Matching Items (9)

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The indices of bone changes in response to exercise

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The gold standard for bone measurement is DXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry). Typically, to observe changes in bone by DXA, a minimum of a 4-month intervention is required. Serum osteocalcin (OST) (a bone formation marker) and quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of

The gold standard for bone measurement is DXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry). Typically, to observe changes in bone by DXA, a minimum of a 4-month intervention is required. Serum osteocalcin (OST) (a bone formation marker) and quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the calcaneus can be used as indicators of bone change but the sensitivity and time course of these indices to short term interventions are unknown. The purpose of this study was twofold: to compare monthly changes in OST and QUS in response to jump training and to evaluate the relationship between DXA, OST and QUS. Young women with QUS t-scores less than 1.0 were randomized into a jump training (J) (n=16) or control (C) (n=16). J consisted of a progressive routine of 1 and 2-footed jumping performed 3 days per week for 4 months. Body composition, QUS and OST were measured at baseline, and monthly for 4 months. DXA and 24-hour dietary recalls were completed at baseline and 4 months. Low attrition rate (12.5%) and high compliance (98%) with the exercise intervention was recorded. No significant correlations between QUS and OST existed. No significant differences were observed between groups at baseline in body composition or bone variables. Monthly increases in OST were observed but there were no significant differences over time between groups in any bone variables. OST and QUS may be indicative of short term bone changes but these variables were not specifically sensitive to the jumping intervention in this population of women.

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Date Created
2011

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Selenium supplementation and cardiovascular outcome markers in hemodialysis patients: a randomized, controlled trial

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Background Hemodialysis (HD) patients elicit an oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in addition to a selenium deficiency, possibly contributing to cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Objective To evaluate the effect of selenium supplementation on CVD outcomes and antioxidant status in HD patients. Design A

Background Hemodialysis (HD) patients elicit an oxidant-antioxidant imbalance in addition to a selenium deficiency, possibly contributing to cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Objective To evaluate the effect of selenium supplementation on CVD outcomes and antioxidant status in HD patients. Design A randomized controlled intervention trial conducted from October 2012 to January 2013. Participants/setting The study included 27 maintenance HD patients (61.1+17.5y, 14M, 13F) receiving HD in the greater Phoenix, AZ area. Intervention Patients received one of three treatments daily: 2 Brazil nuts, (5g, 181µg/day of selenium as selenomethionine [predicted]), 1 tablet of selenium (200µg/day of selenium as selenomethionine), or control (3 gummy bears). Main outcome measures Antioxidant status outcome measures included total antioxidant capacity, vitamin C, and RBC and plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). CVD outcomes measures included brain natriuretic peptide; plasma cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, triglycerides; blood pressure, and thoracic cavity fluid accumulation. Statistical analyses performed Repeated measures ANOVA analyzed changes over time and between groups at months 0 and 2 and months 0 and 3. Results Independent analysis showed the Brazil nuts provided 11µg of selenium/day and the pill provided 266µg of selenium/day. Consequently, the Brazil nut group was combined with the placebo group. 21 patients completed 2 months of the study and 17 patients completed the study in its entirety. Data was analyzed for months 0, 1 and 2. No significant differences were noted for antioxidant status outcome measures with the exception of plasma GSH-Px. Patients receiving the selenium pill had a significant increase in plasma GSH-Px compared to the placebo group (6.0+11 and -4.0+7.6, respectively, p=0.023 for change between month 0 and month 2). No significant differences were seen in total antioxidant capacity or for CVD outcome measures over time or between groups. Conclusions These data indicate that selenium supplementation increased plasma GSH-Px concentration in HD patients; however, oxidative stress was not altered by selenium supplementation. The low vitamin C status of HD patients warrants further research, specifically in conjunction with selenium supplementation.

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Date Created
2013

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Effect of a Wii Fit® intervention on balance, muscular fitness, and bone health in middle-aged women

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Sustaining a fall can be hazardous for those with low bone mass. Interventions exist to reduce fall-risk, but may not retain long-term interest. "Exergaming" has become popular in older adults as a therapy, but no research has been done on

Sustaining a fall can be hazardous for those with low bone mass. Interventions exist to reduce fall-risk, but may not retain long-term interest. "Exergaming" has become popular in older adults as a therapy, but no research has been done on its preventative ability in non-clinical populations. The purpose was to determine the impact of 12-weeks of interactive play with the Wii Fit® on balance, muscular fitness, and bone health in peri- menopausal women. METHODS: 24 peri-menopausal-women were randomized into study groups. Balance was assessed using the Berg/FICSIT-4 and a force plate. Muscular strength was measured using the isokinetic dynamometer at 60°/180°/240°/sec and endurance was assessed using 50 repetitions at 240°/sec. Bone health was tracked using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for the hip/lumbar spine and qualitative ultrasound (QUS) of the heel. Serum osteocalcin was assessed by enzyme immunoassay. Physical activity was quantified using the Women's Health Initiative Physical Activity Questionnaire and dietary patterns were measured using the Nurses' Health Food Frequency Questionnaire. All measures were repeated at weeks 6 and 12, except for the DXA, which was completed pre-post. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in diet and PA between groups. Wii Fit® training did not improve scores on the Berg/FICSIT-4, but improved center of pressure on the force plate for Tandem Step, Eyes Closed (p-values: 0.001-0.051). There were no significant improvements for muscular fitness at any of the angular velocities. DXA BMD of the left femoral neck improved in the intervention group (+1.15%) and decreased in the control (-1.13%), but no other sites had significant changes. Osteocalcin indicated no differences in bone turnover between groups at baseline, but the intervention group showed increased bone turnover between weeks 6 and 12. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate that WiiFit® training may improve balance by preserving center of pressure. QUS, DXA and osteocalcin data confirm that those in the intervention group were experiencing more bone turnover and bone formation than the control group. In summary, twelve weeks of strength /balance training with the Wii Fit® shows promise as a preventative intervention to reduce fall and fracture risk in non-clinical middle aged women who are at risk.

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2014

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An updated food guide for vegetarians adapted to MyPlate: an evidence based approach

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In 2002, a scientifically derived food guide pyramid for vegetarians, the Modified Food Guide for Lacto-ovo-vegetarians and Vegans was published and well received. Now that 10 years have passed, new scientific literature regarding the bioavailability of the nutrients of key

In 2002, a scientifically derived food guide pyramid for vegetarians, the Modified Food Guide for Lacto-ovo-vegetarians and Vegans was published and well received. Now that 10 years have passed, new scientific literature regarding the bioavailability of the nutrients of key concern in vegetarian diets has been published, and the graphical format of the nation's food guide has evolved from a pyramid shape into a circular plate. The objective of this research was to examine the post-2002 literature regarding the bioavailability of key nutrients in vegetarian diets; to use this information to update the recommendations made in the 2002 Modified Food Guide Pyramid for Lacto-ovo-vegetarians and Vegans; and to adapt this revised food plan to the new USDA MyPlate format. This process involved reviewing the scientific literature to determine if the DRIs for the nutrients of key concern in vegetarian diets are adequate for the vegetarian population and using this information to develop new recommendations for vegetarians if necessary, analyzing the nutrient content of representative foods in different food groups, reconfiguring the food groups so that foods with like nutrient components were grouped together, determining the number of servings of each food group required to meet vegetarians' nutrient requirements at three caloric levels, and developing sample menus. A circular plate graphic, the Vegetarian Plate, was designed to illustrate the recommendations of this updated food guide. This updated, scientifically derived food guide provides a sound base for diet planning for lacto-ovo-vegetarians and vegans. Further research is needed to assess the Vegetarian Plate's adequacy for children, pregnant and lactating women, athletes, and individuals with medical conditions or chronic diseases.

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Date Created
2013

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Vitamin C and treating the common cold

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The antioxidant, antihistamine, and chemotactic properties of vitamin C provide the theoretical basis linking vitamin C supplementation to combating the common cold; yet, the clinical evidence is mixed. To date, vitamin C intervention trials have not systematically recorded cold symptoms

The antioxidant, antihistamine, and chemotactic properties of vitamin C provide the theoretical basis linking vitamin C supplementation to combating the common cold; yet, the clinical evidence is mixed. To date, vitamin C intervention trials have not systematically recorded cold symptoms daily or looked at fluctuations in plasma histamine over an extended period. Also, trials have not been conducted in individuals with marginal vitamin C status. This study examined the impact of vitamin C supplementation during cold season on specific cold symptoms in a population with low plasma vitamin C concentrations. Healthy young males who were not regular smokers or training for competitive sports between the ages of 18 and 35 with below average plasma vitamin C concentrations were stratified by age, body mass index, and vitamin C status into two groups: VTC (500 mg vitamin C capsule ingested twice daily) or CON (placebo capsule ingested twice daily). Participants were instructed to fill out the validated Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21 daily for 8 weeks. Blood was sampled at trial weeks 0, 4, and 8. Plasma vitamin C concentrations were significantly different by groups at study week 4 and 8. Plasma histamine decreased 4.2% in the VTC group and increased 17.4% in the CON group between study weeks 0 and 8, but these differences were not statistically significant (p>0.05). Total cold symptom scores averaged 43±15 for the VTC group compared to 148±36 for the CON group, a 244% increase in symptoms for CON participants versus VTC participants (p=0.014). Additionally, recorded symptom severity and functional impairment scores were lower in the VCT group than the CON group (p=0.031 and 0.058, respectively). Global perception of sickness was 65% lower in the VTC group compared to the CON group (p=0.022). These results suggest that 1000 mg of vitamin C in a divided dose daily may lower common cold symptoms, cold symptom severity, and the perception of sickness. More research is needed to corroborate these findings.

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Date Created
2012

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The relation of farmers' market nutrition program coupon use with accessibility and WIC CVV redemption rates at farmers' markets

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ABSTRACT Fruit and vegetable intake is not uniform across levels of socioeconomic status (SES) and researchers have identified low SES as a risk factor for poor intake of fruits and vegetables. In an effort to eliminate public health disparities and

ABSTRACT Fruit and vegetable intake is not uniform across levels of socioeconomic status (SES) and researchers have identified low SES as a risk factor for poor intake of fruits and vegetables. In an effort to eliminate public health disparities and increase fruit and vegetable intake, the Women, Infant, and Children (WIC) program implemented additional food assistance programs, with a specific emphasis on fresh fruits and vegetables. The Farmers' Market Nutrition Program (FMNP) provides pre-existing WIC clients with coupons to purchase fresh, locally grown produce at farmers' markets. In addition, Congress also approved the WIC Cash Value Voucher (CVV) program, which provides WIC participants with vouchers to purchase fresh fruits and vegetables at farmers' markets or grocery stores. The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the relation of FMNP coupon use with accessibility and WIC CVV redemption rates at farmers' markets. Furthermore, this thesis addressed whether WIC shoppers redeemed a higher percentage of their WIC CVV value at farmers' markets or grocery stores. WIC CVV and FMNP issuance and redemption data were analyzed to establish overall redemption rates and total perecent of WIC CVV value redeemed. Accessibility was assessed using the Geographic Information System, which allowed me to calculate the distance that WIC participants would have to travel to redeem their FMNP coupons at FMNP-approved farmers' markets. The results showed that less than 1% of WIC shoppers redeem their WIC CVVs at farmers'markets in Arizona. However, the redemption of WIC CVV was significantly higher during the months when shoppers had the option of using both WIC CVV and FMNP coupons at farmers' markets. Furthermore, the percent of total CVV value redeemed at farmers' markets was 99%, significantly higher than grocery stores (93.5%). Average FMNP coupon redemption rates for 2008-2010 was 43.3%, well below the national average of 59%. However, my spatial analysis revealed that there was no significant association between the distance traveled to farmers' markets and FMNP redemption rates. This indicates that the distance traveled to farmers' markets is not a major barrier to redemption of FMNP coupons in Arizona.

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Date Created
2012

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An ecological approach to investigating the influences of obesity

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"Globesity," as defined by the World Health Organization, describes obesity as a pandemic affecting at least 400 million people worldwide. The prevalence of obesity is higher among women than men; and in non-Hispanic black and Hispanic populations. Obesity has been

"Globesity," as defined by the World Health Organization, describes obesity as a pandemic affecting at least 400 million people worldwide. The prevalence of obesity is higher among women than men; and in non-Hispanic black and Hispanic populations. Obesity has been significantly associated with increased all-cause mortality, and mortality from cardiovascular disease, obesity-related cancers, diabetes and kidney disease. Current strategies to curb obesity rates often use an ecological approach, suggesting three main factors: biological, behavioral, and environmental. This approach was used to develop four studies of obesity. The first study assessed dietary quality, using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2005, among premenopausal Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women, and found that Hispanic women had lower total HEI-2005 scores, and lower scores for total vegetables, dark green and orange vegetables and legumes, and sodium. Markers of obesity were negatively correlated with total HEI-2005 scores. The second study examined the relationship between reported screen time and markers of obesity among premenopausal women and found that total screen time, TV, and computer use were positively associated with markers of obesity. Waist/height ratio, fat mass index, and leptin concentrations were significantly lower among those who reported the lowest screen time versus the moderate and high screen time categories. The third study examined the relationship between screen time and dietary intake and found no significant differences in absolute dietary intake by screen time category. The fourth study was designed to test a brief face-to-face healthy shopping intervention to determine whether food purchases of participants who received the intervention differed from those in the control group; and whether purchases differed by socioeconomic position. Participants in the intervention group purchased more servings of fruit when compared to the control group. High-income participants purchased more servings of dark green/deep yellow vegetables compared to those in the low-income group. Among those who received the intervention, low-income participants purchased foods of lower energy density, and middle-income participants purchased food of higher fat density. The findings of these studies support policy changes to address increasing access and availability of fruits and vegetables, and support guidelines to limit screen time among adults.

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Date Created
2010

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Applying MyPlate to procurement in food banks: implications for policy

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Food banks are the foundation of the emergency food network, and while their chief mission is to mitigate hunger, the rise in obesity and other diet-related diseases among clientele has incited the need for better nutritional control with regards to

Food banks are the foundation of the emergency food network, and while their chief mission is to mitigate hunger, the rise in obesity and other diet-related diseases among clientele has incited the need for better nutritional control with regards to procurement of inventory at food banks. The purpose of this research was to determine if procured inventory at United Food Bank in Mesa, Arizona could meet minimum MyPlate recommendations for a typical food bank client and what implications the results could have for future policy. Inventory data was obtained from United Food Bank for fiscal year 2013-2014 and analyzed utilizing the MyPlate Analysis Program to determine contributions of each food category to MyPlate recommendations. Inventory was separated by MyPlate food category and analyzed to determine contribution towards a meal built around MyPlate recommendations. Results showed that the inventory could meet the minimum requirements for protein and grains for a family of four for at least three days, the amount of time an emergency food box is designed to last. On the contrary, the inventory did not meet minimum vegetable, fruit or dairy requirements. These results indicate that typical food bank inventory does not meet USDA MyPlate recommendations and that having nutritional policy in place could potentially drive donations and purchases to enhance the nutritional quality of future food bank inventory.

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Date Created
2015

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Novel approaches to increasing stair use in a university population

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Research indicates that adults are not acquiring enough physical activity. Increasing the use of stairs is an accessible way to weave high intensity physical activity into the daily routine. The purpose of this study is to test the effect of

Research indicates that adults are not acquiring enough physical activity. Increasing the use of stairs is an accessible way to weave high intensity physical activity into the daily routine. The purpose of this study is to test the effect of four environmental changes on ascending stair use in a mixed population of college students, faulty, and staff on a southwest college campus. The study design included a 10-week time series design with alternating baseline and intervention phases, including a directional cue represented by footprints on the ground, a positive prompt, a deterrent prompt and a combination phase. Data was collected with both an in-person tally and a video recording device. The study included 6,140 observations and coded variables included stair use, sex, number of bags carried, temperature, and volume. Rater reliability ranged from .81 to 1.0. Multivariate logistic regression was used to perform the statistic analysis. Stair use increased significantly from Washout 1 and the positive prompting phase with a 7% absolute increase and an odds ratio of 1.35 (95% CI 1.080-1.696). Stair use during the footprint phase, deterrent phase and combination phase did not increase significantly compared to the previous baseline or washout phases. Day of the week (Monday=reference, Tuesday CI=1.626, 95% CI 1.298-2.011, Wednesday OR=0.457, 95% CI 0.248-0.841, Thursday OR=1.434, 95% CI 1.164-1.766), sex (OR=1.376, 95% CI 1.173-1.613) and volume (OR=1.007, 95% CI 1.005-1.008) were significantly correlated to stair use. Women used the stairs more than men and higher volume situations were related to increased stair use. Temperature and baggage number were not related to stair use. The results of this study indicate that positive prompting with an environmental message theme is an effective method to increase stair use in a university setting.

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Date Created
2015