Matching Items (14)

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Dynamic loading of substation distribution transformers: an application for use in a production grade environment

Description

Recent trends in the electric power industry have led to more attention to optimal operation of power transformers. In a deregulated environment, optimal operation means minimizing the maintenance and extending

Recent trends in the electric power industry have led to more attention to optimal operation of power transformers. In a deregulated environment, optimal operation means minimizing the maintenance and extending the life of this critical and costly equipment for the purpose of maximizing profits. Optimal utilization of a transformer can be achieved through the use of dynamic loading. A benefit of dynamic loading is that it allows better utilization of the transformer capacity, thus increasing the flexibility and reliability of the power system. This document presents the progress on a software application which can estimate the maximum time-varying loading capability of transformers. This information can be used to load devices closer to their limits without exceeding the manufacturer specified operating limits. The maximally efficient dynamic loading of transformers requires a model that can accurately predict both top-oil temperatures (TOTs) and hottest-spot temperatures (HSTs). In the previous work, two kinds of thermal TOT and HST models have been studied and used in the application: the IEEE TOT/HST models and the ASU TOT/HST models. And, several metrics have been applied to evaluate the model acceptability and determine the most appropriate models for using in the dynamic loading calculations. In this work, an investigation to improve the existing transformer thermal models performance is presented. Some factors that may affect the model performance such as improper fan status and the error caused by the poor performance of IEEE models are discussed. Additional methods to determine the reliability of transformer thermal models using metrics such as time constant and the model parameters are also provided. A new production grade application for real-time dynamic loading operating purpose is introduced. This application is developed by using an existing planning application, TTeMP, as a start point, which is designed for the dispatchers and load specialists. To overcome the limitations of TTeMP, the new application can perform dynamic loading under emergency conditions, such as loss-of transformer loading. It also has the capability to determine the emergency rating of the transformers for a real-time estimation.

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  • 2013

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Stacked-Value of Battery Storage: Effect of Battery Storage Penetration on Power Dispatch

Description

In this work, the stacked values of battery energy storage systems (BESSs) of various power and energy capacities are evaluated as they provide multiple services such as peak shaving, frequency

In this work, the stacked values of battery energy storage systems (BESSs) of various power and energy capacities are evaluated as they provide multiple services such as peak shaving, frequency regulation, and reserve support in an ‘Arizona-based test system’ - a simplified, representative model of Salt River Project’s (SRP) system developed using the resource stack information shared by SRP. This has been achieved by developing a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) based optimization model that captures the operation of BESS in the Arizona-based test system. The model formulation does not include any BESS cost as the objective is to estimate the net savings in total system operation cost after a BESS is deployed in the system. The optimization model has been formulated in such a way that the savings due to the provision of a single service, either peak shaving or frequency regulation or spinning reserve support, by the BESS, can be determined independently. The model also allows calculation of combined savings due to all the services rendered by the BESS.

The results of this research suggest that the savings obtained with a BESS providing multiple services are significantly higher than the same capacity BESS delivering a single service in isolation. It is also observed that the marginal contribution of BESS reduces with increasing BESS energy capacity, a result consistent with the law of diminishing returns. Further, small changes in the simulation environment, such as factoring in generator forced outage rates or projection of future solar penetration, can lead to changes as high as 10% in the calculated stacked value.

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Date Created
  • 2020

Effect of various holomorphic embeddings on convergence rate and condition number as applied to the power flow problem

Description

Power flow calculation plays a significant role in power system studies and operation. To ensure the reliable prediction of system states during planning studies and in the operating environment, a

Power flow calculation plays a significant role in power system studies and operation. To ensure the reliable prediction of system states during planning studies and in the operating environment, a reliable power flow algorithm is desired. However, the traditional power flow methods (such as the Gauss Seidel method and the Newton-Raphson method) are not guaranteed to obtain a converged solution when the system is heavily loaded.

This thesis describes a novel non-iterative holomorphic embedding (HE) method to solve the power flow problem that eliminates the convergence issues and the uncertainty of the existence of the solution. It is guaranteed to find a converged solution if the solution exists, and will signal by an oscillation of the result if there is no solution exists. Furthermore, it does not require a guess of the initial voltage solution.

By embedding the complex-valued parameter α into the voltage function, the power balance equations become holomorphic functions. Then the embedded voltage functions are expanded as a Maclaurin power series, V(α). The diagonal Padé approximant calculated from V(α) gives the maximal analytic continuation of V(α), and produces a reliable solution of voltages. The connection between mathematical theory and its application to power flow calculation is described in detail.

With the existing bus-type-switching routine, the models of phase shifters and three-winding transformers are proposed to enable the HE algorithm to solve practical large-scale systems. Additionally, sparsity techniques are used to store the sparse bus admittance matrix. The modified HE algorithm is programmed in MATLAB. A study parameter β is introduced in the embedding formula βα + (1- β)α^2. By varying the value of β, numerical tests of different embedding formulae are conducted on the three-bus, IEEE 14-bus, 118-bus, 300-bus, and the ERCOT systems, and the numerical performance as a function of β is analyzed to determine the “best” embedding formula. The obtained power-flow solutions are validated using MATPOWER.

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  • 2015

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Exploration of a Scalable Holomorphic Embedding Method Formulation for Power System Analysis Applications

Description

The holomorphic embedding method (HEM) applied to the power-flow problem (HEPF) has been used in the past to obtain the voltages and flows for power systems. The incentives for using

The holomorphic embedding method (HEM) applied to the power-flow problem (HEPF) has been used in the past to obtain the voltages and flows for power systems. The incentives for using this method over the traditional Newton-Raphson based nu-merical methods lie in the claim that the method is theoretically guaranteed to converge to the operable solution, if one exists.

In this report, HEPF will be used for two power system analysis purposes:

a. Estimating the saddle-node bifurcation point (SNBP) of a system

b. Developing reduced-order network equivalents for distribution systems.

Typically, the continuation power flow (CPF) is used to estimate the SNBP of a system, which involves solving multiple power-flow problems. One of the advantages of HEPF is that the solution is obtained as an analytical expression of the embedding parameter, and using this property, three of the proposed HEPF-based methods can es-timate the SNBP of a given power system without solving multiple power-flow prob-lems (if generator VAr limits are ignored). If VAr limits are considered, the mathemat-ical representation of the power-flow problem changes and thus an iterative process would have to be performed in order to estimate the SNBP of the system. This would typically still require fewer power-flow problems to be solved than CPF in order to estimate the SNBP.

Another proposed application is to develop reduced order network equivalents for radial distribution networks that retain the nonlinearities of the eliminated portion of the network and hence remain more accurate than traditional Ward-type reductions (which linearize about the given operating point) when the operating condition changes.

Different ways of accelerating the convergence of the power series obtained as a part of HEPF, are explored and it is shown that the eta method is the most efficient of all methods tested.

The local-measurement-based methods of estimating the SNBP are studied. Non-linear Thévenin-like networks as well as multi-bus networks are built using model data to estimate the SNBP and it is shown that the structure of these networks can be made arbitrary by appropriately modifying the nonlinear current injections, which can sim-plify the process of building such networks from measurements.

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  • 2017

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Power system network reduction for engineering and economic analysis

Description

Electric power systems are facing great challenges from environmental regulations, changes in demand due to new technologies like electric vehicle, as well as the integration of various renewable energy sources.

Electric power systems are facing great challenges from environmental regulations, changes in demand due to new technologies like electric vehicle, as well as the integration of various renewable energy sources. These factors taken together require the development of new tools to help make policy and investment decisions for the future power grid. The requirements of a network equivalent to be used in such planning tools are very different from those assumed in the development of traditional equivalencing procedures. This dissertation is focused on the development, implementation and verification of two network equivalencing approaches on large power systems, such as the Eastern Interconnection. Traditional Ward-type equivalences are a class of equivalencing approaches but this class has some significant drawbacks. It is well known that Ward-type equivalents "smear" the injections of external generators over a large number of boundary buses. For newer long-term investment applications that take into account such things as greenhouse gas (GHG) regulations and generator availability, it is computationally impractical to model fractions of generators located at many buses. A modified-Ward equivalent is proposed to address this limitation such that the external generators are moved wholesale to some internal buses based on electrical distance. This proposed equivalencing procedure is designed so that the retained-line power flows in the equivalent match those in the unreduced (full) model exactly. During the reduction process, accommodations for special system elements are addressed, including static VAr compensators (SVCs), high voltage dc (HVDC) transmission lines, and phase angle regulators. Another network equivalencing approach based on the dc power flow assumptions and the power transfer distribution factors (PTDFs) is proposed. This method, rather than eliminate buses via Gauss-reduction, aggregates buses on a zonal basis. The bus aggregation approach proposed here is superior to the existing bus aggregation methods in that a) under the base case, the equivalent-system inter-zonal power flows exactly match those calculated using the full-network-model b) as the operating conditions change, errors in line flows are reduced using the proposed bus clustering algorithm c) this method is computationally more efficient than other bus aggregation methods proposed heretofore. A critical step in achieving accuracy with a bus aggregation approach is selecting which buses to cluster together and how many clusters are needed. Clustering in this context refers to the process of partitioning a network into subsets of buses. An efficient network clustering method is proposed based on the PTDFs and the data mining techniques. This method is applied to the EI topology using the "Saguaro" supercomputer at ASU, a resource with sufficient memory and computational capability for handling this 60,000-bus and 80,000-branch system. The network equivalents generated by the proposed approaches are verified and tested for different operating conditions and promising results have been observed.

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  • 2012

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Establishing the Value of Battery Energy Storage System in a dc Fast Charging Sta-tion

Description

The objectives of this research project were to develop a model of real power demand from a dc fast charging station both with and without an integrated battery energy storage

The objectives of this research project were to develop a model of real power demand from a dc fast charging station both with and without an integrated battery energy storage system (BESS). An optimal deterministic control strategy was devel-oped to perform load-shaping under various scenarios with various load-shaping goals in mind to establish the value for BESS’s with various power and energy capacities.

To achieve these objectives, first a statistical model of electric vehicle drivers’ charging behaviors (home charging and dc fast charging) was constructed and simu-lated according to empirical charging data and several key findings about people’s charging habits in the literature.

Data of private vehicles’ driving records was extracted from the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS), derived 42 statistical distributions that mathe-matically modeled people’s driving behaviors. From this start, two algorithms were developed to simulate driver behavior: one using a database sampling method (DSM) and another using probability distribution sampling method (PDSM) to simulate the electric vehicles’ driving cycles. Both methods used data and statistical distributions derived from NHTS. Next, a model of the EV drivers’ charging behavior was incor-porated into the simulation of the electric vehicles’ driving cycles, and then the ve-hicles’ charging behaviors were simulated. From these simulations, one can forecast the real-power demand of a typical dc fast charging station with six dc 50 kW fast chargers serving a population of 700 EVs. (The ratio of six dc fast chargers to 700 EVs was selected based on the current value of this ratio in the US.) Next, a BESS was integrated into the dc fast charging station demand model and the size and charging behavior was optimized to account for different criteria which were based on the goals of the different potential owners: SRP or a third-party owner. It was established when a BESS would become economically feasible using a simplified economic model.

It was observed that the real-power demand shape is a function of the size of the BESS and the owner’s objective, i.e., flattening the demand curve or minimizing the cost of electricity.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Determination of Hotspot Location and Conductor Temperatures from Spare Duct Temperatures in an Underground Installation

Description

In this work a comparison has been made between the predictions from the models using both the present theory for the underground cable temperature prediction and the CYMCAP application and

In this work a comparison has been made between the predictions from the models using both the present theory for the underground cable temperature prediction and the CYMCAP application and the field measurements to determine which, if any, models are capable of predicting the temperature and hotspot locations in an installation where the power cable is not embedded with the optical fibers and, therefore, where the cable temperatures must be inferred from the temperature measurements made in nearby spare ducts. The temperature measurements were collected from the underground 69 kV cable at the Brandow-Pickrell installation, which is a part of Salt River Project’s power sub-transmission system. The model development and the results are explained in detail. Results from the model developed have been compared and the factors affecting the cable temperature are highlighted.

Once the models were developed, it was observed that the earth surface temperature above the installation, solar radiation and other external factors such as underlying water lines, drain pipes, etc. play a key role in heating up or cooling down the power cables. It was also determined that the hotspot location in the power cable in the main duct was the same as the hotspot location in the spare duct inside the same installation.

It was also observed that the CYMCAP model had its limitations when the earth surface temperature variations were modeled in the software as the software only allows the earth’s ambient temperature to be modeled as a constant; further, results from the MATLAB model were more in line with the present theory of underground power cable temperature prediction. However, simulation results from both the MATLAB and CYMCAP model showed deviation from the measured data. It was also observed that the spare duct temperatures in this particular underground installation seemed to be affected by external factors such as solar radiation, underlying water lines, gas lines etc. which cannot be modeled in CYMCAP.

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  • 2017

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Development of improved dc network model for contingency analysis

Description

The development of new policies favoring integration of renewable energy into the grid has created a need to relook at our existing infrastructure resources and at the way the power

The development of new policies favoring integration of renewable energy into the grid has created a need to relook at our existing infrastructure resources and at the way the power system is currently operated. Also, the needs of electric energy markets and transmission/generation expansion planning has created a niche for development of new computationally efficient and yet reliable, simple and robust power flow tools for such studies. The so called dc power flow algorithm is an important power flow tool currently in use. However, the accuracy and performance of dc power flow results is highly variable due to the various formulations which are in use. This has thus intensified the interest of researchers in coming up with better equivalent dc models that can closely match the performance of ac power flow solution.

This thesis involves the development of novel hot start dc model using a power transfer distribution factors (PTDFs) approach. This document also discusses the problems of ill-conditioning / rank deficiency encountered while deriving this model. This model is then compared to several dc power flow models using the IEEE 118-bus system and ERCOT interconnection both as the base case ac solution and during single-line outage contingency analysis. The proposed model matches the base case ac solution better than contemporary dc power flow models used in the industry.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Application of holomorphic embedding to the power-flow problem

Description

With the power system being increasingly operated near its limits, there is an increasing need for a power-flow (PF) solution devoid of convergence issues. Traditional iterative methods are extremely initial-estimate

With the power system being increasingly operated near its limits, there is an increasing need for a power-flow (PF) solution devoid of convergence issues. Traditional iterative methods are extremely initial-estimate dependent and not guaranteed to converge to the required solution. Holomorphic Embedding (HE) is a novel non-iterative procedure for solving the PF problem. While the theory behind a restricted version of the method is well rooted in complex analysis, holomorphic functions and algebraic curves, the practical implementation of the method requires going beyond the published details and involves numerical issues related to Taylor's series expansion, Padé approximants, convolution and solving linear matrix equations.

The HE power flow was developed by a non-electrical engineer with language that is foreign to most engineers. One purpose of this document to describe the approach using electric-power engineering parlance and provide an understanding rooted in electric power concepts. This understanding of the methodology is gained by applying the approach to a two-bus dc PF problem and then gradually from moving from this simple two-bus dc PF problem to the general ac PF case.

Software to implement the HE method was developed using MATLAB and numerical tests were carried out on small and medium sized systems to validate the approach. Implementation of different analytic continuation techniques is included and their relevance in applications such as evaluating the voltage solution and estimating the bifurcation point (BP) is discussed. The ability of the HE method to trace the PV curve of the system is identified.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Network reduction for system planning

Description

Due to great challenges from aggressive environmental regulations, increased demand due to new technologies and the integration of renewable energy sources, the energy industry may radically change the way the

Due to great challenges from aggressive environmental regulations, increased demand due to new technologies and the integration of renewable energy sources, the energy industry may radically change the way the power system is operated and designed. With the motivation of studying and planning the future power system under these new challenges, the development of the new tools is required. A network equivalent that can be used in such planning tools needs to be generated based on an accurate power flow model and an equivalencing procedure that preserves the key characteristics of the original system. Considering the pervasive use of the dc power flow models, their accuracy is of great concern. The industry seems to be sanguine about the performance of dc power flow models, but recent research has shown that the performance of different formulations is highly variable. In this thesis, several dc power-flow models are analyzed theoretically and evaluated numerically in IEEE 118-bus system and Eastern Interconnection 62,000-bus system. As shown in the numerical example, the alpha-matching dc power flow model performs best in matching the original ac power flow solution. Also, the possibility of applying these dc models in the various applications has been explored and demonstrated. Furthermore, a novel hot-start optimal dc power-flow model based on ac power transfer distribution factors (PTDFs) is proposed, implemented and tested. This optimal-reactance-only dc model not only matches the original ac PF solution well, but also preserves the congestion pattern obtain from the OPF results of the original ac model. Three improved strategies were proposed for applying the bus-aggregation technique to the large-scale systems, like EI and ERCOT, to improve the execution time, and memory requirements when building a reduced equivalent model. Speed improvements of up to a factor of 200 were observed.

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  • 2013