in an ultrathin photovoltaic layer of crystalline gallium arsenide (GaAs). The top subwavelength concave grating and the bottom metallic film could not only effectively trap light with the help of wave interference and magnetic resonance effects excited above the bandgap, but also practically serve as electrical contacts for photon-generated charge collection. The energy absorbed by the active layer is greatly enhanced with the help of the film-coupled metamaterial structure, resulting in significant improvement on the short-circuit current density by three times over a free-standing GaAs layer at the same thickness. The performance of the proposed light trapping structure is demonstrated to be little affected by the grating ridge width considering the geometric tolerance during fabrication. The optical absorption at oblique incidences also shows direction-insensitive behavior, which is highly desired for efficiently converting off-normal sunlight to electricity. The results would facilitate the development of next-generation ultrathin solar cells with lower cost and higher efficiency.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-02-01