Matching Items (31)

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Structural basis for KCNE3 modulation of potassium recycling in epithelia

Description

The single-span membrane protein KCNE3 modulates a variety of voltage-gated ion channels in diverse biological contexts. In epithelial cells, KCNE3 regulates the function of the KCNQ1 potassium ion (K[superscript +])

The single-span membrane protein KCNE3 modulates a variety of voltage-gated ion channels in diverse biological contexts. In epithelial cells, KCNE3 regulates the function of the KCNQ1 potassium ion (K[superscript +]) channel to enable K[superscript +] recycling coupled to transepithelial chloride ion (Cl[superscript −]) secretion, a physiologically critical cellular transport process in various organs and whose malfunction causes diseases, such as cystic fibrosis (CF), cholera, and pulmonary edema. Structural, computational, biochemical, and electrophysiological studies lead to an atomically explicit integrative structural model of the KCNE3-KCNQ1 complex that explains how KCNE3 induces the constitutive activation of KCNQ1 channel activity, a crucial component in K[superscript +] recycling. Central to this mechanism are direct interactions of KCNE3 residues at both ends of its transmembrane domain with residues on the intra- and extracellular ends of the KCNQ1 voltage-sensing domain S4 helix. These interactions appear to stabilize the activated “up” state configuration of S4, a prerequisite for full opening of the KCNQ1 channel gate. In addition, the integrative structural model was used to guide electrophysiological studies that illuminate the molecular basis for how estrogen exacerbates CF lung disease in female patients, a phenomenon known as the “CF gender gap.”

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-09-09

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The structural diversity of artificial genetic polymers

Description

Synthetic genetics is a subdiscipline of synthetic biology that aims to develop artificial genetic polymers (also referred to as xeno-nucleic acids or XNAs) that can replicate in vitro and eventually

Synthetic genetics is a subdiscipline of synthetic biology that aims to develop artificial genetic polymers (also referred to as xeno-nucleic acids or XNAs) that can replicate in vitro and eventually in model cellular organisms. This field of science combines organic chemistry with polymerase engineering to create alternative forms of DNA that can store genetic information and evolve in response to external stimuli. Practitioners of synthetic genetics postulate that XNA could be used to safeguard synthetic biology organisms by storing genetic information in orthogonal chromosomes. XNA polymers are also under active investigation as a source of nuclease resistant affinity reagents (aptamers) and catalysts (xenozymes) with practical applications in disease diagnosis and treatment. In this review, we provide a structural perspective on known antiparallel duplex structures in which at least one strand of the Watson–Crick duplex is composed entirely of XNA. Currently, only a handful of XNA structures have been archived in the Protein Data Bank as compared to the more than 100 000 structures that are now available. Given the growing interest in xenobiology projects, we chose to compare the structural features of XNA polymers and discuss their potential to access new regions of nucleic acid fold space.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-12-15

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Creating Paramagnetically-Labeled PF4 Mutants to Evaluate Interactions with Mac-1 in NMR

Description

PF4 (CXCL4) is a cationic platelet chemokine that has been identified as a ligand for the integrin Mac-1 (αMβ2). The interaction between PF4 and Mac-1 has been shown to cause

PF4 (CXCL4) is a cationic platelet chemokine that has been identified as a ligand for the integrin Mac-1 (αMβ2). The interaction between PF4 and Mac-1 has been shown to cause leukocyte migration, improve phagocytosis, and trigger the up-regulation of Mac-1 expression in leukocytes, thereby increasing leukocytic adhesion. Though Mac-1 is known to serve as the site of interaction between PF4 and the leukocyte, the PF4 binding site of Mac-1 remains unknown. 1H-15N HSQC NMR spectroscopy of the interaction between PF4 and Mac-1’s binding site, the αMI domain, can provide this data. This project seeks to create PF4 mutants with site-directed spin labels to enhance the sensitivity of NMR for future experiments that seek to locate the PF4-Mac-1 binding site. It was hypothesized that the mutants created would adopt the native conformation and accept an MTSL label. Two mutants were successfully created and harvested, PF4 S17C and PF4 S26C. Both were soluble and the Sanger sequencing results show that primary structure was conserved except for the substitutions of structurally similar residues indicating the protein folds and likely adopts native conformation. PF4 S26C was labeled with MTSL, and 1H-15N HSQC NMR spectroscopy was performed on unlabeled PF4 S26C (at pH 3.40), MTSL-labeled PF4 S26C (at pH 3.15), and MTSL-labeled PF4 S26C exposed to ascorbic acid (at pH 3.15) to evaluate if the mutant accepts the label and, resultantly, experiences reduced signal intensity. Significant change in signal intensity occurred without change in location of the peaks between the unlabeled and labeled spectra, showing that PF4 S26C accepts the spin label without changing the protein structure and that the label works as expected; however, no change occurred after reducing the spin label with ascorbic acid, preventing confirmation that signal changes were exclusively caused by the MTSL-label. Therefore, though these mutants show potential for future titration with the αMI domain and the hypothesis is supported, a future attempt to reduce MTSL-labeled PF4 S26C at a higher pH (approximately pH 5) is required. Additionally, PF4 S17C should also be evaluated with the methodology used to assess PF4 S26C before its employment in future projects.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Refining the structure of hPIRT, a modulator of TRP channels, via measurement of residual dipolar couplings in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

Description

Transient receptor potential channels (TRP channels) are a family of ion channels that mediate a wide variety of sensations, including pain, temperature, and mechanosensation. Human phosphoinositide-interacting regulator of TRP (hPIRT)

Transient receptor potential channels (TRP channels) are a family of ion channels that mediate a wide variety of sensations, including pain, temperature, and mechanosensation. Human phosphoinositide-interacting regulator of TRP (hPIRT) is a 15.5 kDa, relatively uncharacterized membrane protein that has been shown to modulate the activity of certain TRP channels and some other ion channels. hPIRT is also able to interact with phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P¬2), a phospholipid that modulates the activity of many important signaling proteins, including TRP channels. Some information is already known about the structure of hPIRT: it contains a relatively unstructured N-terminus, two transmembrane helices, and a juxtamembrane region at the C-terminus that plays a role in binding PI(4,5)P2 and TRPV1. However, more detailed structural data about this molecule would be very informative in understanding how these interactions occur. In order to accomplish this, this thesis investigates the measurement of residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) to refine the structure of hPIRT. RDCs are a measurable effect in NMR experiments caused by partial alignment of molecules solubilized in a weakly anisotropic medium. The resulting data set can be used to calculate bond angles within the protein relative to the axis of the external magnetic field, which will assist efforts to further constrain the structure of hPIRT.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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ELECTRON TRANSFER PROCESS BETWEEN COFACTORS OF HELIOBACTERIA'S REACTION CENTER

Description

ABSTRACT:
The experiment was conducted to analyze the role of menaquinone (MQ) in heliobacteria’s reaction center (HbRC). Their photosynthetic apparatus is a homodimeric of type I reaction center (1). HbRC

ABSTRACT:
The experiment was conducted to analyze the role of menaquinone (MQ) in heliobacteria’s reaction center (HbRC). Their photosynthetic apparatus is a homodimeric of type I reaction center (1). HbRC contains these cofactors: P800 (special pair cholorphyll), A0 (8-hydroxy-chlorophyll [Chl] a), and FX (iron-sulfur cluster). The MQ factor is bypassed during the electron transfer process in HbRC. Electrons from the excited state of P800 (P800*) are transported to A0 and then directly to Fx. The hypothesis is that when electrons are photoaccumulated at Fx, and without the presence of any electron acceptors to the cluster, they would be transferred to MQ, and reduce it to MQH2 (quinol). Experiments conducted in the past with HbRC within the cell membranes yielded data that supported this hypothesis (Figures 4 and 5). We conducted a new experiment based on that foundation with HbRC, isolated from cell membrane. Two protein assays were prepared with cyt c553 and ascorbate in order to observe this phenomenon. The two samples were left in the glove box for several days for equilibration and then exposed to light in different intensity and periods. Their absorption was monitored at 800 nm for P800 or 554 nm for cyt c553 to observe their oxidation and reduction processes. The measurements were performed with the JTS-10 spectrophotometer. The data obtained from these experiments support the theory that P800+ reduced by the charge recombination of P800+Fx-. However, it did not confirm the reduction of P800+ done by cyt c553¬ which eventually lead to a net accumulation of oxidized cyt c553; instead it revealed another factor that could reduce P800+ faster and more efficient than cyt c553 (0.5 seconds vs several seconds), which could be MQ. More experiments need to be done in order to confirm this result. Hence, the data collected from this experiment have yet to support the theory of MQ being reduced to MQH2 outside the bacterial membranes.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Modifying and Optimizing 1H NMR for Amino Acid Analysis

Description

The parameters of microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis (MAAH) and 1H NMR highly affect the quantitative analysis of protein hydrolysates. Microwave-induction source, NMR spectral resolution, and data analysis are key parameters in

The parameters of microwave-assisted acid hydrolysis (MAAH) and 1H NMR highly affect the quantitative analysis of protein hydrolysates. Microwave-induction source, NMR spectral resolution, and data analysis are key parameters in the nuclear magnetic resonance – amino acid analysis (NMR-AAA) workflow where errors accrue due to lack of an optimized protocol. Hen egg white lysozyme was hydrolyzed using an 800W domestic microwave oven for varying time points between 10-25 minutes, showing minimal protein hydrolysis after extended time periods. Studies on paramagnetic doping with varying amounts of gadolinium chloride for increased NMR resolution resulted in little T1 reduction in a majority of amino acids and resulted in significant line broadening in concentrations above 1µM. The use of the BAYESIL analysis tool with HOD suppressed 1H-NMR spectra resulted in misplaced template peaks and errors greater than 1% for 10 of 13 profiled amino acids with the highest error being 7.6% (Thr). Comparatively, Chenomx NMR Suite (v7.1) analysis resulted in errors of less than 1% for 9 of 13 profiled amino acids with a highest error value of 3.6% (Lys). Using the optimized protocol, hen egg white lysozyme C was identified at rank 1 with a score of 64 in a Gallus gallus species wide AACompIdent search. This technique reduces error associated with sample handling relative to previously used amino acid analysis (AAA) protocols and requires no derivatization or additional processing of the sample prior to analysis.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Optimizing Transfection, Expression, and Purification of the Human Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (hTRPM8) from HEK293 cells

Description

Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8) is a non-selective cation channel notable as a primary cold sensor in humans. It is also involved in a variety of (patho)physiological events including

Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8) is a non-selective cation channel notable as a primary cold sensor in humans. It is also involved in a variety of (patho)physiological events including pain sensation, chronic cough, diabetes, obesity, and cancer. TRPM8 is modulated by a variety of stimuli including pH, temperature, cooling agents, voltage, lipid, and other proteins. However, the molecular mechanism underlining its function has not yet clear raising the need for isolated proteins to be well-characterized. Over 20 years, E. coli has been a heterologous expression system of interest due to its low cost and high yield. However, the lack of post-translational modifications and chaperone may cause a misfolding or affect protein function. Mammalian expression system addresses these drawbacks and is a good candidate for the functional study of complex human protein. Here I describe my research in optimizing the transfection, expression, and purification of the human TRPM8 from adherent Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK293) cells which can be used for small-scale studies including, but not limited to, planar lipid bilayer electrophysiology.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12

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Exploration of Enzymatic Reactivity of Human Endonuclease Enzyme APE1 in Clustered DNA Damages Involving an Abasic Site

Description

This study was conducted to understand the reactivity of APE1 in repairing abasic sites associated with clustered DNA damages and to determine if the efficiency of APE1 enzyme is affected

This study was conducted to understand the reactivity of APE1 in repairing abasic sites associated with clustered DNA damages and to determine if the efficiency of APE1 enzyme is affected by the type of bases (purines or pyrimidines) neighboring the AP site. DNA damages are always occurring in living cells and if left uncorrected can lead to various problems such as diseases and even cell death. Cells are able to recognize and correct these DNA damages to prevent further damages to the genome, and the Base Excision Repair (BER) pathway is one of the mechanisms used in repairing DNA damages. A former student in the Levitus Lab, Elana Maria Shepherd Stennett, henceforth referred to as Elana worked on this project. She observed that the activity of the APE1 enzyme increased some when the base opposing the abasic site was changed from thymine (T) to adenine (A) while no difference was observed when the surrounding bases were changed. Thus, this experiment was conducted to further study the results she obtained and to possibly validate her findings. The AP sites used in this study are natural abasic sites created by UDG glycosylase enzyme from a double stranded uracil-containing DNA samples ordered from IDT technologies. Each reaction was carried out at physiological temperature (37degrees Celsius) and analyzed using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Expression of Pleiotrophin as Separate Domains to Examine Glycosaminoglycan Binding Sites

Description

Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) binding by the cytokine pleiotrophin (PTN) was examined by expressing both thrombospondin 1 type-1 repeat domains of PTN separately, as PTN-N and PTN-C. PTN-N contains residues 31-89, and

Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) binding by the cytokine pleiotrophin (PTN) was examined by expressing both thrombospondin 1 type-1 repeat domains of PTN separately, as PTN-N and PTN-C. PTN-N contains residues 31-89, and PTN-C contains residues 90-146. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments were conducted on both PTN-N and PTN-C to elucidate GAG binding regions. Titration with heparin dp6 showed a twofold increase in affinity when expressing PTN-N and PTN-C separately rather than as intact PTN. Paramagnetic relaxation rate enhancement experiments and surface paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) perturbation experiments were used to determine which residues were involved in GAG binding. One binding site was observed in PTN-N, around residue T82, and two binding sites were observed in PTN-C, one around residue K93 and the other around residue G142. These observed binding sites agree with the binding sites already proposed by the Wang lab group and other studies. Future work on the subject could be done on confirming that other varieties and length GAGs bind at the same sites, as well as examining the effect longer GAG fragments have on the affinity of intact PTN versus separate domains.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-12