Matching Items (5)

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Multiplexed Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays

Description

Rationale: Cell-free protein microarrays display naturally-folded proteins based on just-in-time in situ synthesis, and have made important contributions to basic and translational research. However, the risk of spot-to-spot cross-talk from

Rationale: Cell-free protein microarrays display naturally-folded proteins based on just-in-time in situ synthesis, and have made important contributions to basic and translational research. However, the risk of spot-to-spot cross-talk from protein diffusion during expression has limited the feature density of these arrays.
Methods: In this work, we developed the Multiplexed Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Array (M-NAPPA), which significantly increases the number of displayed proteins by multiplexing as many as five different gene plasmids within a printed spot.
Results: Even when proteins of different sizes were displayed within the same feature, they were readily detected using protein-specific antibodies. Protein-protein interactions and serological antibody assays using human viral proteome microarrays demonstrated that comparable hits were detected by M-NAPPA and non-multiplexed NAPPA arrays. An ultra-high density proteome microarray displaying > 16k proteins on a single microscope slide was produced by combining M-NAPPA with a photolithography-based silicon nano-well platform. Finally, four new tuberculosis-related antigens in guinea pigs vaccinated with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) were identified with M-NAPPA and validated with ELISA.
Conclusion: All data demonstrate that multiplexing features on a protein microarray offer a cost-effective fabrication approach and have the potential to facilitate high throughput translational research.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-09-20

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Plasma Exosome Profiling of Cancer Patients by a Next Generation Systems Biology Approach

Description

Technologies capable of characterizing the full breadth of cellular systems need to be able to measure millions of proteins, isoforms, and complexes simultaneously. We describe an approach that fulfils this

Technologies capable of characterizing the full breadth of cellular systems need to be able to measure millions of proteins, isoforms, and complexes simultaneously. We describe an approach that fulfils this criterion: Adaptive Dynamic Artificial Poly-ligand Targeting (ADAPT). ADAPT employs an enriched library of single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODNs) to profile complex biological samples, thus achieving an unprecedented coverage of system-wide, native biomolecules. We used ADAPT as a highly specific profiling tool that distinguishes women with or without breast cancer based on circulating exosomes in their blood. To develop ADAPT, we enriched a library of ~10[superscript 11] ssODNs for those associating with exosomes from breast cancer patients or controls. The resulting 10[superscript 6] enriched ssODNs were then profiled against plasma from independent groups of healthy and breast cancer-positive women. ssODN-mediated affinity purification and mass spectrometry identified low-abundance exosome-associated proteins and protein complexes, some with known significance in both normal homeostasis and disease. Sequencing of the recovered ssODNs provided quantitative measures that were used to build highly accurate multi-analyte signatures for patient classification. Probing plasma from 500 subjects with a smaller subset of 2000 resynthesized ssODNs stratified healthy, breast biopsy-negative, and -positive women. An AUC of 0.73 was obtained when comparing healthy donors with biopsy-positive patients.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-02-20

Exploration of Panviral Proteome: High-Throughput Cloning and Functional Implications in Virus-host Interactions

Description

Throughout the long history of virus-host co-evolution, viruses have developed delicate strategies to facilitate their invasion and replication of their genome, while silencing the host immune responses through various mechanisms.

Throughout the long history of virus-host co-evolution, viruses have developed delicate strategies to facilitate their invasion and replication of their genome, while silencing the host immune responses through various mechanisms. The systematic characterization of viral protein-host interactions would yield invaluable information in the understanding of viral invasion/evasion, diagnosis and therapeutic treatment of a viral infection, and mechanisms of host biology. With more than 2,000 viral genomes sequenced, only a small percent of them are well investigated. The access of these viral open reading frames (ORFs) in a flexible cloning format would greatly facilitate both in vitro and in vivo virus-host interaction studies. However, the overall progress of viral ORF cloning has been slow. To facilitate viral studies, we are releasing the initiation of our panviral proteome collection of 2,035 ORF clones from 830 viral genes in the Gateway® recombinational cloning system. Here, we demonstrate several uses of our viral collection including highly efficient production of viral proteins using human cell-free expression system in vitro, global identification of host targets for rubella virus using Nucleic Acid Programmable Protein Arrays (NAPPA) containing 10,000 unique human proteins, and detection of host serological responses using micro-fluidic multiplexed immunoassays. The studies presented here begin to elucidate host-viral protein interactions with our systemic utilization of viral ORFs, high-throughput cloning, and proteomic technologies. These valuable plasmid resources will be available to the research community to enable continued viral functional studies.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-11-30

Quantifying antibody binding on protein microarrays using microarray nonlinear calibration

Description

We present a microarray nonlinear calibration (MiNC) method for quantifying antibody binding to the surface of protein microarrays that significantly increases the linear dynamic range and reduces assay variation compared

We present a microarray nonlinear calibration (MiNC) method for quantifying antibody binding to the surface of protein microarrays that significantly increases the linear dynamic range and reduces assay variation compared with traditional approaches. A serological analysis of guinea pig Mycobacterium tuberculosis models showed that a larger number of putative antigen targets were identified with MiNC, which is consistent with the improved assay performance of protein microarrays. MiNC has the potential to be employed in biomedical research using multiplex antibody assays that need quantitation, including the discovery of antibody biomarkers, clinical diagnostics with multi-antibody signatures, and construction of immune mathematical models.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-08-12

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Cancer autoantibody biomarker discovery and validation using nucleic acid programmable protein array

Description

Currently in the US, many patients with cancer do not benefit from the population-based screening, due to challenges associated with the existing cancer screening scheme. Blood-based diagnostic assays have the

Currently in the US, many patients with cancer do not benefit from the population-based screening, due to challenges associated with the existing cancer screening scheme. Blood-based diagnostic assays have the potential to detect diseases in a non-invasive way. Proteins released from small early tumors may only be present intermittently and get diluted to tiny concentrations in the blood, making them difficult to use as biomarkers. However, they can induce autoantibody (AAb) responses, which can amplify the signal and persist in the blood even if the antigen is gone. Circulating autoantibodies is a promising class of molecules that have potential to serve as early detection biomarkers for cancers. This Ph.D thesis aims to screen for autoantibody biomarkers for the early detection of two deadly cancer, basal-like breast cancer and lung adenocarcinoma. First, a method was developed to display proteins in both native and denatured conformation on protein array. This method adopted a novel protein tag technology, called HaloTag, to covalently immobilize proteins on glass slide surface. The covalent attachment allowed these proteins to endure harsh treatment without getting dissociated from slide surface, which enabled the profiling of antibody responses against both conformational and linear epitopes. Next, a plasma screening protocol was optimized to significantly increase signal to noise ratio of protein array based AAb detection. Following this, the AAb responses in basal-like breast cancer were explored using nucleic acid programmable protein arrays (NAPPA) containing 10,000 full-length human proteins in 45 cases and 45 controls. After verification in a large sample set (145 basal-like breast cancer cases / 145 controls / 70 non-basal breast cancer) by ELISA, a 13-AAb classifier was developed to differentiate patients from controls with a sensitivity of 33% at 98% specificity. Similar approach was also applied to the lung cancer study to identify AAbs that distinguished lung cancer patients from computed-tomography positive benign pulmonary nodules (137 lung cancer cases, 127 smoker controls, 170 benign controls). In this study, two panels of AAbs were discovered that showed promising sensitivity and specificity. Six out of eight AAb targets were also found to have elevated mRNA level in lung adenocarcinoma patients using TCGA data. These projects as a whole provide novel insights on the association between AAbs and cancer, as well as general B cell antigenicity against self-proteins.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015