Matching Items (5)

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Effect of pavement condition on accident rate

Description

Highway safety is a major priority for the public and for transportation agencies. Pavement distresses directly affect ride quality, and indirectly contribute to driver distraction, vehicle operation, and accidents.

Highway safety is a major priority for the public and for transportation agencies. Pavement distresses directly affect ride quality, and indirectly contribute to driver distraction, vehicle operation, and accidents. In this study, analysis was performed on highways in the states of Arizona, North Carolina and Maryland for years between 2013 and 2015 in order to investigate the relationship between accident rate and pavement roughness and rutting. Two main types of data were collected: crash data from the accident records and roughness and rut depth data from the pavement management system database in each state. Crash rates were calculated using the U.S. Department of Transportation method, which is the number of accidents per vehicle per mile per year multiplied by 100,000,000. The variations of crash rate with both International Roughness Index (IRI) and rut depth were investigated. Linear regression analysis was performed to study the correlation between parameters. The analysis showed positive correlations between road roughness and rut depth in all cases irrespective of crash severity level. The crash rate data points were high for IRI values above 250-300 inches/mile in several cases. Crash road segments represent 37-48 percent of the total length of the network using 1-mile segments. Roughness and rut depth values for crash and non-crash segments were close to each other, suggesting that roughness and rutting are not the only factors affecting number of crashes but possibly in combination with other factors such as traffic volume, human factors, etc. In summary, it can be concluded that both roughness and rut depth affect crash rate and highway maintenance authorities should maintain good pavement condition in order to reduce crash occurrences.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Characteristics of distributed cracking for analysis and design of strain hardening cement based composites

Description

As the demand of sustainable construction materials increases, use of fibers and textiles as partial or full reinforcement in concrete members present a tremendous opportunity. Proper characterization techniques and design

As the demand of sustainable construction materials increases, use of fibers and textiles as partial or full reinforcement in concrete members present a tremendous opportunity. Proper characterization techniques and design guides for hybrid materials are therefore needed. This dissertation presents a comprehensive study on serviceability-based design of strain softening and strain hardening materials. Multiple experimental procedures are developed to document the nature of single crack localization and multiple cracking mechanisms in various fiber and fabric reinforced cement-based composites. In addition, strain rate effects on the mechanical properties are examined using a high speed servo-hydraulic tension test equipment.

Significant hardening and degradation parameters such as stiffness, crack spacing, crack width, localized zone size are obtained from tensile tests using digital image correlation (DIC) technique. A tension stiffening model is used to simulate the tensile response that addresses the cracking and localization mechanisms. The model is also modified to simulate the sequential cracking in joint-free slabs on grade reinforced by steel fibers, where the lateral stiffness of slab and grade interface and stress-crack width response are the most important model parameters.

Parametric tensile and compressive material models are used to formulate generalized analytical solutions for flexural behaviors of hybrid reinforced concrete (HRC) that contains both rebars and fibers. Design recommendations on moment capacity, minimum reinforcement ratio etc. are obtained using analytical equations. The role of fiber in reducing the amount of conventional reinforcement is revealed. The approach is extended to T-sections and used to model Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) beams and girders.

The analytical models are extended to structural members subjected to combined axial and bending actions. Analytical equations to address the P-M diagrams are derived. Closed-form equations that generate the interaction diagram of HRC section are presented which may be used in the design of multiple types of applications.

The theoretical models are verified by independent experimental results from literature. Reliability analysis using Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) is conducted for few design problems on ultimate state design. The proposed methodologies enable one to simulate the experiments to obtain material parameters and design structural members using generalized formulations.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Innovative structural materials and sections with strain hardening cementitious composites

Description

The motivation of this work is based on development of new construction products with strain hardening cementitious composites (SHCC) geared towards sustainable residential applications. The proposed research has three main

The motivation of this work is based on development of new construction products with strain hardening cementitious composites (SHCC) geared towards sustainable residential applications. The proposed research has three main objectives: automation of existing manufacturing systems for SHCC laminates; multi-level characterization of mechanical properties of fiber, matrix, interface and composites phases using servo-hydraulic and digital image correlation techniques. Structural behavior of these systems were predicted using ductility based design procedures using classical laminate theory and structural mechanics. SHCC sections are made up of thin sections of matrix with Portland cement based binder and fine aggregates impregnating continuous one-dimensional fibers in individual or bundle form or two/three dimensional woven, bonded or knitted textiles. Traditional fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) use random dispersed chopped fibers in the matrix at a low volume fractions, typically 1-2% to avoid to avoid fiber agglomeration and balling. In conventional FRC, fracture localization occurs immediately after the first crack, resulting in only minor improvement in toughness and tensile strength. However in SHCC systems, distribution of cracking throughout the specimen is facilitated by the fiber bridging mechanism. Influence of material properties of yarn, composition, geometry and weave patterns of textile in the behavior of laminated SHCC skin composites were investigated. Contribution of the cementitious matrix in the early age and long-term performance of laminated composites was studied with supplementary cementitious materials such as fly ash, silica fume, and wollastonite. A closed form model with classical laminate theory and ply discount method, coupled with a damage evolution model was utilized to simulate the non-linear tensile response of these composite materials. A constitutive material model developed earlier in the group was utilized to characterize and correlate the behavior of these structural composites under uniaxial tension and flexural loading responses. Development and use of analytical models enables optimal design for application of these materials in structural applications. Another area of immediate focus is the development of new construction products from SHCC laminates such as angles, channels, hat sections, closed sections with optimized cross sections. Sandwich composites with stress skin-cellular core concept were also developed to utilize strength and ductility of fabric reinforced skin in addition to thickness, ductility, and thermal benefits of cellular core materials. The proposed structurally efficient and durable sections promise to compete with wood and light gage steel based sections for lightweight construction and panel application

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Phase Change Materials in Infrastructural Concrete and Buildings: Material Design and Performance

Description

Phase change materials (PCMs) are combined sensible-and-latent thermal energy storage materials that can be used to store and dissipate energy in the form of heat. PCMs incorporated into wall-element systems

Phase change materials (PCMs) are combined sensible-and-latent thermal energy storage materials that can be used to store and dissipate energy in the form of heat. PCMs incorporated into wall-element systems have been well-studied with respect to energy efficiency of building envelopes. New applications of PCMs in infrastructural concrete, e.g., for mitigating early-age cracking and freeze-and-thaw induced damage, have also been proposed. Hence, the focus of this dissertation is to develop a detailed understanding of the physic-chemical and thermo-mechanical characteristics of cementitious systems and novel coating systems for wall-elements containing PCM. The initial phase of this work assesses the influence of interface properties and inter-inclusion interactions between microencapsulated PCM, macroencapsulated PCM, and the cementitious matrix. The fact that these inclusions within the composites are by themselves heterogeneous, and contain multiple components necessitate careful application of models to predict the thermal properties. The next phase observes the influence of PCM inclusions on the fracture and fatigue behavior of PCM-cementitious composites. The compliant nature of the inclusion creates less variability in the fatigue life for these composites subjected to cyclic loading. The incorporation of small amounts of PCM is found to slightly improve the fracture properties compared to PCM free cementitious composites. Inelastic deformations at the crack-tip in the direction of crack opening are influenced by the microscale PCM inclusions. After initial laboratory characterization of the microstructure and evaluation of the thermo-mechanical performance of these systems, field scale applicability and performance were evaluated. Wireless temperature and strain sensors for smart monitoring were embedded within a conventional portland cement concrete pavement (PCCP) and a thermal control smart concrete pavement (TCSCP) containing PCM. The TCSCP exhibited enhanced thermal performance over multiple heating and cooling cycles. PCCP showed significant shrinkage behavior as a result of compressive strains in the reinforcement that were twice that of the TCSCP. For building applications, novel PCM-composites coatings were developed to improve and extend the thermal efficiency. These coatings demonstrated a delay in temperature by up to four hours and were found to be more cost-effective than traditional building insulating materials.

The results of this work prove the feasibility of PCMs as a temperature-regulating technology. Not only do PCMs reduce and control the temperature within cementitious systems without affecting the rate of early property development but they can also be used as an auto-adaptive technology capable of improving the thermal performance of building envelopes.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Crumb rubber modified crack sealants to improve performance

Description

Crack sealing is considered one of the least expensive and cost effective maintenance activity used on pavements. In some cases, crack sealing suffers from premature failure due to various material,

Crack sealing is considered one of the least expensive and cost effective maintenance activity used on pavements. In some cases, crack sealing suffers from premature failure due to various material, environmental, and construction issues. A survey that was conducted as part of this study showed that the highest sealant failure year occurring on the second year. Therefore, any attempt to increase the sealants’ service life by addressing and improving the sealant properties and their resistance to failure will benefit the effectiveness of this treatment.

The goal behind this study was to evaluate the potential improvement in performance of hot applied sealant material commonly used in the Phoenix area, and evaluate the performance of using a neat binder modified with crumb rubber (at 5 and 10% by weight of binder) as a low-grade sealing material. The sealants was also modified with crumb rubber at 2.5, and 5% by weight fo the sealant. Six ASTM tests were conducted for the comparison. These tests are the Standard Penetration Test (SPT) and Cone Penetration Test (CPT), Resilience Test, Softening Point Test, Brookfield Viscometer Test, and Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR).

The results showed that adding only crumb rubber to a neat binder for its potential use as a crack sealant is inadequate to meet the specifications expected for sealants. However, the modification of the sealant with crumb rubber showed some benefits, such as increased elasticity and decreased temperature susceptibility. A crumb rubber content of 2.5% by weight of the sealant was recommended.

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Date Created
  • 2016