Matching Items (10)

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Language Barriers in Medical Encounters

Description

The thesis examines the intricacies involved with the language barriers experienced by patients with Limited English Proficiency (LEP) in medical encounters in the U.S. It examines the evidence showing the

The thesis examines the intricacies involved with the language barriers experienced by patients with Limited English Proficiency (LEP) in medical encounters in the U.S. It examines the evidence showing the impact that language barriers have on both the quality of care and the satisfaction with care experienced by patients with LEP. It also presents an overview of the laws regulating these interactions and its limitations. It further examines the pros and cons of the use of interpreters as the primary strategy developed to operationalize these regulations, including lack of funding for medical interpreters, lack of appropriate training and certification, and language diversity. Additionally, language barriers are examined in the context of cultural differences that permeate all social encounters. One key finding of this review is that communication problems are not only an issue for the LEP population, providing health-care for all patients involve sharing information among multiple health-care providers, patients and their families. However, it is well-documented that LEP makes health-care communication exponentially more challenging. The work concludes with some possible solutions to improve the quality of care and satisfaction of patients with LEP.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

The Psychological Impact of COVID-19 and its Related Fallout on the Mental Health of Young Adults

Description

COVID-19 has shocked the bedrock of society, impacting both human life and the economy. Accompanying this shock has been the psychological distress inflicted onto the general population as a result

COVID-19 has shocked the bedrock of society, impacting both human life and the economy. Accompanying this shock has been the psychological distress inflicted onto the general population as a result of the emotion strain stemming from isolation/quarantine policies, being sick with COVID-19, dealing with COVID-19 losses, and post-COVID syndrome and its effect on quality of life. The psychological distress has been experienced by the general population, but compared to middle age (30-50) and older adults (>50 years of age), it has been young adults (18-30 years old) who have been more psychologically affected (Glowacz & Schmits, 2020). Psychological distress, specifically anxiety and depression, has been exacerbated by feelings of uncertainty, fear of illness, losing loved ones, and fear of post-COVID syndrome. Post-COVID syndrome, as with other post-viral syndromes such as post viral SARS involve lingering symptoms such as myalgic encephalomyelitis or Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), and loss of motivation (Underhill, 2015). In addition to these symptoms, patients suffering from post-COVID syndrome have also presented brain inflammation and damaged brain blood vessels (Meinhardt et al., 2021), Endotheliitis (Varga et al., 2020), CV abnormalities and changes in glucose metabolism (Williams et al., 2020). CV abnormalities and changes in glucose metabolism are connected to chronic illnesses like diabetes and heart disease respectively. These chronic illnesses are then associated with higher risk for depression as a result of the stress induced by the symptoms and their impact on quality of life (NIMH, 2021). Further monitoring, and research will be important to gauge ultimate physiological and psychological impact of COVID-19.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Understanding the Role of Human Attitudes on Pro-Environmental Behaviors and Conservation

Description

Collective human attitudes influenced by macro-forces that impact environmental issues are partially correlated to our behaviors for the good and the harm of the planet. In this thesis, I will

Collective human attitudes influenced by macro-forces that impact environmental issues are partially correlated to our behaviors for the good and the harm of the planet. In this thesis, I will explore how collective human attitudes contribute to pro-environmental behaviors, common and pre-existing frames of mind on major conservation dilemmas, and finally suggest future directions on how humans could be inclined to take on more environmental responsibility through an increase in human-environmental connectivity. It is found that humans are largely driven by institution structures, education, and social influence. In conclusion, more efforts should be placed to further analyze these structural incentives for pro-environmental behaviors and use them to make environmental stewardship more accessible for all people and diverse circumstances. This can be done by evaluating the human dimensions of what influences human attitudes and behaviors, how to use these forces to systematically influence pro-environmental choices, applying these structural forces to main conservation issues, and further incorporating moral discourse into the environmental research in order to appeal correctly to all aspects and perspectives. Only when human connectivity is understood in relation to the natural sciences will we be able to make positive change in the direction of a healthier Earth.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Factors of religiosity and loss aversion

Description

Loss aversion manifests as a decision bias in which avoiding losses is preferred over acquiring rewards and can drastically alter an individual’s decision-making by overweighting potential losses relative to gains

Loss aversion manifests as a decision bias in which avoiding losses is preferred over acquiring rewards and can drastically alter an individual’s decision-making by overweighting potential losses relative to gains of equal magnitude. Consequently, individuals may require greater positive compensation to offset potential losses, exhibit contradictory choice preferences, or even avoid the decision entirely; and this behavior may be ascribed to an over-reliance on automatic, unconscious (intuitive) judgments rather than initiating analytic reasoning more capable of objectively evaluating outcomes.

Religion (specifically Christianity) is the topic of focus, as preliminary evidence suggests an individual’s intuitive inclinations positively correlate with and predict religious beliefs. Moreover, self-reported religious beliefs significantly differed as a function of inducing either intuitive or reflective mindsets. Therefore, the purpose of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that religious participants will display significantly greater levels of loss aversion than nonreligious participants.

This hypothesis extends from a previous study relating large-scale cultural and religious differences with loss aversion. While their results revealed religious orthodoxy strongly influenced loss aversion, the parameters elicited may be less stable as only two lottery questions were asked and religion was determined by cultural demographics. This study used the same design, but with a total of ten lotteries and a more detailed investigation into individual religious factors.

While loss aversion coefficients replicated the overall behavioral effect (Median θ = 2.6), independent sample, Mann-Whitney U tests did not yield any significant differences between Christian and Nonreligious participants (p > 0.05); nor did any of the religious factors examined account for a significant amount of variability.

This study attempted to add to current knowledge by further conflating the relationship between religiosity and adaptive decision strategies susceptible to errant and inconsistent behavior. While the hypotheses were unsupported, a null finding is still important, and future research re-testing this association or introducing causational designs may prove more fruitful in understanding these complex relationships.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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The Role of Empathy in Finding an Effective Intervention to Reduce HIV Related Stigma

Description

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) remains a persistent problem around the world, even though antiretroviral therapy has shown to be effective in reducing viral load and limiting transmission of the virus.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) remains a persistent problem around the world, even though antiretroviral therapy has shown to be effective in reducing viral load and limiting transmission of the virus. Due to HIV’s infectious nature, visibility, the populations at risk, and its connections to race, class, and sexuality, it is more stigmatized than any other illness. HIV stigma has been associated with increased depression, social isolation, and poor psychological adjustment. HIV stigma can influence disclosure and care-seeking behavior. Internet-based interventions have shown to be effective in increasing knowledge on STIs and HIV, however, researchers have tested strategies that include educating participants on HIV to reduce stigma and have found that informational approaches alone are not effective. There is evidence that emotional intelligence and empathy are associated with prosocial behavior and influence attitudes towards stigmatized groups. Thus, this thesis aims to test an online intervention using an informational video from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in combination with an empathy-generating component to reduce stigma. It was hypothesized that the online intervention would increase HIV knowledge scores (H1), but stigma will only be reduced in the group introduced to the empathy-inducing component (H2) and those with high emotional intelligence would show the greatest reduction in stigmatizing attitudes (H3). Results did not support these hypotheses, suggesting that the CDC’s video does not significantly increase HIV knowledge in the general public. Further, the video intended to generate empathy and reduce stigma was also ineffective. These findings stress the need for further research and questions the effectiveness of empathy-generating interventions (e.g., FACES OF HIV, HIV Justice Network) to increase knowledge and reduce stigma. Future researchers should test the effectiveness of personalized interventions to reduce HIV-related stigma.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Role of Intimacy, Rumination, and Sleep Quality on Psychological and Physical Health

Description

A sense of closeness (or intimacy) is important in nearly every relationship in life, whether it is within friendships, family, or romantic relationships. In the current thesis, intimacy is measured

A sense of closeness (or intimacy) is important in nearly every relationship in life, whether it is within friendships, family, or romantic relationships. In the current thesis, intimacy is measured within four specific dimensions: emotional, physical, intellectual and spiritual. Research shows that intimate relationships have been linked to mental and physical health outcomes. In addition, there is a novel explanation for the link between intimacy and health through rumination and sleep quality. The current study examined 2 primary aims: 1) to examine the relationship between intimacy and depression ; 2) to assess the role of intimacy, rumination and sleep quality on mental and on physical health. Results for Aim 1 suggest that there is a link between intimacy and both depression and physical health; where the higher the intimacy the lower the depression and the better physical health. For Aim 2, results indicated that there was a significant serial relationship between intimacy, rumination, sleep quality and both depression and physical health; where in the first model, higher intimacy predicted less rumination, better sleep quality, and lower depression; and, in the second model higher intimacy predicted less rumination, better sleep quality and higher physical health. The current study suggests that intimacy does have its own distinct contributions to health outcomes and that rumination and sleep quality do have a implication on intimate relationships.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Predictors of mental health in parents of children with epilepsy

Description

This study was designed to contribute to the existing research on the coping behaviors, social support, and mental health outcomes in parents of children with epilepsy in the United States.

This study was designed to contribute to the existing research on the coping behaviors, social support, and mental health outcomes in parents of children with epilepsy in the United States. A questionnaire was disseminated and administered via a web-based interface. One hundred and fifty-two participants, predominantly Caucasian, married women with more than one child under the age of eighteen completed the survey.

After controlling for demographic variables, mediational analysis revealed that perceived social support explained the relation between perceived child disability and depression and anxiety. Additionally, it partially explained the relation between perceived family burden and depression, anxiety, and stress. Further, parent perception of their child's disability and perceived family burden did not predict emotion-focused or social support coping. However, both emotion-focused and social support coping behaviors were related to reductions in depression in this sample.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Immigration legislation's panoptic gaze through a legal, theoretical and empirical lens

Description

From its founding, the United States has always claimed to be a nation of immigrants, yet in the past century the issue of immigration has become an even more contentious

From its founding, the United States has always claimed to be a nation of immigrants, yet in the past century the issue of immigration has become an even more contentious political issue surrounded by heated rhetoric filled with passion, but devoid of information. This thesis hopes to interrupt this rhetoric with a thorough analysis of immigration politics in Arizona through a legal lens, a theoretical lens and an empirical lens. While this thesis by no means looks at all facets of immigration politics, it informs in a manner that adds depth by providing information on the history behind, and legal arguments surrounding, the most contentious piece of immigration legislation in the United States at the moment. It then provides a theoretical analysis of how immigration legislation has created carceral networks and a panoptic gaze in Arizona specifically. It ends with a recommendation for further empirical research to partner with both the legal and theoretical frameworks. This thesis concludes that, fortified with over a century of case law, the plenary power doctrine is unwavering, and it makes federal immigration legislation an overly powerful tool in our political system from which the courts can offer little if any protection. Congress walks a fine line between preempting immigration regulation and devolving immigration regulation. SB 1070 and the 287(g) program are two contested areas of immigration regulation, which both exhibit and alter the power relationships of immigration politics in Arizona. Additionally, the application of the theories of Michel Foucault illuminates the power relationships at play in Arizona - from the power relationships among nation states in the broader political arena of geopolitics and colonialism to the face-to-face power relationship between a police officer and a stopped/detained/arrested person in a Foucauldian carceral network. This thesis ends with a call for empirical research that would yield an opportunity to analyze these relationships. This thesis discusses the importance of empirical study. It situates the study within the genre of surveillance studies and its theorists. It analyzes similar studies, and identifies the variables the most illuminating for this analysis. This thesis is written in the hope that a researcher will pick up where this thesis has left off.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Using Pittsburgh sleep quality index scores to predict polysubstance use among college students

Description

The effects of over-the-counter drug (OTC) use on college students' health has been debated in the field of psychology with researchers arguing that poor sleep quality among college students is

The effects of over-the-counter drug (OTC) use on college students' health has been debated in the field of psychology with researchers arguing that poor sleep quality among college students is the result of polysubstance use. However, this explanation is not a foregone conclusion. These researchers have not adequately addressed the issue poor sleep quality among college students and its relationship to polysubstance use. This is an important issue because prolonged unsupervised OTC drug use and poor sleep quality can impact long-term health and lessen students' likelihood of being successful in college. This paper addresses the issue of OTC drug use with special attention to sleep quality. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Scores were collected to assess subjective sleep quality and its relationship to OTC drug use. Several other risk factors including binge drinking, marijuana use, and illicit drug use were also accounted for in this model. This study argues that, although the current literature suggests that poor sleep quality is the effect of drug use rather than the cause; the relationships between these factors are still unclear. This study aims to fill a gap in the college drug use literature by establishing a relationship between poor sleep quality and OTC drug use in a college sample.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Dichotomous thinking toward food as a mediator between eating behavior and BMI

Description

Long-term results of dietary weight loss interventions are not promising, with rates of weight loss maintenance at a mere 20%. Psychological factors related to weight maintenance include setting unrealistic weight

Long-term results of dietary weight loss interventions are not promising, with rates of weight loss maintenance at a mere 20%. Psychological factors related to weight maintenance include setting unrealistic weight goals, poor problem-solving skills, low self-efficacy, dichotomous thinking, and external locus of control. The ability to maintain a stable bodyweight over time has been associated with optimal health outcomes, lower stress levels, and higher general well-being. Dichotomous thinking has been associated with overeating and increased bodyweight. Cognitive restraint, disinhibition, and hunger are three dimensions of human eating behavior that appear to be important to understanding weight loss maintenance. Individuals who attempt to maintain their bodyweight via dietary restraint mechanisms are more susceptible to excessive eating episodes. Disinhibition has been found to be the strongest predictor of weight gain, while the research on the association between hunger and bodyweight is mixed. This study sought to evaluate the relationship between dichotomous thinking toward food and various eating behaviors (binge eating, cognitive restraint, disinhibition, and hunger). A multiple regression analysis revealed that binge eating, cognitive restraint, disinhibition, and hunger were each significant unique predictors of higher body mass index (BMI). Higher levels of hunger predicted lower BMI, controlling for cognitive restraint, disinhibition, and binge eating. Mediation analyses revealed that dichotomous thinking mediated the relationships between binge eating and BMI, cognitive restraint and BMI, and disinhibition and BMI. Further analysis revealed that binge eating mediated the relationship between dichotomous thinking and BMI, indicating that thinking of food in black-and-white could lead to higher rates of binge eating, and the excess calorie consumption could lead to increased BMI. The study findings suggest that a strong focus should be made to promote a more flexible attitude toward food in an effort to improve weight loss maintenance in the population.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018