Matching Items (18)

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Search for CP Violating Signature of Intergalactic Magnetic Helicity in the Gamma-Ray Sky

Description

The existence of a cosmological magnetic field could be revealed by the effects of non-trivial helicity on large scales. We evaluate a CP (conjugation plus parity) odd statistic, Q, using gamma-ray data obtained from Fermi satellite observations at high galactic

The existence of a cosmological magnetic field could be revealed by the effects of non-trivial helicity on large scales. We evaluate a CP (conjugation plus parity) odd statistic, Q, using gamma-ray data obtained from Fermi satellite observations at high galactic latitudes to search for such a signature. Observed values of Q are found to be non-zero; the probability of a similar signal in Monte Carlo simulations is ∼0.2 per cent. Contamination from the Milky Way does not seem to be responsible for the signal since it is present even for data at very high galactic latitudes. Assuming that the signal is indeed due to a helical cosmological magnetic field, our results indicate left-handed magnetic helicity and field strength ∼10-14 G on ∼10 Mpc scales.

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Created

Date Created
2014-11-21

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Implications of a Primordial Magnetic Field for Magnetic Monopoles, Axions, and Dirac Neutrinos

Description

We explore some particle physics implications of the growing evidence for a helical primordial magnetic field (PMF). From the interactions of magnetic monopoles and the PMF, we derive an upper bound on the monopole number density, nðt0Þ < 1 ×

We explore some particle physics implications of the growing evidence for a helical primordial magnetic field (PMF). From the interactions of magnetic monopoles and the PMF, we derive an upper bound on the monopole number density, nðt0Þ < 1 × 10−20 cm−3, which is a “primordial” analog of the Parker bound for the survival of galactic magnetic fields. Our bound is weaker than existing constraints, but it is derived under independent assumptions. We also show how improved measurements of the PMF at different redshifts can lead to further constraints on magnetic monopoles. Axions interact with the PMF due to the gaγφE · B=4π interaction. Including the effects of the cosmological plasma, we find that the helicity of the PMF is a source for the axion field. Although the magnitude of the source is small for the PMF, it could potentially be of interest in astrophysical environments. Earlier derived constraints from the resonant conversion of cosmic microwave background photons into axions lead to gaγ ≲ 10−9 GeV−1 for the suggested PMF strength ∼10−14 G and coherence length ∼10 Mpc. Finally, we apply constraints on the neutrino magnetic dipole moment that arise from requiring successful big bang nucleosynthesis in the presence of a PMF, and we find μν ≲ 10−16 μB.

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Created

Date Created
2015-05-20

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Astrophysical neutrinos at the low and high energy frontiers

Description

For this project, the diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB) has been calculated based on the recent direct supernova rate measurements and neutrino spectrum from SN1987A. The estimated diffuse electron antineutrino flux is ∼ 0.10 – 0.59 /cm2/s at 99% confidence

For this project, the diffuse supernova neutrino background (DSNB) has been calculated based on the recent direct supernova rate measurements and neutrino spectrum from SN1987A. The estimated diffuse electron antineutrino flux is ∼ 0.10 – 0.59 /cm2/s at 99% confidence level, which is 5 times lower than the Super-Kamiokande 2012 upper limit of 3.0 /cm2/s, above energy threshold of 17.3 MeV. With a Megaton scale water detector, 40 events could be detected above the threshold per year. In addition, the detectability of neutrino bursts from direct black hole forming collapses (failed supernovae) at Megaton detectors is calculated. These neutrino bursts are energetic and with short time duration, ∼ 1s. They could be identified by the time coincidence of N ≥2 or N ≥3 events within 1s time window from nearby (4 – 5 Mpc) failed supernovae. The detection rate of these neutrino bursts could get up to one per decade. This is a realistic way to detect a failed supernova and gives a promising method for studying the physics of direct black hole formation mechanism. Finally, the absorption of ultra high energy (UHE) neutrinos by the cosmic neutrino background, with full inclusion of the effect of the thermal distribution of the background on the resonant annihilation channel, is discussed. Results are applied to serval models of UHE neutrino sources. Suppression effects are strong for sources that extend beyond z ∼ 10. This provides a fascinating probe of the physics of the relic neutrino background in the unexplored redshift interval z ∼ 10 – 100. Ultimately this research will examine the detectability of DSNB, neutrino bursts from failed supernovae and absorption effects in the neutrino spectrum.

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Created

Date Created
2013

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Cosmic Strings in Hidden Sectors: 2. Cosmological and Astrophysical Signatures

Description

Cosmic strings can arise in hidden sector models with a spontaneously broken Abelian symmetry group. We have studied the couplings of the Standard Model fields to these so-called dark strings in the companion paper. Here we survey the cosmological and

Cosmic strings can arise in hidden sector models with a spontaneously broken Abelian symmetry group. We have studied the couplings of the Standard Model fields to these so-called dark strings in the companion paper. Here we survey the cosmological and astrophysical observables that could be associated with the presence of dark strings in our universe with an emphasis on low-scale models, perhaps TeV . Specifically, we consider constraints from nucleosynthesis and CMB spectral distortions, and we calculate the predicted fluxes of diffuse gamma ray cascade photons and cosmic rays. For strings as light as TeV, we find that the predicted level of these signatures is well below the sensitivity of the current experiments, and therefore low scale cosmic strings in hidden sectors remain unconstrained. Heavier strings with a mass scale in the range 1013 GeV to 1015 GeV are at tension with nucleosynthesis constraints.

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Created

Date Created
2014-12-01

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Cosmological and astrophysical probes of physics beyond the standard model

Description

Cosmology, carrying imprints from the entire history of the universe, has emerged as a precise observational science over the past 30 years. It can probe physics beyond the Standard Model at energy scales much higher than the weak scale. This

Cosmology, carrying imprints from the entire history of the universe, has emerged as a precise observational science over the past 30 years. It can probe physics beyond the Standard Model at energy scales much higher than the weak scale. This thesis reports on some important probes of beyond standard model physics derived in a cosmological setting - (I) It is shown that primordial gravitational waves left over from inflation carry unique detectable CMB signatures for neutrino masses, axions and any other relativistic species that may have been present. (II) Higgs Inflation, the most popular and compelling inflation model with a higgs boson is studied next and it is shown that quantum effects have so far been incorrectly incorporated. A spurious gauge ambiguity arising from quantum effects enters the canonical prediction for observables in Higgs Inflation that must be addressed. (III) A new novel mechanism for generating the observed baryon asymmetry of the universe via decaying gravitinos is proposed. If the Supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking scale is high, then in the presence of R-parity violation, gravitinos can successfully reproduce the baryon asymmetry and evade all low energy constraints. (IV) The final chapter reports on a new completely general analysis of simplified models used in direct detection of dark matter. This is useful to explore what high energy physics constraints can be obtained from direct detection experiments.

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Created

Date Created
2015

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Relativistic matter under extreme conditions

Description

In this thesis, we present the study of several physical properties of relativistic mat- ters under extreme conditions. We start by deriving the rate of the nonleptonic weak processes and the bulk viscosity in several spin-one color superconducting phases of

In this thesis, we present the study of several physical properties of relativistic mat- ters under extreme conditions. We start by deriving the rate of the nonleptonic weak processes and the bulk viscosity in several spin-one color superconducting phases of quark matter. We also calculate the bulk viscosity in the nonlinear and anharmonic regime in the normal phase of strange quark matter. We point out several qualitative effects due to the anharmonicity, although quantitatively they appear to be relatively small. In the corresponding study, we take into account the interplay between the non- leptonic and semileptonic weak processes. The results can be important in order to relate accessible observables of compact stars to their internal composition. We also use quantum field theoretical methods to study the transport properties in monolayer graphene in a strong magnetic field. The corresponding quasi-relativistic system re- veals an anomalous quantum Hall effect, whose features are directly connected with the spontaneous flavor symmetry breaking. We study the microscopic origin of Fara- day rotation and magneto-optical transmission in graphene and show that their main features are in agreement with the experimental data.

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Created

Date Created
2013

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Holography in Rindler space

Description

This thesis addresses certain quantum aspects of the event horizon using the AdS/CFT correspondence. This correspondence is profound since it describes a quantum theory of gravity in d + 1 dimensions from the perspective of a dual quantum field theory

This thesis addresses certain quantum aspects of the event horizon using the AdS/CFT correspondence. This correspondence is profound since it describes a quantum theory of gravity in d + 1 dimensions from the perspective of a dual quantum field theory living in d dimensions. We begin by considering Rindler space which is the part of Minkowski space seen by an observer with a constant proper acceleration. Because it has an event horizon, Rindler space has been studied in great detail within the context of quantum field theory. However, a quantum gravitational treatment of Rindler space is handicapped by the fact that quantum gravity in flat space is poorly understood. By contrast, quantum gravity in anti-de Sitter space (AdS), is relatively well understood via the AdS/CFT correspondence. Taking this cue, we construct Rindler coordinates for AdS (Rindler-AdS space) in d + 1 spacetime dimensions. In three spacetime dimensions, we find novel one-parameter families of stationary vacua labeled by a rotation parameter β. The interesting thing about these rotating Rindler-AdS spaces is that they possess an observer-dependent ergoregion in addition to having an event horizon. Turning next to the application of AdS/CFT correspondence to Rindler-AdS space, we posit that the two Rindler wedges in AdSd+1 are dual to an entangled conformal field theory (CFT) that lives on two boundaries with geometry R × Hd-1. Specializing to three spacetime dimensions, we derive the thermodynamics of Rindler-AdS space using the boundary CFT. We then probe the causal structure of the spacetime by sending in a time-like source and observe that the CFT “knows” when the source has fallen past the Rindler horizon. We conclude by proposing an alternate foliation of Rindler-AdS which is dual to a CFT living in de Sitter space. Towards the end, we consider the concept of weak measurements in quantum mechanics, wherein the measuring instrument is weakly coupled to the system being measured. We consider such measurements in the context of two examples, viz. the decay of an excited atom, and the tunneling of a particle trapped in a well, and discuss the salient features of such measurements.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2012

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Techniques for the analysis and understanding of cosmic evolution

Description

The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has provided precise information on the evolution of the Universe and the current cosmological paradigm. The CMB has not yet provided definitive information on the origin and strength of any primordial magnetic fields or how

The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has provided precise information on the evolution of the Universe and the current cosmological paradigm. The CMB has not yet provided definitive information on the origin and strength of any primordial magnetic fields or how they affect the presence of magnetic fields observed throughout the cosmos. This work outlines an alternative method to investigating and identifying the presence of cosmic magnetic fields. This method searches for Faraday Rotation (FR) and specifically uses polarized CMB photons as back-light. I find that current generation CMB experiments may be not sensitive enough to detect FR but next generation experiments should be able to make highly significant detections. Identifying FR with the CMB will provide information on the component of magnetic fields along the line of sight of observation.

The 21cm emission from the hyperfine splitting of neutral Hydrogen in the early universe is predicted to provide precise information about the formation and evolution of cosmic structure, complementing the wealth of knowledge gained from the CMB.

21cm cosmology is a relatively new field, and precise measurements of the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) have not yet been achieved. In this work I present 2σ upper limits on the power spectrum of 21cm fluctuations (Δ²(k)) probed at the cosmological wave number k from the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER) 64 element deployment. I find upper limits on Δ²(k) in the range 0.3 < k < 0.6 h/Mpc to be (650 mK)², (450 mK)², (390 mK)², (250 mK)², (280mK)², (250 mK)² at redshifts z = 10.87, 9.93, 8.91, 8.37, 8.13 and 7.48 respectively

Building on the power spectrum analysis, I identify a major limiting factor in detecting the 21cm power spectrum.

This work is concluded by outlining a metric to evaluate the predisposition of redshifted 21cm interferometers to foreground contamination in power spectrum estimation. This will help inform the construction of future arrays and enable high fidelity imaging and

cross-correlation analysis with other high redshift cosmic probes like the CMB and other upcoming all sky surveys. I find future

arrays with uniform (u,v) coverage and small spectral evolution of their response in the (u,v,f) cube can minimize foreground leakage while pursuing 21cm imaging.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2018

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Anomalous Chiral Plasmas in the Hydrodynamic Regime

Description

Chiral symmetry and its anomalous and spontaneous breaking play an important role

in particle physics, where it explains the origin of pion and hadron mass hierarchy

among other things.

Despite its microscopic origin chirality may also lead to observable effects

in

Chiral symmetry and its anomalous and spontaneous breaking play an important role

in particle physics, where it explains the origin of pion and hadron mass hierarchy

among other things.

Despite its microscopic origin chirality may also lead to observable effects

in macroscopic physical systems -- relativistic plasmas made of chiral

(spin-$\frac{1}{2}$) particles.

Such plasmas are called \textit{chiral}.

The effects include non-dissipative currents in external fields that could be present

even in quasi-equilibrium, such as the chiral magnetic (CME) and separation (CSE)

effects, as well as a number of inherently chiral collective modes

called the chiral magnetic (CMW) and vortical (CVW) waves.

Applications of chiral plasmas are truly interdisciplinary, ranging from

hot plasma filling the early Universe, to dense matter in neutron stars,

to electronic band structures in Dirac and Weyl semimetals, to quark-gluon plasma

produced in heavy-ion collisions.

The main focus of this dissertation is a search for traces of chiral physics

in the spectrum of collective modes in chiral plasmas.

I start from relativistic chiral kinetic theory and derive

first- and second-order chiral hydrodynamics.

Then I establish key features of an equilibrium state that describes many

physical chiral systems and use it to find the full spectrum of collective modes

in high-temperature and high-density cases.

Finally, I consider in detail the fate of the two inherently chiral waves, namely

the CMW and the CVW, and determine their detection prospects.

The main results of this dissertation are the formulation of a fully covariant

dissipative chiral hydrodynamics and the calculation of the spectrum of collective

modes in chiral plasmas.

It is found that the dissipative effects and dynamical electromagnetism play

an important role in most cases.

In particular, it is found that both the CMW and the CVW are heavily damped by the usual

Ohmic dissipation in charged plasmas and the diffusion effects in neutral plasmas.

These findings prompt a search for new physical observables in heavy-ion collisions,

as well as a revision of potential applications of chiral theories in

cosmology and solid-state physics.

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Created

Date Created
2019

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Topics in cosmology and gravitation

Description

Two ideas that extends on the theory of General Relativity are introduced and then the phenomenology they can offer is explored. The first idea shows how certain types of $f(R)$ gravity allows for traversable wormholes among its vacuum solutions. This

Two ideas that extends on the theory of General Relativity are introduced and then the phenomenology they can offer is explored. The first idea shows how certain types of $f(R)$ gravity allows for traversable wormholes among its vacuum solutions. This is surprising to find in such simple setting as these type of solutions usually requires fairly complex constructions to satisfy the equations of motion of a gravitational theory. The second idea is the matter bounce description of the early universe where a fairly unique feature of the model is identified. Consequences of this feature could allow the paradigm to distinguish itself from other alternative descriptions, such as inflation, through late time observations. An explicit example of this claim is worked out by studying a model involving an interaction in the dark sector. Results of a more astrophysical nature, where a careful analysis of the morphology of blazar halos is performed, are also presented in the Appendix. The analysis determined that the $Q$-statistic is an appropriate tool to probe the properties of the intergalactic magnetic fields responsible for the halos formation.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2017