Matching Items (63)

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Design and Development of High Performance III-Nitrides Photovoltaics

Description

Wurtzite (In, Ga, Al) N semiconductors, especially InGaN material systems, demonstrate immense promises for the high efficiency thin film photovoltaic (PV) applications for future generation. Their unique and intriguing merits

Wurtzite (In, Ga, Al) N semiconductors, especially InGaN material systems, demonstrate immense promises for the high efficiency thin film photovoltaic (PV) applications for future generation. Their unique and intriguing merits include continuously tunable wide band gap from 0.70 eV to 3.4 eV, strong absorption coefficient on the order of ∼105 cm−1, superior radiation resistance under harsh environment, and high saturation velocities and high mobility. Calculation from the detailed balance model also revealed that in multi-junction (MJ) solar cell device, materials with band gaps higher than 2.4 eV are required to achieve PV efficiencies greater than 50%, which is practically and easily feasible for InGaN materials. Other state-of-art modeling on InGaN solar cells also demonstrate great potential for applications of III-nitride solar cells in four-junction solar cell devices as well as in the integration with a non-III-nitride junction in multi-junction devices.

This dissertation first theoretically analyzed loss mechanisms and studied the theoretical limit of PV performance of InGaN solar cells with a semi-analytical model. Then three device design strategies are proposed to study and improve PV performance: band polarization engineering, structural design and band engineering. Moreover, three physical mechanisms related to high temperature performance of InGaN solar cells have been thoroughly investigated: thermal reliability issue, enhanced external quantum efficiency (EQE) and conversion efficiency with rising temperatures and carrier dynamics and localization effects inside nonpolar m-plane InGaN quantum wells (QWs) at high temperatures. In the end several future work will also be proposed.

Although still in its infancy, past and projected future progress of device design will ultimately achieve this very goal that III-nitride based solar cells will be indispensable for today and future’s society, technologies and society.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Towards high-efficiency thin-film solar cells: from theoretical analysis to experimental exploration

Description

GaAs single-junction solar cells have been studied extensively in recent years, and have reached over 28 % efficiency. Further improvement requires an optically thick but physically thin absorber to provide

GaAs single-junction solar cells have been studied extensively in recent years, and have reached over 28 % efficiency. Further improvement requires an optically thick but physically thin absorber to provide both large short-circuit current and high open-circuit voltage. By detailed simulation, it is concluded that ultra-thin GaAs cells with hundreds of nanometers thickness and reflective back scattering can potentially offer efficiencies greater than 30 %. The 300 nm GaAs solar cell with AlInP/Au reflective back scattering is carefully designed and demonstrates an efficiency of 19.1 %. The device performance is analyzed using the semi-analytical model with Phong distribution implemented to account for non-Lambertian scattering. A Phong exponent m of ~12, a non-radiative lifetime of 130 ns, and a specific series resistivity of 1.2 Ω·cm2 are determined.

Thin-film CdTe solar cells have also attracted lots of attention due to the continuous improvements in their device performance. To address the issue of the lower efficiency record compared to detailed-balance limit, the single-crystalline Cd(Zn)Te/MgCdTe double heterostructures (DH) grown on InSb (100) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) are carefully studied. The Cd0.9946Zn0.0054Te alloy lattice-matched to InSb has been demonstrated with a carrier lifetime of 0.34 µs observed in a 3 µm thick Cd0.9946Zn0.0054Te/MgCdTe DH sample. The substantial improvement of lifetime is due to the reduction in misfit dislocation density. The recombination lifetime and interface recombination velocity (IRV) of CdTe/MgxCd1-xTe DHs are investigated. The IRV is found to be dependent on both the MgCdTe barrier height and width due to the thermionic emission and tunneling processes. A record-long carrier lifetime of 2.7 µs and a record-low IRV of close to zero have been confirmed experimentally.

The MgCdTe/Si tandem solar cell is proposed to address the issue of high manufacturing costs and poor performance of thin-film solar cells. The MBE grown MgxCd1-xTe/MgyCd1-yTe DHs have demonstrated the required bandgap energy of 1.7 eV, a carrier lifetime of 11 ns, and an effective IRV of (1.869 ± 0.007) × 103 cm/s. The large IRV is attributed to thermionic-emission induced interface recombination. These understandings can be applied to fabricating the high-efficiency low-cost MgCdTe/Si tandem solar cell.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Static behavior of chalcogenide based programmable metallization cells

Description

Nonvolatile memory (NVM) technologies have been an integral part of electronic systems for the past 30 years. The ideal non-volatile memory have minimal physical size, energy usage, and cost while

Nonvolatile memory (NVM) technologies have been an integral part of electronic systems for the past 30 years. The ideal non-volatile memory have minimal physical size, energy usage, and cost while having maximal speed, capacity, retention time, and radiation hardness. A promising candidate for next-generation memory is ion-conducting bridging RAM which is referred to as programmable metallization cell (PMC), conductive bridge RAM (CBRAM), or electrochemical metallization memory (ECM), which is likely to surpass flash memory in all the ideal memory characteristics. A comprehensive physics-based model is needed to completely understand PMC operation and assist in design optimization.

To advance the PMC modeling effort, this thesis presents a precise physical model parameterizing materials associated with both ion-rich and ion-poor layers of the PMC's solid electrolyte, so that captures the static electrical behavior of the PMC in both its low-resistance on-state (LRS) and high resistance off-state (HRS). The experimental data is measured from a chalcogenide glass PMC designed and manufactured at ASU. The static on- and off-state resistance of a PMC device composed of a layered (Ag-rich/Ag-poor) Ge30Se70 ChG film is characterized and modeled using three dimensional simulation code written in Silvaco Atlas finite element analysis software. Calibrating the model to experimental data enables the extraction of device parameters such as material bandgaps, workfunctions, density of states, carrier mobilities, dielectric constants, and affinities.

The sensitivity of our modeled PMC to the variation of its prominent achieved material parameters is examined on the HRS and LRS impedance behavior.

The obtained accurate set of material parameters for both Ag-rich and Ag-poor ChG systems and process variation verification on electrical characteristics enables greater fidelity in PMC device simulation, which significantly enhances our ability to understand the underlying physics of ChG-based resistive switching memory.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Electrical and thermal transport in alternative device technologies

Description

The goal of this research work is to develop a particle-based device simulator for modeling strained silicon devices. Two separate modules had to be developed for that purpose: A generic

The goal of this research work is to develop a particle-based device simulator for modeling strained silicon devices. Two separate modules had to be developed for that purpose: A generic bulk Monte Carlo simulation code which in the long-time limit solves the Boltzmann transport equation for electrons; and an extension to this code that solves for the bulk properties of strained silicon. One scattering table is needed for conventional silicon, whereas, because of the strain breaking the symmetry of the system, three scattering tables are needed for modeling strained silicon material. Simulation results for the average drift velocity and the average electron energy are in close agreement with published data. A Monte Carlo device simulation tool has also been employed to integrate the effects of self-heating into device simulation for Silicon on Insulator devices. The effects of different types of materials for buried oxide layers have been studied. Sapphire, Aluminum Nitride (AlN), Silicon dioxide (SiO2) and Diamond have been used as target materials of interest in the analysis and the effects of varying insulator layer thickness have also been investigated. It was observed that although AlN exhibits the best isothermal behavior, diamond is the best choice when thermal effects are accounted for.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Quantum Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos in Photonic and Nano Systems

Description

This dissertation aims to study and understand the effect of nonlinear dynamics and quantum chaos in graphene, optomechanics, photonics and spintronics systems.

First, in graphene quantum dot systems, conductance fluctuations are

This dissertation aims to study and understand the effect of nonlinear dynamics and quantum chaos in graphene, optomechanics, photonics and spintronics systems.

First, in graphene quantum dot systems, conductance fluctuations are investigated from the respects of Fano resonances and quantum chaos. The conventional semi-classical theory of quantum chaotic scattering used in this field depends on an invariant classical phase-space structure. I show that for systems without an invariant classical phase-space structure, the quantum pointer states can still be used to explain the conductance fluctuations. Another finding is that the chaotic geometry is demonstrated to have similar effects as the disorders in transportations.

Second, in optomechanics systems, I find rich nonlinear dynamics. Using the semi-classical Langevin equations, I demonstrate a quasi-periodic motion is favorable for the quantum entanglement between the optical mode and mechanical mode. Then I use the quantum trajectory theory to provide a new resolution for the breakdown of the classical-quantum correspondences in the chaotic regions.

Third, I investigate the analogs of the electrical band structures and effects in the non-electrical systems. In the photonic systems, I use an array of waveguides to simulate the transport of the massive relativistic particle in a non-Hermitian scenario. A new form of Zitterbewegung is discovered as well as its analytical explanation. In mechanical systems, I use springs and mass points systems to achieve a three band degenerate band structure with a new pair of spatially separated edge states in the Dice lattice. A new semi-metal phase with the intrinsic valley-Hall effect is found.

At last, I investigate the nonlinear dynamics in the spintronics systems, in which the topological insulator couples with a magnetization. Rich nonlinear dynamics are discovered in this systems, especially the multi-stability states.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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The Role of the Collisional Broadening of the States on the Low-Field Mobility in Silicon Inversion Layers

Description

Scaling of the Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) towards shorter channel lengths, has lead to an increasing importance of quantum effects on the device performance. Until now, a semi-classical model

Scaling of the Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) towards shorter channel lengths, has lead to an increasing importance of quantum effects on the device performance. Until now, a semi-classical model based on Monte Carlo method for instance, has been sufficient to address these issues in silicon, and arrive at a reasonably good fit to experimental mobility data. But as the semiconductor world moves towards 10nm technology, many of the basic assumptions in this method, namely the very fundamental Fermi’s golden rule come into question. The derivation of the Fermi’s golden rule assumes that the scattering is infrequent (therefore the long time limit) and the collision duration time is zero. This thesis overcomes some of the limitations of the above approach by successfully developing a quantum mechanical simulator that can model the low-field inversion layer mobility in silicon MOS capacitors and other inversion layers as well. It solves for the scattering induced collisional broadening of the states by accounting for the various scattering mechanisms present in silicon through the non-equilibrium based near-equilibrium Green’s Functions approach, which shall be referred to as near-equilibrium Green’s Function (nEGF) in this work. It adopts a two-loop approach, where the outer loop solves for the self-consistency between the potential and the subband sheet charge density by solving the Poisson and the Schrödinger equations self-consistently. The inner loop solves for the nEGF (renormalization of the spectrum and the broadening of the states), self-consistently using the self-consistent Born approximation, which is then used to compute the mobility using the Green-Kubo Formalism.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Modeling of Copper Migration In CdTe Photovoltaic Devices

Description

Thin-film modules of all technologies often suffer from performance degradation over time. Some of the performance changes are reversible and some are not, which makes deployment, testing, and energy-yield prediction

Thin-film modules of all technologies often suffer from performance degradation over time. Some of the performance changes are reversible and some are not, which makes deployment, testing, and energy-yield prediction more challenging. The most commonly alleged causes of instability in CdTe device, such as “migration of Cu,” have been investigated rigorously over the past fifteen years. As all defects, intrinsic or extrinsic, interact with the electrical potential and free carriers so that charged defects may drift in the electric field and changing ionization state with excess free carriers. Such complexity of interactions in CdTe makes understanding of temporal changes in device performance even more challenging. The goal of the work in this dissertation is, thus, to eliminate the ambiguity between the observed performance changes under stress and their physical root cause by enabling a depth of modeling that takes account of diffusion and drift at the atomistic level coupled to the electronic subsystem responsible for a PV device’s function. The 1D Unified Solver, developed as part of this effort, enables us to analyze PV devices at a greater depth.

In this dissertation, the implementation of a drift-diffusion model defect migration simulator, development of an implicit reaction scheme for total mass conservation, and a couple of other numerical schemes to improve the overall flexibility and robustness of this coupled Unified Solver is discussed. Preliminary results on Cu (with or without Cl-treatment) annealing simulations in both single-crystal CdTe wafer and poly-crystalline CdTe devices show promising agreement to experimental findings, providing a new perspective in the research of improving doping concentration hence the open-circuit voltage of CdTe technology. Furthermore, on the reliability side, in agreement of previous experimental reports, simulation results suggest possibility of Cu depletion in short-circuited cells stressed at elevated temperature. The developed solver also successfully demonstrated that mobile donor migration can be used to explain solar cell performance changes under different stress conditions.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Simulation of GaN CAVETs in Silvaco Atlas

Description

Gallium Nitride (GaN) based Current Aperture Vertical Electron Transistors (CAVETs) present many appealing qualities for applications in high power, high frequency devices. The wide bandgap, high carrier velocity of GaN

Gallium Nitride (GaN) based Current Aperture Vertical Electron Transistors (CAVETs) present many appealing qualities for applications in high power, high frequency devices. The wide bandgap, high carrier velocity of GaN make it ideal for withstanding high electric fields and supporting large currents. The vertical topology of the CAVET allows for more efficient die area utilization, breakdown scaling with the height of the device, and burying high electric fields in the bulk where they will not charge interface states that can lead to current collapse at higher frequency.

Though GaN CAVETs are promising new devices, they are expensive to develop due to new or exotic materials and processing steps. As a result, the accurate simulation of GaN CAVETs has become critical to the development of new devices. Using Silvaco Atlas 5.24.1.R, best practices were developed for GaN CAVET simulation by recreating the structure and results of the pGaN insulated gate CAVET presented in chapter 3 of [8].

From the results it was concluded that the best simulation setup for transfer characteristics, output characteristics, and breakdown included the following. For methods, the use of Gummel, Block, Newton, and Trap. For models, SRH, Fermi, Auger, and impact selb. For mobility, the use of GANSAT and manually specified saturation velocity and mobility (based on doping concentration). Additionally, parametric sweeps showed that, of those tested, critical CAVET parameters included channel mobility (and thus doping), channel thickness, Current Blocking Layer (CBL) doping, gate overlap, and aperture width in rectangular devices or diameter in cylindrical devices.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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A Full-Band Monte Carlo Transport Simulator for Wide Bandgap Materials in Power Electronics

Description

4H-SiC has been widely used in many applications. All of these benefit from its extremely high critical electric field and good electron mobility. For example, 4H-SiC possesses a critical field

4H-SiC has been widely used in many applications. All of these benefit from its extremely high critical electric field and good electron mobility. For example, 4H-SiC possesses a critical field ten times higher than that of Si, which allows high-voltage blocking layers composed of 4H-SiC to be approximately a tenth the thickness of a comparable Si device. This, in turn, reduces the device on-resistance and power losses while maintaining the same high blocking capability.

Unfortunately, commercial TCAD tools like Sentaurus and Silvaco Atlas are based on the effective mass approximation, while most 4H-SiC devices are not operated under low electric field, so the parabolic-like band approximation does not hold anymore. Hence, to get more accurate and reliable simulation results, full-band analysis is needed. The first step in the development of a full-band device simulator is the calculation of the band structure. In this work, the empirical pseudopotential method (EPM) is adopted. The next task in the sequence is the calculation of the scattering rates. Acoustic, non-polar optical phonon, polar optical phonon and Coulomb scattering are considered. Coulomb scattering is treated in real space using the particle-particle-particle-mesh (P3M) approach. The third task is coupling the bulk full-band solver with a 3D Poisson equation solver to generate a full-band device simulator.

For proof-of-concept of the methodology adopted here, a 3D resistor is simulated first. From the resistor simulations, the low-field electron mobility dependence upon Coulomb scattering in 4H-SiC devices is extracted. The simulated mobility results agree very well with available experimental data. Next, a 3D VDMOS is simulated. The nature of the physical processes occurring in both steady-state and transient conditions are revealed for the two generations of 3D VDMOS devices being considered in the study.

Due to its comprehensive nature, the developed tool serves as a basis for future investigation of 4H-SiC power devices.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Modeling, Simulation and Analysis of a Clinical PET System With GATE Software and Monte Carlo Model

Description

Positron emission tomography (PET) is a non-invasive molecular imaging technique widely used for the quantification of physiological and biochemical processes in preclinical and clinical research. Due to its fundamental role

Positron emission tomography (PET) is a non-invasive molecular imaging technique widely used for the quantification of physiological and biochemical processes in preclinical and clinical research. Due to its fundamental role in the health care system, there is a constant need for improvement and optimization of its scanner systems and protocols leading to a dedicated active area of research for PET. (Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) is a simulation platform designed to model and analyze a medical device. Monte Carlo simulations are essential tools to assist in optimizing the data acquisition protocols or in evaluating the correction methods for improved image quantification. Using GATE along with Customizable and Advanced Software for Tomographic Reconstruction (CASToR), provides a link to reconstruct the images.

The goal of this thesis is to learn PET systems that involve Monte Carlo methods, GATE software, CASToR software to model, simulate and analyze PET systems using three clinical PET systems as a template. Fluorine-18 radioisotope source is used to perform measurements on the modeled PET systems. Parameters such as scatter-fraction, random-fraction, sensitivity, count rate performance, signal to noise ratio (SNR), and time of flight (ToF) are analyzed to determine the performance of the systems. Also, the simulated data are provided as input to CASToR software and Amide's a Medical Image Data Examiner (AMIDE) tool to obtain the reconstructed images which are used to analyze the reconstruction capability of the simulated models. The Biograph Vision PET model has high sensitivity (11.159 cps/MBq) and SNR (12.556) while the Ultra-High Resolution (UHR) PET model has high resolution of the reconstructed image.

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Date Created
  • 2020