Matching Items (6)

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Switchable wavelength-selective and diffuse metamaterial absorber/emitter with a phase transition spacer layer

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We numerically demonstrate a switchable metamaterial absorber/emitter by thermally turning on or off the excitation of magnetic resonance upon the phase transition of vanadium dioxide (VO2). Perfect absorption peak exists

We numerically demonstrate a switchable metamaterial absorber/emitter by thermally turning on or off the excitation of magnetic resonance upon the phase transition of vanadium dioxide (VO2). Perfect absorption peak exists around the wavelength of 5 lm when the excitation of magnetic resonance is supported with the insulating VO2 spacer layer. The wavelength-selective absorption is switched off when the magnetic resonance is disabled with metallic VO2 that shorts the top and bottom metallic structures. The resonance wavelength can be tuned with different geometry, and the switchable metamaterial exhibits diffuse behaviors at oblique angles. The results would facilitate the design of switchable metamaterials for active control in energy and sensing applications.

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Date Created
  • 2014-08-19

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Plasmonic light trapping in an ultrathin photovoltaic layer with film-coupled metamaterial structures

Description

A film-coupled metamaterial structure is numerically investigated for enhancing the light absorption in an ultrathin photovoltaic layer of crystalline gallium arsenide (GaAs). The top subwavelength concave grating and the bottom

A film-coupled metamaterial structure is numerically investigated for enhancing the light absorption in an ultrathin photovoltaic layer of crystalline gallium arsenide (GaAs). The top subwavelength concave grating and the bottom metallic film could not only effectively trap light with the help of wave interference and magnetic resonance effects excited above the bandgap, but also practically serve as electrical contacts for photon-generated charge collection. The energy absorbed by the active layer is greatly enhanced with the help of the film-coupled metamaterial structure, resulting in significant improvement on the short-circuit current density by three times over a free-standing GaAs layer at the same thickness. The performance of the proposed light trapping structure is demonstrated to be little affected by the grating ridge width considering the geometric tolerance during fabrication. The optical absorption at oblique incidences also shows direction-insensitive behavior, which is highly desired for efficiently converting off-normal sunlight to electricity. The results would facilitate the development of next-generation ultrathin solar cells with lower cost and higher efficiency.

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Date Created
  • 2015-02-01

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Infrared frequency-tunable coherent thermal sources

Description

In this work, we numerically demonstrate an infrared (IR) frequency-tunable selective thermal emitter made of graphene-covered silicon carbide (SiC) gratings. Rigorous coupled-wave analysis shows temporally-coherent emission peaks associated with magnetic

In this work, we numerically demonstrate an infrared (IR) frequency-tunable selective thermal emitter made of graphene-covered silicon carbide (SiC) gratings. Rigorous coupled-wave analysis shows temporally-coherent emission peaks associated with magnetic polariton (MP), whose resonance frequency can be dynamically tuned within the phonon absorption band of SiC by varying graphene chemical potential. An analytical inductor–capacitor circuit model is introduced to quantitatively predict the resonance frequency and further elucidate the mechanism for the tunable emission peak. The effects of grating geometric parameters, such as grating height, groove width and grating period, on the selective emission peak are explored. The direction-independent behavior of MP and associated coherent emission are also demonstrated. Moreover, by depositing four layers of graphene sheets onto the SiC gratings, a large tunability of 8.5% in peak frequency can be obtained to yield the coherent emission covering a broad frequency range from 820 to 890 cm[superscript −1]. The novel tunable metamaterial could pave the way to a new class of tunable thermal sources in the IR region.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-04-01

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Wavelength-tunable infrared metamaterial by tailoring magnetic resonance condition with VO2 phase transition

Description

In this work, we report the design of a wavelength-tunable infrared metamaterial by tailoring magnetic resonance condition with the phase transition of vanadium dioxide (VO[subscript 2]). Numerical simulation based on

In this work, we report the design of a wavelength-tunable infrared metamaterial by tailoring magnetic resonance condition with the phase transition of vanadium dioxide (VO[subscript 2]). Numerical simulation based on the finite-difference time-domain method shows a broad absorption peak at the wavelength of 10.9 μm when VO[subscript 2] is a metal, but it shifts to 15.1 μm when VO[subscript 2] changes to dielectric phase below its phase transition temperature of 68 °C. The large tunability of 38.5% in the resonance wavelength stems from the different excitation conditions of magnetic resonance mediated by plasmon in metallic VO[subscript 2] but optical phonons in dielectric VO[subscript 2]. The physical mechanism is elucidated with the aid of electromagnetic field distribution at the resonance wavelengths. A hybrid magnetic resonance mode due to the plasmon-phonon coupling is also discussed. The results here would be beneficial for active control of thermal radiation in novel electronic, optical, and thermal devices.

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Date Created
  • 2014-09-28

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Highly efficient selective metamaterial absorber for high-temperature solar thermal energy harvesting

Description

In this work, a selective solar absorber made of nanostructured titanium gratings deposited on an ultrathin MgF[subscript 2] spacer and a tungsten ground film is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Normal

In this work, a selective solar absorber made of nanostructured titanium gratings deposited on an ultrathin MgF[subscript 2] spacer and a tungsten ground film is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Normal absorptance of the fabricated solar absorber is characterized to be higher than 0.9 in the UV, visible and, near infrared (IR) regime, while the mid-IR emittance is around 0.2. The high broadband absorption in the solar spectrum is realized by the excitation of surface plasmon and magnetic polariton resonances, while the low mid-IR emittance is due to the highly reflective nature of the metallic components. Further directional and polarized reflectance measurements show wide-angle and polarization-insensitive high absorption within solar spectrum. Temperature-dependent spectroscopic characterization indicates that the optical properties barely change at elevated temperatures up to 350 °C. The solar-to-heat conversion efficiency with the fabricated metamaterial solar absorber is predicted to be 78% at 100 °C without optical concentration or 80% at 400 °C with 25 suns. The performance could be further improved with better fabrication processes and geometric optimization during metamaterial design. The strong spectral selectivity, favorable diffuse-like behavior, and good thermal stability make the metamaterial selective absorber promising for significantly enhancing solar thermal energy harvesting in various systems at mid to high temperatures.

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Date Created
  • 2015-06-01

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Nano-engineering metamaterials and metafilms for high-efficiency solar energy harvesting and conversion

Description

The energy crisis in the past decades has greatly boosted the search for alternatives to traditional fossil foils, and solar energy stands out as an important candidate due to its

The energy crisis in the past decades has greatly boosted the search for alternatives to traditional fossil foils, and solar energy stands out as an important candidate due to its cleanness and abundance. However, the relatively low conversion efficiency and energy density strongly hinder the utilization of solar energy in wider applications. This thesis focuses on employing metamaterials and metafilms to enhance the conversion efficiency of solar thermal, solar thermophotovoltaic (STPV) and photovoltaic systems.

A selective metamaterial solar absorber is designed in this thesis to maximize the absorbed solar energy and minimize heat dissipation through thermal radiation. The theoretically designed metamaterial solar absorber exhibits absorptance higher than 95% in the solar spectrum but shows emittance less than 4% in the IR regime. This metamaterial solar absorber is further experimentally fabricated and optically characterized. Moreover, a metafilm selective absorber with stability up to 600oC is introduced, which exhibits solar absorptance higher than 90% and IR emittance less than 10%.

Solar thermophotovoltaic energy conversion enhanced by metamaterial absorbers and emitters is theoretically investigated in this thesis. The STPV system employing selective metamaterial absorber and emitter is investigated in this work, showing its conversion efficiency between 8% and 10% with concentration factor varying between 20 and 200. This conversion efficiency is remarkably enhanced compared with the conversion efficiency for STPV system employing black surfaces (<2.5%).

Moreover, plasmonic light trapping in ultra-thin solar cells employing concave grating nanostructures is discussed in this thesis. The plasmonic light trapping inside an ultrathin GaAs layer in the film-coupled metamaterial structure is numerically demonstrated. By exciting plasmonic resonances inside this structure, the short-circuit current density for the film-coupled metamaterial solar cell is three times the short-circuit current for a free-standing GaAs layer.

The dissertation is concluded by discussing about the future work on selective solar thermal absorbers, STPV/TPV systems and light trapping structures. Possibilities to design and fabricate solar thermal absorber with better thermal stability will be discussed, the experimental work of TPV system will be conducted, and the light trapping in organic and perovskite solar cells will be looked into.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016