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Oligomeric amyloid-beta as a potential biomarker for Alzheimer's disease

Description

Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease accounting for 50-80% of dementia cases in the country. This disease is characterized by the deposition of extracellular plaques occurring in regions

Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease accounting for 50-80% of dementia cases in the country. This disease is characterized by the deposition of extracellular plaques occurring in regions of the brain important for cognitive function. A primary component of these plaques is the amyloid-beta protein. While a natively unfolded protein, amyloid-beta can misfold and aggregate generating a variety of different species including numerous different soluble oligomeric species some of which are precursors to the neurofibrillary plaques. Various of the soluble amyloid-beta oligomeric species have been shown to be toxic to cells and their presence may correlate with progression of AD. Current treatment options target the dementia symptoms, but there is no effective cure or alternative to delay the progression of the disease once it occurs. Amyloid-beta aggregates show up many years before symptoms develop, so detection of various amyloid-beta aggregate species has great promise as an early biomarker for AD. Therefore reagents that can selectively identify key early oligomeric amyloid-beta species have value both as potential diagnostics for early detection of AD and as well as therapeutics that selectively target only the toxic amyloid-beta aggregate species. Earlier work in the lab includes development of several different single chain antibody fragments (scFvs) against different oligomeric amyloid-beta species. This includes isolation of C6 scFv against human AD brain derived oligomeric amyloid-beta (Kasturirangan et al., 2013). This thesis furthers research in this direction by improving the yields and investigating the specificity of modified C6 scFv as a diagnostic for AD. It is motivated by experiments reporting low yields of the C6 scFv. We also used the C6T scFv to characterize the variation in concentration of this particular oligomeric amyloid-beta species with age in a triple transgenic AD mouse model. We also show that C6T can be used to differentiate between post-mortem human AD, Parkinson's disease (PD) and healthy human brain samples. These results indicate that C6T has potential value as a diagnostic tool for early detection of AD.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Antibody-based Diagnostics and Therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease and Frontotemporal Dementia

Description

Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) are the leading causes of early onset dementia. There are currently no ways to slow down progression, to prevent or cure AD and

Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) are the leading causes of early onset dementia. There are currently no ways to slow down progression, to prevent or cure AD and FTD. Both AD and FTD share a lot of the symptoms and pathology. Initial symptoms such as confusion, memory loss, mood swings and behavioral changes are common in both these dementia subtypes. Neurofibrillary tau tangles and intraneuronal aggregates of TAR DNA Binding Protein 43 (TDP-43) are also observed in both AD and FTD. Hence, FTD cases are often misdiagnosed as AD due to a lack of accurate diagnostics. Prior to the formation of tau tangles and TDP-43 aggregates, tau and TDP-43 exist as intermediate protein variants which correlate with cognitive decline and progression of these neurodegenerative diseases. Effective diagnostic and therapeutic agents would selectively recognize these toxic, disease-specific variants. Antibodies or antibody fragments such as single chain antibody variable domain fragments (scFvs), with their diverse binding capabilities, can aid in developing reagents that can selectively bind these protein variants. A combination of phage display library and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)-based panning was employed to identify antibody fragments against immunoprecipitated tau and immunoprecipitated TDP-43 from human postmortem AD and FTD brain tissue respectively. Five anti-TDP scFvs and five anti-tau scFvs were selected for characterization by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) and Immunohistochemistry (IHC). The panel of scFvs, together, were able to identify distinct protein variants present in AD but not in FTD, and vice versa. Generating protein variant profiles for individuals, using the panel of scFvs, aids in developing targeted diagnostic and therapeutic plans, gearing towards personalized medicine.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018