Matching Items (25)

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Does Sleep Predict Children's Academic Success?

Description

Academic success in childhood is crucial for later academic, occupational, and life success (Heckman, 2006; Kuncel, Hezlett, & Ones, 2004; Spengler, Brunner, Damian, Lüdtke, Martin, & Roberts, 2015). Recent research

Academic success in childhood is crucial for later academic, occupational, and life success (Heckman, 2006; Kuncel, Hezlett, & Ones, 2004; Spengler, Brunner, Damian, Lüdtke, Martin, & Roberts, 2015). Recent research suggests sleep is important for academic success but lacks objective measures of sleep (Buckhalt, El-Sheikh, Keller, & Kelly, 2009; Curcio, Ferrara, & De Gennaro, 2006; Dewald, Meijer, Oort, Kerkhof, & Bögels, 2010; Philbrook, Hinnant, Elmore-Staton, Buckhalt, & El-Sheikh, 2017). The purpose of this study was to examine the relations between sleep and academic success among children through objective measures of sleep in order to expand on the literature. Our sample consisted of 381 twins (50.4% male; 56% Caucasian; 36.5% same sex dizygotic) participating in an 8-year assessment from a longitudinal twin study. Actigraphy was used to assess sleep while various measures were used to assess academic success. A series of mixed model regressions were used to test the main predictions, with family entered as a random effect. Sex, age, Hispanic, SES, and zygosity were controlled for. Significant negative relations were revealed between sleep latency and reading and sleep latency and school liking. Additionally, SES was the most consistent significant positive predictor of our measures of academic success. These results suggest sleep and effects of SES should be considered when developing ways to help children’s school performance.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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The Relationship between Childhood Sleep and Problem Behaviors

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Sleep is an extremely important component of living a healthy life than can impact development and behavior starting in childhood. We expanded on past research regarding this topic to determine

Sleep is an extremely important component of living a healthy life than can impact development and behavior starting in childhood. We expanded on past research regarding this topic to determine the role of childhood sleep and the onset of problem behaviors (externalizing and internalizing behaviors) among a sample of school-aged children. We predicted that lower sleep duration, decreased sleep efficiency, and prolonged sleep latency along with negative sleep habits would be associated with problem behaviors. Our sample was made up of 381 school-aged children (M = 8.49 years old, 49.6% female, 56% Caucasian) who were recruited through the Arizona Twin Study when the children were 12 months old. Mixed-model regressions included sex, socioeconomic status, and zygosity as covariates. Correlations and mixed-model regressions showed a significant relationship between negative sleep habits and problem behaviors (both externalizing and internalizing). Our results revealed that those who experience higher amounts of parent-reported negative sleep habits also demonstrate externalizing behaviors (aggression) and internalizing behaviors (anxiety). The findings in the current study are consistent with past research on this topic and suggest that poor sleep impacts daytime functioning and behavior.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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ASSESSMENT OF EFFECTIVENESS OF CRISIS CALLS TO TEEN LIFELINE

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I would first like to thank Nikki Kontz, my project liaison from Teen Lifeline for her support and collaboration throughout the entire project. Secondly, I would like to thank my

I would first like to thank Nikki Kontz, my project liaison from Teen Lifeline for her support and collaboration throughout the entire project. Secondly, I would like to thank my project mentor Professor Larry Dumka for his invaluable guidance, whose help as well as that of the entire CARE cohort made the project possible. Last but not least, a special thanks goes out to the Teen Lifeline crisis counselors and staff for gathering all the data needed to complete this study. Lastly, I would like to thank Carlos Valiente and Erin Pahlke who took the time to serve on my thesis committee.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Understanding the Predictors of School Engagement and Implications for Intervention

Description

The predictors of school engagement in early childhood were examined, and mechanisms to improve classroom engagement levels were proposed for interventionists to consider. Literature was reviewed on the relations of

The predictors of school engagement in early childhood were examined, and mechanisms to improve classroom engagement levels were proposed for interventionists to consider. Literature was reviewed on the relations of child characteristics (i.e. effortful control, negative emotionality) and environmental characteristics (i.e. teacher-child relationship quality, classroom environment) to children's school engagement. Finally, a logic model was developed to guide future intervention work.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Christian Ministries and Their Impact on College Student Wellness

Description

College and university students are heavily influenced by their exposure to opportunities, individuals, and belief-systems during their time in school. More specifically, countless students are impacted by campus Christian ministries.

College and university students are heavily influenced by their exposure to opportunities, individuals, and belief-systems during their time in school. More specifically, countless students are impacted by campus Christian ministries. There are 67 registered religious clubs and organizations across Arizona State University's four campuses, and 46 of them identify as Christian. Similar to most faith-based organizations, Christian campus ministries seek to impact the lives of students. This study will take a look at the influence of these ministries at ASU by researching their intersection with another key component of university life: wellness.
The primary research question is, “How does involvement in Christian ministries at ASU relate to the wellness of students?” The study will examine multiple dimensions of wellness: occupational, physical, social, intellectual, spiritual, and emotional. Each component is essential to understanding the health and well-being of an individual, which is why this study will measure wellness levels in each dimension among samples of students at ASU.
The methodology chosen was a short, anonymous survey that 148 ASU students participated in—73 involved in Christian ministries at ASU and 75 not involved. The quantitative component included a wellness assessment using questions from The National Wellness Institute. These wellness scale questions were broken up into 5 randomized sections, each with one question per dimension, for 30 questions total. Each question response was assigned a rating on a 1 to 5 scale, 1 associated with low wellness and 5 high wellness. The qualitative component, comprised of short answer questions, only applied to students who were involved in a Christian ministry. This portion allowed respondents to explain if and how the ministry impacts each dimension of wellness uniquely.
The quantitative results showed some evident differences between students involved in Christian ministries and students not involved. The social and spiritual dimensions concluded much higher levels of wellness for involved students, both statistically significant with p-values of 0.028 and 0.004. Although some of the wellness differences between involved and not involved participants were not statistically significant, there is also notable variation among questions within each dimension. For the qualitative data, most students in Christian ministries said they believe their involvement increases their wellness in all six dimensions. For each dimension, over 75% of participants said that the ministry impacted their well-being. For the social, spiritual, and emotional dimensions, at least 97% of respondents said their ministry involvement impacted their wellness.
In examining the conclusions of the study, one recommendations is to strengthen the partnership between the greater ASU community and Christian ministries by collaborating and combining resources for programming that relates to their common goals and shared values. Additionally, other faith-based organizations at ASU may benefit from replicating this study to observe their unique wellness impact.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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The Efficacy and Effectiveness of Christian Psychotherapeutic Interventions: A Literature Review

Description

Christian psychotherapy appears to be useful especially for Christian clients seeking therapy, and is a growing preference among this population. Thus, the need for research on the efficacy and effectiveness

Christian psychotherapy appears to be useful especially for Christian clients seeking therapy, and is a growing preference among this population. Thus, the need for research on the efficacy and effectiveness of Christian interventions must be recognized. This study reviews 13 effectiveness and 21 efficacy studies of Christian psychotherapeutic interventions in various areas of psychotherapy. The majority of effectiveness and efficacy studies were shown to give positive outcomes for Christian psychotherapy, and overall, Christian psychotherapy is promising as an effective alternative to secular therapy. The need for further research in most areas is discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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EXPANDING THE REACH OF HOMELESS PREVENTION: A STUDY OF FAITH CONGREGATION IN THE CITY OF TEMPE

Description

This project aimed to compile a comprehensive directory of faith congregations in the city of Tempe that would be willing to participate in the Interfaith Homeless Emergency Lodging Program (I-HELP).

This project aimed to compile a comprehensive directory of faith congregations in the city of Tempe that would be willing to participate in the Interfaith Homeless Emergency Lodging Program (I-HELP). I-HELP is a non-profit sector of the Tempe Community Action Agency (TCAA) that successfully houses Tempe's homeless population by the generous participation of faith congregations. 5 participants out of the 75 contacted completed the survey. These congregations were found on Google Maps and were contacted through the means of telephone, email, and personal introductions.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Does Twin Relationship Quality Predict Prosocial and Aggressive Behavior? The Role of Genetics and the Environment

Description

Approximately 95% of Americans have at least one sibling (Weaver, Coleman, & Ganong, 2003), making it more likely that children grow up with a sibling than with a father (Lyon,

Approximately 95% of Americans have at least one sibling (Weaver, Coleman, & Ganong, 2003), making it more likely that children grow up with a sibling than with a father (Lyon, 2009). It is therefore somewhat surprising to learn that sibling relationships have not been a central focus of psychological research, especially considering the fact that parent-child and peer relationships have been studied so extensively. There is no doubt that parents and peers have profound effects on children's emotional, psychological and social wellbeing, but siblings have important effects as well. By middle childhood, children spend more time with their siblings than they do with their parents (Pike, Coldwell, & Dunn, 2005). The sibling relationship is one of the longest and most lasting relationships that we as humans have. Approximately 78% of Americans over the age of sixty still have contact with at least one sibling (Cicirelli, 1995). Unlike parents, siblings are often in our lives until the end of our lifespan and, unlike friends, we do not choose them. They act as teachers, friends, and critics, just to name a few, and they are often a sounding board off of which we can test our ideas and behaviors. The focus of the current study is on the twin sibling relationship quality in middle childhood and in adolescence and its implications for individual adjustment, specifically in the realm of prosocial and aggressive behaviors. I evaluated twin sibling cooperation and conflict at both age 7-8 years and age 12-14 years and then examined prosocial and aggressive tendencies concurrently and longitudinally to study the strength of the association between the two. This study also aimed to better understand the extent to which prosocial behavior and aggression are influenced by genetic and environmental factors.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Children’s Quantification with Every Over Time

Description

This article looks closely at two types of errors children have been shown to make with universal quantification—Exhaustive Pairing (EP) errors and Underexhaustive errors—and asks whether they reflect the same

This article looks closely at two types of errors children have been shown to make with universal quantification—Exhaustive Pairing (EP) errors and Underexhaustive errors—and asks whether they reflect the same underlying phenomenon. In a large-scale, longitudinal study, 140 children were tested 4 times from ages 4 to 7 on sentences involving the universal quantifier every. We find an interesting inverse relationship between EP errors and Underexhaustive errors over development: the point at which children stop making Underexhaustive errors is also when they begin making EP errors. Underexhaustive errors, common at early stages in our study, may be indicative of a non-adult, non-exhaustive semantics for every. EP errors, which emerge later, and remain frequent even at age 7, are progressive in nature and were also found with adults in a control study. Following recent developmental work (Drozd and van Loosbroek 2006; Smits 2010), we suggest that these errors do not signal lack of knowledge, but may stem from independent difficulties appropriately restricting the quantifier domain in the presence of a salient, but irrelevant, extra object.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05-09

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Developmental changes in anxiety and social competence in early childhood: exploring growth and the roles of child temperament and gender

Description

This dissertation examined how anxiety levels and social competence change across the course of early elementary school, as well as how individual differences at the transition to kindergarten may influence

This dissertation examined how anxiety levels and social competence change across the course of early elementary school, as well as how individual differences at the transition to kindergarten may influence these trajectories. Previous research has supported unidirectional relations among anxiety and social competence, but few studies explore how inter- and intra-individual changes in social competence and anxiety may be related across time. From a developmental perspective, studying these trajectories following the transition to kindergarten is important, as cognitive and emotion regulation capacities increase markedly across kindergarten, and the relative success with which children navigate this transition can have a bearing on future social and emotional functioning across elementary school. In addition, given gender differences in anxiety manifestation and social competence development broadly, gender differences were also examined in an exploratory manner. Data from parent and teacher reports of a community sample of 291 children across kindergarten, 1st, and 2nd grades were analyzed. Results from bivariate growth models revealed steeper increases in anxiety, relative to peers in the sample, were associated with steeper decreases in social competence across time. This finding held after controlling for externalizing behavior problems at each time point, which suggests that relations among anxiety and social competence may be independent of other behavior problems commonly associated with poor social adjustment. Temperament variables were associated with changes in social competence, such that purportedly "risky" temperament traits of higher negative emotionality and lower attention control were associated with concurrently lower social competence in kindergarten, but with relatively steeper increases in social competence across time. Temperament variables in kindergarten were unrelated with changes in anxiety across time. Gender differences in relations among anxiety in kindergarten and growth in social competence also were revealed. Findings for teacher and parent reports of child behavior varied. Results are discussed with respect to contexts that may drive differences between parent and teacher reports of child behavior, as well as key developmental considerations that may help to explain why kindergarten temperament variables examined herein appear to predict changes in social competence but not changes in anxiety levels.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016