Matching Items (33)

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The association between screen time, physical activity levels, and metabolic markers in elementary school-aged children

Description

Hispanic children have the highest prevalence of obesity versus other ethnic groups. This leaves this population susceptible to many adverse health risks, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and high blood pressure.

Hispanic children have the highest prevalence of obesity versus other ethnic groups. This leaves this population susceptible to many adverse health risks, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and high blood pressure. Unfortunately, little research has been done investigating the contributing cause to this issue, specifically common sedentary behaviors in children that limit physical activity and it’s purpose in expending energy. Amongst these behaviors, amount of time spent on electronic devices has proven to have increased drastically in recent years. The relationship between screen time and electronic device use, specifically with television, video games, and computer usage, and physical activity levels, and how those affect cardiometabolic disease risk factors, were explored in this study. Participants of this study were elementary school-aged children from Maricopa County, AZ. Electronic device usage, physical activity amounts, and presence of the specific devices in the child’s were collected from the participants’ parents through self-reported survey questions. Anthropometric and biochemical markers of cardiometabolic disease risk were directly measured. The average time spent engaged in physical activity per day by these participants was 20.02 ± 21.1 minutes and the average total screen time per day was 655 ± 605 minutes. Findings showed strong significance between total screen time and computer and video game use (r=0.482; p=0.01 and r=0.784; p=0.01, respectively). Video game time in the group of children with a video game in their room (350.66 ± 445.96 min/day) was significantly higher than the sample of kids without one in their room (107.19 ± 210.0 min/day ; p=0.000). Total screen time was also significantly greater with children who had a video game system in their room (927.56 ± 928.7 min/day) versus children who did not (543.14 ± 355.11 min/day; p=0.006). Additionally, significance was found showing children with a computer in the bedroom spent more time using the computer per day (450.95 ± 377.95 min/day), compared to those children who did not have a computer in their room (333.5 ± 395.6 min/day; p=0.048). No significant association was found between metabolic markers and screen time. However, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and insulin proved to be dependent on BMI percentile (r=-0.582; p=0.01, r=0.476; p=0.01, r=0.704; p=0.01 respectively). Our data suggest further research needs to be done investigating other potential sources that limit physical activity so that strategies can focus on reducing obesity incidence and the associated health risks. Future studies should use larger sample sizes to be more representative of this population, and develop more direct observations instead of self-reported values to limit bias.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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A College Kid's Guide to a Balanced Diet

Description

As a college student, living in an apartment or home with a kitchen, making your own food decisions can be daunting. After spending so much time either living at home

As a college student, living in an apartment or home with a kitchen, making your own food decisions can be daunting. After spending so much time either living at home and having food cooked for you or living in a dorm where food is provided, it is difficult to suddenly have to put so much thought into something that for so long you didn’t have to think about at all. Not only that, it sometimes feels like the media is screaming from all sides that you need to eat a certain way to be ‘healthy’ or ‘fit’. I hope to be able to make this process a bit easier for you through this guide I have put together from my own experience and education.
‘Healthy’ foods always seem like the best choice, but what does it really mean to be healthy? A ‘healthy diet’ can mean any number of things depending on who you ask and where you look. Media provides an endless sea of tips, tricks, and diets for ‘eating healthy’. Oxford defines health as a state of physical, mental, and social well-being with the absence of disease and infirmity; and healthy as indicative of, conducive to, or promoting good health1. It is easy to get caught up in the excitement of fad diets, but maintaining a healthy eating pattern can be quite simple when put into practice.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Effects of a Community-Based Nutrition Program on the Intake of Fruits, Vegetables, and Sugar in Children

Description

Childhood obesity is a worsening epidemic in the U.S. with substantial racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities. Community-based approaches are necessary to target populations that are disproportionately affected by childhood obesity. The

Childhood obesity is a worsening epidemic in the U.S. with substantial racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities. Community-based approaches are necessary to target populations that are disproportionately affected by childhood obesity. The current randomized controlled trial assessed the effects of Athletes for Life (AFL), a 12-week community-based nutrition education and physical activity program that aims to improve cardiovascular fitness and promote healthy eating among families in the South Phoenix region, relative to a control condition. One of the goals of the intervention was to increase participating children's intake of fruits/vegetables and reduce their sugar intake, measured by a parent-reported food-frequency questionnaire. Data were collected on 110 child participants aged 6-11 years old. Relative to baseline values, participants in the intervention reportedly increased their fruit intake frequency by 0.12 + 2.0 times per day, whereas the control group decreased their intake by 0.32 + 1.28 times per day (p=0.026). Participants in the intervention group also increased their vegetable intake by 0.21 + 0.65 times per day, whereas control participants decreased their intake by 0.05 + 0.72 times per day (p=0.019). Participants in the intervention group decreased their intake of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake by 0.22 + 0.62 times per day, whereas control participants decreased their intake of SSBs by 0.04 + 0.40 times per day, however, the change observed in SSB intake was not significant between groups. Lastly, frequency of sugar-laden food intake decreased by 0.86 + 1.10 times per day among the intervention group, whereas control participants increased their intake by 0.02 + 1.10 times per day (p=0.033). The AFL study may serve as a framework for future community-based interventions to promote health in underserved areas.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Increasing Sustainability in Volunteer Clinics in Mexico

Description

Arizona Global Health Project is a student organization at Arizona State University whose main purpose is to volunteer in the community, both locally and globally. Through the New Birth Medical

Arizona Global Health Project is a student organization at Arizona State University whose main purpose is to volunteer in the community, both locally and globally. Through the New Birth Medical Mission Clinic, students from the University are able to volunteer at Medical Clinics in Puerto Peñasco, Mexico, working hands on alongside various providers. It is through these clinics that leaders of the student organization began to wonder about the true needs of the community and how the care provided at the clinics could be tailored to better suit the needs of the patients. A needs assessment survey was designed with components that took into account general nutrition status, as well as demographical questions that was then administered during the Fall 2018 Medical Trip. Data was analyzed and it was found that female health providers as well as general practitioners would be crucial components of the care team, as well as a Dietitian that could address the massive amount of lifestyle related illnesses within the population. The study also showed general satisfaction with the care provided during the medical trips, but during administration of the survey, patients showed great interest in further nutrition education, all of which should be taken into account during planning for future medical trips. Further research will need to be conducted to look at how other environmental factors influence the health of the patients, as well as their nutritional status. With the data found during this study, as well as the continuation of research, Arizona Global Health Project will hopefully be able to provide succinct and tailored care to these patients that lasts between the medical mission trips.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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The relationship between food insecurity and weight status, eating behaviors, the home food environment, meal planning and preparation, and perceived stress in parents living in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area

Description

Objectives Through a cross-sectional observational study, this thesis evaluates the relationship between food insecurity and weight status, eating behaviors, the home food environment, meal planning and preparation, and perceived stress

Objectives Through a cross-sectional observational study, this thesis evaluates the relationship between food insecurity and weight status, eating behaviors, the home food environment, meal planning and preparation, and perceived stress as it relates to predominantly Hispanic/Latino parents in Phoenix, Arizona. The purpose of this study was to address gaps in the literature by examining differences in "healthy" and "unhealthy" eating behaviors, foods available in the home, how time and low energy impact meal preparation, and the level of stress between food security groups. Methods Parents, 18 years or older, were recruited during two pre-scheduled health fairs, from English as a second language classes, or from the Women, Infants, and Children's clinic at a local community center, Golden Gate Community Center, in Phoenix, Arizona. An interview, electronic, or paper survey were offered in either Spanish or English to collect data on the variables described above. In addition to the survey, height and weight were collected for all participants to determine BMI and weight status. One hundred and sixty participants were recruited. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models, adjusting for weight status, education, race/ethnicity, income level, and years residing in the U.S., were used to assess the relationship between food security status and weight status, eating behaviors, the home food environment, meal planning and preparation, and perceived stress. Results Results concluded that food insecurity was more prevalent among parents reporting lower income levels compared to higher income levels (p=0.017). In adjusted models, higher perceived cost of fruits (p=0.004) and higher perceived level of stress (p=0.001) were associated with food insecurity. Given that the sample population was predominately women, a post-hoc analysis was completed on women only. In addition to the two significant results noted in the adjusted analyses, the women-only analysis revealed that food insecure mothers reported lower amounts of vegetables served with meals (p=0.019) and higher use of fast-food when tired or running late (p=0.043), compared to food secure mothers. Conclusion Additional studies are needed to further assess differences in stress levels between food insecure parents and food insecure parents, with special consideration for directionality and its relationship to weight status.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Food Security, Perceptions of Food Neighborhood Environment, and Dietary Quality in Women Residing in the Mexico-US border

Description

Objective: Migration to the United States (U.S.) has been associated with food insecurity and detrimental changes in diet quality. How these changes affect women in context of their neighborhood food

Objective: Migration to the United States (U.S.) has been associated with food insecurity and detrimental changes in diet quality. How these changes affect women in context of their neighborhood food environment has not been thoroughly explored. This study aimed to assess if food security is associated with diet quality and to explore if perceived food availability moderates this purported association in a sample of Mexican immigrant women.

Methods: Mexican-born women (n=57, 41±7 years) residing in the U.S. for more than 1 year self-reported food security status, monthly fast-food frequency, and their perception of fruit, vegetables, and low-fat product availability within their neighborhood via survey. Diet was assessed using the Southwest Food Frequency Questionnaire to estimate intake of fruit, vegetables, salty snacks, sugar, and healthy eating index (HEI)-2015 score. Bivariate correlations assessed the relationships between study variables. Independent samples t-tests compared dietary outcomes between women classified as food secure (n=41; high or marginal food security) and food insecure (n=16; low or very low food security). A moderation analysis assessed the effect of the perception of the neighborhood food environment on the relationship between food security and HEI-2015 score.

Results: Fifty four percent of participants worked full time and 42% had a monthly household income <$2,000. Time residing in the U.S. was 20±9 years. Relative to women classified as food secure, participants experiencing food insecurity had lower HEI-2015 (61±8 vs. 66±6; p=0.03). Albeit not significantly different, women experiencing food insecurity reported lower intake of fruit (236±178 vs. 294±239 g), vegetables (303±188 vs. 331±199 g), and salty snacks (6±5 vs. 8±10 g), as well as higher intake of sugar (99±55 vs. 96±56 g) and fast food (2.5±2.5 vs. 1.8±1.7 times per month); p>0.05 for all. Among women experiencing food insecurity, there was a trend for a lower perception of neighborhood fruit, vegetable and low-fat product availability being associated with lower HEI-2015 scores (54±6) relative to those who perceived moderate (63±6) or high (65±8) neighborhood availability of those foods (p=0.07).

Conclusions: HEI-2015 scores were associated with participants’ food security status. Findings suggest a need for better understanding of how neighborhood food availability may affect diet quality among Mexican immigrant women experiencing food insecurity.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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First year students' meal plans and dining hall use: differences by food insecurity, and similarities among roommates

Description

Background In the United States (US), first-year university students typically live on campus and purchase a meal plan. In general, meal plans allow the student a set number of meals

Background In the United States (US), first-year university students typically live on campus and purchase a meal plan. In general, meal plans allow the student a set number of meals per week or semester, or unlimited meals. Understanding how students’ use their meal plan, and barriers and facilitators to meal plan use, may help decrease nutrition-related issues.

Methods First-year students’ meal plan and residence information was provided by a large, public, southwestern university for the 2015-2016 academic year. A subset of students (n=619) self-reported their food security status. Logistic generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were used to determine if meal plan purchase and use were associated with food insecurity. Linear GEEs were used to examine several potential reasons for lower meal plan use. Logistic and Linear GEEs were used to determine similarities in meal plan purchase and use for a total of 599 roommate pairs (n=1186 students), and 557 floormates.

Results Students did not use all of the meals available to them; 7% of students did not use their meal plan for an entire month. After controlling for socioeconomic factors, compared to students on unlimited meal plans, students on the cheapest meal plan were more likely to report food insecurity (OR=2.2, 95% CI=1.2, 4.1). In Fall, 26% of students on unlimited meal plans reported food insecurity. Students on the 180 meals/semester meal plan who used fewer meals were more likely to report food insecurity (OR=0.9, 95% CI=0.8, 1.0); after gender stratification this was only evident for males. Students’ meal plan use was lower if the student worked a job (β=-1.3, 95% CI=-2.3, -0.3) and higher when their roommate used their meal plan frequently (β=0.09, 99% CI=0.04, 0.14). Roommates on the same meal plan (OR=1.56, 99% CI=1.28, 1.89) were more likely to use their meals together.

Discussion This study suggests that determining why students are not using their meal plan may be key to minimizing the prevalence of food insecurity on college campuses, and that strategic roommate assignments may result in students’ using their meal plan more frequently. Students’ meal plan information provides objective insights into students’ university transition.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Exploring the Associations between Family Meal Frequency and Dietary Behaviors in Parents and Youth

Description

Objectives. This study primarily explored the relationship between family meal frequency and youth intake of fruits and vegetables (FV) and added sugar from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in a population of

Objectives. This study primarily explored the relationship between family meal frequency and youth intake of fruits and vegetables (FV) and added sugar from sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) in a population of Latinx parents and their middle school children. The study secondarily explored factors influencing family meal frequency; specifically, whether parent education level, income level, acculturation level, and food insecurity are associated with family meal frequency.

Methods. Latinx parents and their 6th-8th grade children were recruited from eligible middle schools in Maricopa County to participate in a larger intervention study. A sample of parent-youth dyads from the first cohort of the larger study was selected for cross-sectional analysis of baseline data in this study (n=124). Participants completed a survey requesting demographics, family meal habits, and dietary intake. Participants were asked to report annual income, education level, and number of family meals in the home in the past week. They were also asked to complete an Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans, a 6-item Household Food Security Questionnaire, and a 26-question Dietary Screener Questionnaire. Analyses were run using Spearman’s Rank Correlation test and a Chi Square test of Independence.

Results. Mean daily youth intake of FV was 2.7 ± 1.4 cup equivalents, and daily youth intake of sugars from SSBs was 8.6 ± 4.9 teaspoon equivalents per day. Fifty percent of parents reported 7 or more family meals per week, while 38.7% reported 3-6 family meals per week and 11.3% reported 2 or fewer family meals per week. There was no significant association between family meal frequency and youth FV (r=-0.154; p=0.256) or added sugar from SSBs (r=0.027; p=0.807) intake. Similarly, results from Chi Square analyses suggested there was no association between family meal frequency and parent income level (p=0.392), Mexican-oriented acculturation level (p=0.591), Anglo-oriented acculturation level (p=0.052) and food insecurity (p=0.754). In contrast, a significant association between parent education and family meal frequency was found (p=0.014).

Conclusions. Parent education may play a role in shaping family meal practices in Latinx families. More research is needed to further understand this relationship and the relationship between family meal habits and youth dietary intake.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Potential therapeutic benefits of flaxseeds in the treatment of type 2 diabetes symptoms

Description

Background: Despite the reported improvements in glucose regulation associated with flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum) few clinical trials have been conducted in diabetic participants. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of ground flaxseed

Background: Despite the reported improvements in glucose regulation associated with flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum) few clinical trials have been conducted in diabetic participants. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of ground flaxseed consumption at attenuating hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, inflammation, and oxidative stress as compared to a control in adults with non-insulin dependent type 2 diabetes (T2D). Design: In a randomized parallel arm controlled efficacy trial, participants were asked to consume either 28 g/d ground flaxseed or the fiber-matched control (9 g/d ground psyllium husk) for 8 weeks. The study included 17 adults (9 male, 8 females; 46±14 y; BMI: 31.4±5.7 kg/m2) with a diagnosis of T2D ≥ 6 months. Main outcomes measured included: glycemic control (HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, fasting serum insulin, and HOMA-IR), lipid profile (total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, total triglycerides, and calculated VLDL-C), markers of inflammation and oxidative stress (TNF-alpha, TBARS, and NOx), and dietary intake (energy, total fat, total fiber, sodium). Absolute net change for measured variables (week 8 values minus baseline values) were compared using Mann-Whitney U non-parametric tests, significance was determined at p ≤ 0.05. Results: There were no significant changes between groups from baseline to week 8 in any outcome measure of nutrient intake, body composition, glucose control, or lipid concentrations. There was a modest decrease in TNF-alpha in the flaxseed group as compared to the control (p = 0.06) as well as a mild decrease in TBARS in the flaxseed as compared to the control group (p = 0.083), though neither were significant. Conclusions: The current study did not detect a measurable association between 28 g/d flaxseed consumption for 8 weeks in T2D participants and improvements in glycemic control or lipid profiles. There was a modest, albeit insignificant, decrease in markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in the flaxseed group as compared to the control, which warrants further study.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Hypotensive effects of potassium and magnesium

Description

Despite recent strides for awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, prevalence remains high with estimates suggesting one third of Americans have hypertension. The hypotensive effects of potassium and magnesium have

Despite recent strides for awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, prevalence remains high with estimates suggesting one third of Americans have hypertension. The hypotensive effects of potassium and magnesium have been known and administered in a clinical setting for nearly a century. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of taking a potassium/magnesium supplement to help reduce blood pressure in individuals with mildly-moderately elevated blood pressure. In this randomized, controlled crossover trial, potassium and magnesium supplementation was explored among healthy adults with mildly elevated blood pressure in Phoenix, Arizona. Subjects (n = 12) were randomly assigned to ingest either the treatment chewy bar (217 mg potassium/day; 70.8 mg magnesium/day) or a placebo chewy bar for four weeks. For the subsequent four weeks, subjects ingested the other corresponding chewy bar. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and average blood pressure values were not significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.645, p = 0.464 and p = 0.939, respectively). Baseline mean blood pressure was 121.0/75.7 mm Hg. The 12 subjects (8 females, 4 males) had a mean age of 29.3 years old and a mean BMI of 26.2. After four weeks, the treatment group had a slightly higher SBP (118.3 ± 13.3 mm Hg) than the control group (116.5 ± 17.8 mm Hg); however, DBP was lower in the treatment group (71.7 ± 12.4 mm Hg) than the control group (73.0 ± 10.0 mm Hg). In conclusion, daily supplementation of potassium and magnesium (217.2 mg/day and 70.8 mg/day, respectively) did not significantly lower blood pressure in adults with mildly-moderately elevated blood pressure.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015