Matching Items (12)

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Hydrogen self-diffusion in single crystal olivine and electrical conductivity of the Earth’s mantle

Description

Nominally anhydrous minerals formed deep in the mantle and transported to the Earth’s surface contain tens to hundreds of ppm wt H[subscript 2]O, providing evidence for the presence of dissolved

Nominally anhydrous minerals formed deep in the mantle and transported to the Earth’s surface contain tens to hundreds of ppm wt H[subscript 2]O, providing evidence for the presence of dissolved water in the Earth’s interior. Even at these low concentrations, H[subscript 2]O greatly affects the physico-chemical properties of mantle materials, governing planetary dynamics and evolution. The diffusion of hydrogen (H) controls the transport of H[subscript 2]O in the Earth’s upper mantle, but is not fully understood for olivine ((Mg, Fe)[subscript 2]SiO[subscript 4]) the most abundant mineral in this region. Here we present new hydrogen self-diffusion coefficients in natural olivine single crystals that were determined at upper mantle conditions (2 GPa and 750–900 °C). Hydrogen self-diffusion is highly anisotropic, with values at 900 °C of 10[superscript −10.9], 10[superscript −12.8] and 10[superscript −11.9] m[superscript 2]/s along [100], [010] and [001] directions, respectively. Combined with the Nernst-Einstein relation, these diffusion results constrain the contribution of H to the electrical conductivity of olivine to be σ[subscript H] = 10[superscript 2.12]S/m·C[subscript H2O]·exp[superscript −187kJ/mol/(RT)]. Comparisons between the model presented in this study and magnetotelluric measurements suggest that plausible H[subscript 2]O concentrations in the upper mantle (≤250 ppm wt) can account for high electrical conductivity values (10[superscript −2]–10[superscript −1] S/m) observed in the asthenosphere.

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Date Created
  • 2017-07-13

Prediction of silicate melt viscosity from electrical conductivity: A model and its geophysical implications

Description

Our knowledge of magma dynamics would be improved if geophysical data could be used to infer rheological constraints in melt-bearing zones. Geophysical images of the Earth's interior provide frozen snapshots

Our knowledge of magma dynamics would be improved if geophysical data could be used to infer rheological constraints in melt-bearing zones. Geophysical images of the Earth's interior provide frozen snapshots of a dynamical system. However, knowledge of a rheological parameter such as viscosity would constrain the time-dependent dynamics of melt bearing zones. We propose a model that relates melt viscosity to electrical conductivity for naturally occurring melt compositions (including H2O) and temperature. Based on laboratory measurements of melt conductivity and viscosity, our model provides a rheological dimension to the interpretation of electromagnetic anomalies caused by melt and partially molten rocks (melt fraction ~ >0.7).

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Date Created
  • 2013-06-12

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High-resolution imaging of structure and dynamics of the lowermost mantle

Description

This research investigates Earth structure in the core-mantle boundary (CMB) region, where the solid rocky mantle meets the molten iron alloy core. At long wavelengths, the lower mantle is characterized

This research investigates Earth structure in the core-mantle boundary (CMB) region, where the solid rocky mantle meets the molten iron alloy core. At long wavelengths, the lower mantle is characterized by two nearly antipodal large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs), one beneath the Pacific Ocean the other beneath Africa and the southern Atlantic Ocean. However, fine-scale LLSVP structure as well as its relationship with plate tectonics, mantle convection, hotspot volcanism, and Earth's outer core remains poorly understood. The recent dramatic increase in seismic data coverage due to the EarthScope experiment presents an unprecedented opportunity to utilize large concentrated datasets of seismic data to improve resolution of lowermost mantle structures. I developed an algorithm that identifies anomalously broadened seismic waveforms to locate sharp contrasts in shear velocity properties across the margins of the LLSVP beneath the Pacific. The result suggests that a nearly vertical mantle plume underlies Hawaii that originates from a peak of a chemically distinct reservoir at the base of the mantle, some 600-900 km above the CMB. Additionally, acute horizontal Vs variations across and within the northern margin of the LLSVP beneath the central Pacific Ocean are inferred from forward modeling of differential travel times between S (and Sdiff) and SKS, and also between ScS and S. I developed a new approach to expand the geographic detection of ultra-low velocity zones (ULVZs) with a new ScS stacking approach that simultaneously utilizes the pre- and post-cursor wavefield.. Strong lateral variations in ULVZ thicknesses and properties are found across the LLSVP margins, where ULVZs are thicker and stronger within the LLSVP than outside of it, consistent with convection model predictions. Differential travel times, amplitude ratios, and waveshapes of core waves SKKS and SKS are used to investigate CMB topography and outermost core velocity structure. 1D and 2D wavefield simulations suggest that the complicated geographic distribution of observed SKKS waveform anomalies might be a result of CMB topography and a higher velocity outermost core. These combined analyses depict a lowermost mantle that is rich in fine-scale structural complexity, which advances our understanding of its integral role in mantle circulation, mixing, and evolution.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Using array seismology to study planetary interiors

Description

Stratification is a dominant feature of all planetary interiors. Fine-scale structure associated with layering, as well as heterogeneities hold important clues on a planet's compositional, thermal, and dynamical state, as

Stratification is a dominant feature of all planetary interiors. Fine-scale structure associated with layering, as well as heterogeneities hold important clues on a planet's compositional, thermal, and dynamical state, as well as its evolution. This research centers on using data from seismic arrays, networks of seismic sensors, and array processing methodologies to map the fine scale structure in the Earth's upper mantle and deep layering in the Moon - Earth and Moon are the only two planetary bodies with seismic available data for such analyses. Small-scale structure in the Earth's upper mantle can give rise to seismic wave scattering. I studied high frequency data from the Warramunga Array in Australia using array seismology. I developed and employed back-projection schemes to map the possible upper mantle scattering or reflection locations. Mapped scatterers show good correlation to strong lateral P-wave velocity gradients in tomography models and may be associated with the complex tectonic history beneath north of Australia. The minimum scale of scatterers relates to the seismic wavelength, which is roughly between 5 and 10 km in the upper mantle for the frequencies we study. The Apollo Passive Seismic Experiment (APSE) consisted of four 3-component seismometers deployed between 1969 and 1972 that continuously recorded lunar ground motion until late 1977. I studied the deep lunar interior with array methods applied to the legacy APSE dataset. The stack results suggest the presence of a solid inner and fluid outer core, overlain by a partially molten boundary layer, but their reflector impedance contrasts and reflector depths are not well constrained. With a rapidly increasing number of available modern broadband data, I developed a package, Discovery Using Ducttape Excessively (DUDE), to quickly generate plots for a comprehensive view of earthquake data. These plots facilitate discovery of unexpected phenomena. This dissertation identifies evidence for small-scale heterogeneities in Earth's upper mantle, and deeper lunar layering structure. Planetary interiors are complex with the heterogeneities on many scales, and discontinuities of variable character. This research demonstrates that seismic array methods are well-suited for interrogating heterogeneous phenomena, especially considering the recent rapid expansion of easily available dense network data.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Late Quaternary normal faulting and hanging wall basin evolution of the southwestern rift margin from gravity and geology, B.C.S., MX and exploring the influence of text-figure format on introductory geology learning

Description

An array of north-striking, left-stepping, active normal faults is situated along the southwestern margin of the Gulf of California. This normal fault system is the marginal fault system of the

An array of north-striking, left-stepping, active normal faults is situated along the southwestern margin of the Gulf of California. This normal fault system is the marginal fault system of the oblique-divergent plate boundary within the Gulf of California. To better understand the role of upper-crustal processes during development of an obliquely rifted plate margin, gravity surveys were conducted across the normal-fault-bounded basins within the gulf-margin array and, along with optically stimulated luminescence dating of offset surfaces, fault-slip rates were estimated and fault patterns across basins were assessed, providing insight into sedimentary basin evolution. Additionally, detailed geologic and geomorphic maps were constructed along two faults within the system, leading to a more complete understanding of the role of individual normal faults within a larger array. These faults slip at a low rate (0.1-1 mm/yr) and have relatively shallow hanging wall basins (~500-3000 m). Overall, the gulf-margin faults accommodate protracted, distributed deformation at a low rate and provide a minor contribution to overall rifting. Integrating figures with text can lead to greater science learning than when either medium is presented alone. Textbooks, composed of text and graphics, are a primary source of content in most geology classes. It is essential to understand how students approach learning from text and figures in textbook-style learning materials and how the arrangement of the text and figures influences their learning approach. Introductory geology students were eye tracked while learning from textbook-style materials composed of text and graphics. Eye fixation data showed that students spent less time examining the figure than the text, but the students who more frequently examined the figure tended to improve more from the pretest to the posttest. In general, students tended to examine the figure at natural breaks in the reading. Textbook-style materials should, therefore, be formatted to include a number of natural breaks so that learners can pause to inspect the figure without the risk of losing their place in the reading and to provide a chance to process the material in small chunks. Multimedia instructional materials should be designed to support the cognitive processes of the learner.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Comparative evolution of the Shyok and Yarlung suture zones: implications for the collision Between India and Eurasia

Description

The collision between the Indian and Eurasian tectonic plates marked the onset of the rise of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen, but also brought about profound changes to the Earth's oceans and

The collision between the Indian and Eurasian tectonic plates marked the onset of the rise of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen, but also brought about profound changes to the Earth's oceans and climate. The exact sequence of events that occurred during this collision is poorly understood, leading to a wide range of estimates of its age. The Indus and Yarlung sutures are generally considered to represent the final collision between India and Eurasia, and together form a mostly continuous belt that can be traced over 2000 km along strike. In the western portions of the orogen the Karakoram Fault introduces a key complexity to the study of timing of collision by offsetting the Indus and Yarlung sutures. Recent work has used the complexities introduced by the Karakoram Fault to suggest that the more northerly Shyok suture, not the Indus suture, represents the India-Eurasia collision zone. Estimates for timing of the India-Eurasia collision fall into one of three groups: 40-34 Ma, 55-50 Ma, and 66-60 Ma. Attempts to reconcile these models have thus far been unsuccessful. In order to provide additional data that might further clarify the timing and location of collision, studies have been performed along the Shyok suture in India and along the Yarlung suture in Tibet at Sangsang. A study along the Shyok suture argues that the suture formed between 92-85 Ma. This timing precludes an interpretation that the Shyok suture marks the location of the India-Eurasia collision. A second study demonstrates the utility of two new geochronometers, (U-Th)/Pb joaquinite and 40Ar/39Ar neptunite, that play an important role in unraveling the tectonic history of the Yarlung suture. A third study is an investigation of the structure and geochronology of the Sangsang ophiolite complex. Here, multiple (U-Th)/Pb and 40Ar/39Ar systems record magmatism and metamorphism spanning ca. 125-52 Ma. By tying these chronometers to tectonic process, a history is reconstructed of the southern margin of Tibet that includes Early Cretaceous to Late Cretaceous forearc rifting associated with mid ocean ridge subduction, Paleocene accretionary wedge uplift and erosion, and finally Eocene metasomatism and collision.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Constraining Source Models, Underlying Mechanisms, and Hazards Associated with Slow Slip Events: Insight from Space-Borne Geodesy and Seismology

Description

The movement between tectonic plates is accommodated through brittle (elastic) displacement on the plate boundary faults and ductile permanent deformation on the fault borderland. The elastic displacement along the fault

The movement between tectonic plates is accommodated through brittle (elastic) displacement on the plate boundary faults and ductile permanent deformation on the fault borderland. The elastic displacement along the fault can occur in the form of either large seismic events or aseismic slip, known as fault creep. Fault creep mainly occurs at the deep ductile portion of the crust, where the temperature is high. Nonetheless, aseismic creep can also occur on the shallow brittle portion of the fault segments that are characterized by frictionally weak material, elevated pore fluid pressure, or geometrical complexity. Creeping segments are assumed to safely release the accumulated strain(Kodaira et al., 2004; Rice, 1992)(Kodaira et al., 2004; Rice, 1992)(Kodaira et al., 2004; Rice, 1992)(Kodaira et al., 2004; Rice, 1992)(Kodaira et al., 2004; Rice, 1992) on the fault and also impede propagation of the seismic rupture. The rate of aseismic slip on creeping faults, however, might not be steady in time and instead consist of successive periods of acceleration and deceleration, known as slow slip events (SSEs). SSEs, which aseismically release the strain energy over a period of days to months, rather than the seconds to minutes characteristic of a typical earthquake, have been interpreted as earthquake precursors and as possible triggering factor for major earthquakes. Therefore, understanding the partitioning of seismic and aseismic fault slip and evolution of creep is fundamental to constraining the fault earthquake potential and improving operational seismic hazard models. Thanks to advances in tectonic geodesy, it is now possible to detect the fault movement in high spatiotemporal resolution and develop kinematic models of the creep evolution on the fault to determine the budget of seismic and aseismic slip.

In this dissertation, I measure the decades-long time evolution of fault-related crustal deformation along the San Andrea Fault in California and the northeast Japan subduction zone using space-borne geodetic techniques, such as Global Positioning System (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR). The surface observation of deformation combined with seismic data set allow constraining the time series of creep distribution on the fault surface at seismogenic depth. The obtained time-dependent kinematic models reveal that creep in both study areas evolves through a series of SSEs, each lasting for several months. Using physics-based models informed by laboratory experiments, I show that the transient elevation of pore fluid pressure is the driving mechanism of SSEs. I further investigate the link between SSEs and evolution of seismicity on neighboring locked segments, which has implications for seismic hazard models and also provides insights into the pattern of microstructure on the fault surface. I conclude that while creeping segments act as seismic rupture barriers, SSEs on these zones might promote seismicity on adjacent seismogenic segments, thus change the short-term earthquake forecast.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Energy transfer between the geosphere and biosphere

Description

One goal of geobiochemistry is to follow geochemical energy supplies from the external environment to the inside of microbial cells. This can be accomplished by combining thermodynamic calculations of energy

One goal of geobiochemistry is to follow geochemical energy supplies from the external environment to the inside of microbial cells. This can be accomplished by combining thermodynamic calculations of energy supplies from geochemical processes and energy demands for biochemical processes. Progress towards this goal is summarized here. A critique of all thermodynamic data for biochemical compounds involved in the citric acid cycle (CAC) and the formulation of metabolite properties allows predictions of the energy involved in each step of the cycle as well as the full forward and reverse cycles over wide ranges of temperature and pressure. These results allow evaluation of energy demands at the center of many microbial metabolic systems. Field work, sampling, and lab analyses from two low-temperature systems, a serpentinizing system, and a subglacial setting, provide the data used in these thermodynamic analyses of energy supplies. An extensive literature summary of microbial and molecular data from serpentinizing systems found is used to guide the evaluation and ranking of energy supplies used by chemolithoautotrophic microbes. These results constrain models of the distribution of microbial metabolisms throughout the low-temperature serpentinization systems in the Samail ophiolite in Oman (including locales of primary and subsequent alteration processes). Data collected from Robertson Glacier in Alberta, Canada, together with literature data from Lake Vida in Antarctica and bottom seawater, allowed thermodynamic analyses of low-temperature energy supplies in a glacial system. Results for 1460 inorganic redox reactions are used to fully inventory the geochemical energy sources that support the globally extensive cold biosphere.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Thermochemical structure and dynamics of Earth's lowermost mantle

Description

Seismic observations have revealed two large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs) in the lowermost mantle beneath Pacific and Africa. One hypothesis for the origin of LLSVPs is that they are

Seismic observations have revealed two large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs) in the lowermost mantle beneath Pacific and Africa. One hypothesis for the origin of LLSVPs is that they are caused by accumulation of subducted oceanic crust on the core-mantle boundary (CMB). Here, I perform high resolution geodynamical calculations to test this hypothesis. The result shows that it is difficult for a thin (~ 6 km) subducted oceanic crust to accumulate on the CMB, and the major part of it is viscously stirred into the surrounding mantle. Another hypothesis for the origin of LLSVPs is that they are caused by thermochemical piles of more-primitive material which is remnant of Earth's early differentiation. In such case, a significant part of the subducted oceanic crust would enter the more-primitive reservoir, while other parts are either directly entrained into mantle plumes forming on top of the more-primitive reservoir or stirred into the background mantle. As a result, mantle plumes entrain a variable combination of compositional components including more-primitive material, old oceanic crust which first enters the more-primitive reservoir and is later entrained into mantle plumes with the more-primitive material, young oceanic crust which is directly entrained into mantle plumes without contacting the more-primitive reservoir, and depleted background mantle material. The result reconciles geochemical observation of multiple compositional components and varying ages of oceanic crust in the source of ocean-island basalts. Seismic studies have detected ultra-low velocity zones (ULVZs) in some localized regions on the CMB. Here, I present 3D thermochemical calculations to show that the distribution of ULVZs provides important information about their origin. ULVZs with a distinct composition tend to be located at the edges of LLSVPs, while ULVZs solely caused by partial melting tend to be located inboard from the edges of LLSVPs. This indicates that ULVZs at the edges of LLSVPs are best explained by distinct compositional heterogeneity, while ULVZs located insider of LLSVPs are better explained by partial melting. The results provide additional constraints for the origin of ULVZs.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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High-Resolution Imaging of Earth's Lowermost Mantle

Description

This research investigates the fine scale structure in Earth's mantle, especially for the lowermost mantle, where strong heterogeneity exists. Recent seismic tomography models have resolved large-scale features in the lower

This research investigates the fine scale structure in Earth's mantle, especially for the lowermost mantle, where strong heterogeneity exists. Recent seismic tomography models have resolved large-scale features in the lower mantle, such as the large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs). However, differences are present between different models, especially at shorter length scales. Fine scale structures both within and outside LLSVPs are still poorly constrained. The drastic growth of global seismic networks presents densely sampled seismic data in unprecedented quality and quantity. In this work, the Empirical Wavelet construction method has been developed to document seismic travel time and waveform information for a global shear wave seismic dataset. A dataset of 250K high-quality seismic records with comprehensive measurements is documented and made publicly available. To more accurately classify high quality seismic signal from the noise, 1.4 million manually labeled seismic records have been used to train a supervised classification model. The constructed model performed better than the empirical model deployed in the Empirical Wavelet method, with 87% in precision and 83% in recall. To utilize lower amplitude phases such as higher multiples of S and ScS waves, we have developed a geographic bin stacking method to improve signal-to-noise ratio. It is then applied to Sn waves up to n=6 and ScSn wave up to n=5 for both minor and major arc phases. The virtual stations constructed provide unique path sampling and coverage, vastly improving sampling in the Southern Hemisphere. With the high-quality dataset we have gathered, ray-based layer stripping iterative forward tomography is implemented to update a starting tomography model by mapping the travel time residuals along the ray from the surface down to the core mantle boundary. Final updated models with different starting tomography models show consistent updates, suggesting a convergent solution. The final updated models show higher resolution results than the starting tomography models, especially on intermediate-scale structures. The combined analyses and results in this work provide new tools and new datasets to image the fine-scale heterogeneous structures in the lower mantle, which advances our understanding of the dynamics and evolution of the Earth's mantle.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019