Matching Items (4)

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TWEAK functions as chemotactic factor for glioma cells via Lyn activation

Description

The long-term survival of patients with glioblastoma multiforme is compromised by the tumor's proclivity for local invasion into the surrounding normal brain. These invasive cells escape surgery and display resistance

The long-term survival of patients with glioblastoma multiforme is compromised by the tumor's proclivity for local invasion into the surrounding normal brain. These invasive cells escape surgery and display resistance to chemotherapeutic- and radiation-induced apoptosis. We have previously shown that tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, can stimulate glioma cell invasion and survival via binding to the fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14) receptor and subsequent activation of the Rac1/NF-kappaB pathway. In addition, we have reported previously that Fn14 is expressed at high levels in migrating glioma cells in vitro and invading glioma cells in vivo. Here we demonstrate that TWEAK can act as a chemotactic factor for glioma cells, a potential process to drive cell invasion into the surrounding brain tissue. Specifically, we detected a chemotactic migration of glioma cells to the concentration gradient of TWEAK. Since Src family kinases (SFK) have been implicated in chemotaxis, we next determined whether TWEAK:Fn14 engagement activated these cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases. Our data shows that TWEAK stimulation of glioma cells results in a rapid phosphorylation of the SFK member Lyn as determined by multiplex Luminex assay and verified by immunoprecipitation. Immunodepletion of Lyn by siRNA oligonucleotides suppressed the chemoattractive effect of TWEAK on glioma cells. We hypothesize that TWEAK secretion by cells present in the glioma microenvironment induce invasion of glioma cells into the brain parenchyma. Understanding the function and signaling of the TWEAK-Fn14 ligand-receptor system may lead to development of novel therapies to therapeutically target invasive glioma cells.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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The Development of Small Molecule Inhibitors of the TWEAK-Fn14 Pathway in Glioblastoma Multiforme

Description

Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common and aggressive primary malignant brain tumor in adults, exhibiting a median survival of only 15 months after diagnosis. A significant challenge in treating GBM

Glioblastoma multiforme is the most common and aggressive primary malignant brain tumor in adults, exhibiting a median survival of only 15 months after diagnosis. A significant challenge in treating GBM is the ability of glioma cells to invade normal brain tissue, escape surgical resection, and resist radiotherapy and chemotherapy. We have previously demonstrated that the TWEAK-Fn14 signaling axis plays an important role in glioma cell invasion and discovered a small molecule, L524-0366, that specifically disrupts the TWEAK-Fn14 interaction. However, low affinity limits L524-0366’s clinical feasibility. By utilizing structure-activity relationship analyses of L524-0366, we identified additional small molecules that may inhibit TWEAK-Fn14 signaling. Here, we identify five additional novel Fn14 signaling inhibitors that specifically inhibited TWEAK-Fn14 NF-κB-dependent signaling and suppressed TWEAK-induced glioma cell migration. Furthermore, we demonstrate that two molecules exhibit improved affinity for Fn14, two molecules showed binding to the TWEAK ligand but not Fn14, and one showed no binding to either TWEAK or Fn14. These molecules will be further tested for in vitro and in vivo functionality, and serve as foundations for additional medicinal chemistry for drug modifications.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Multi-Parametric MRI and Texture Analysis to Visualize Spatial Histologic Heterogeneity and Tumor Extent in Glioblastoma

Description

Background
Genetic profiling represents the future of neuro-oncology but suffers from inadequate biopsies in heterogeneous tumors like Glioblastoma (GBM). Contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) targets enhancing core (ENH) but yields adequate tumor

Background
Genetic profiling represents the future of neuro-oncology but suffers from inadequate biopsies in heterogeneous tumors like Glioblastoma (GBM). Contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) targets enhancing core (ENH) but yields adequate tumor in only ~60% of cases. Further, CE-MRI poorly localizes infiltrative tumor within surrounding non-enhancing parenchyma, or brain-around-tumor (BAT), despite the importance of characterizing this tumor segment, which universally recurs. In this study, we use multiple texture analysis and machine learning (ML) algorithms to analyze multi-parametric MRI, and produce new images indicating tumor-rich targets in GBM.
Methods
We recruited primary GBM patients undergoing image-guided biopsies and acquired pre-operative MRI: CE-MRI, Dynamic-Susceptibility-weighted-Contrast-enhanced-MRI, and Diffusion Tensor Imaging. Following image coregistration and region of interest placement at biopsy locations, we compared MRI metrics and regional texture with histologic diagnoses of high- vs low-tumor content (≥80% vs <80% tumor nuclei) for corresponding samples. In a training set, we used three texture analysis algorithms and three ML methods to identify MRI-texture features that optimized model accuracy to distinguish tumor content. We confirmed model accuracy in a separate validation set.
Results
We collected 82 biopsies from 18 GBMs throughout ENH and BAT. The MRI-based model achieved 85% cross-validated accuracy to diagnose high- vs low-tumor in the training set (60 biopsies, 11 patients). The model achieved 81.8% accuracy in the validation set (22 biopsies, 7 patients).
Conclusion
Multi-parametric MRI and texture analysis can help characterize and visualize GBM’s spatial histologic heterogeneity to identify regional tumor-rich biopsy targets.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-11-24

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The dissection of signaling cascades in neural stem cell proliferation & GBM promotion

Description

Cells live in complex environments and must be able to adapt to environmental changes in order to survive. The ability of a cell to survive and thrive in a changing

Cells live in complex environments and must be able to adapt to environmental changes in order to survive. The ability of a cell to survive and thrive in a changing environment depends largely on its ability to receive and respond to extracellular signals. Initiating with receptors, signal transduction cascades begin translating extracellular signals into intracellular messages. Such signaling cascades are responsible for the regulation of cellular metabolism, cell growth, cell movement, transcription, translation, proliferation and differentiation. This dissertation seeks to dissect and examine critical signaling pathways involved in the regulation of proliferation in neural stem cells (Chapter 2) and the regulation of Glioblastoma Multiforme pathogenesis (GBM; Chapter 3). In Chapter 2 of this dissertation, we hypothesize that the mTOR signaling pathway plays a significant role in the determination of neural stem cell proliferation given its control of cell growth, metabolism and survival. We describe the effect of inhibition of mTOR signaling on neural stem cell proliferation using animal models of aging. Our results show that the molecular method of targeted inhibition may result in differential effects on neural stem cell proliferation as the use of rapamycin significantly reduced proliferation while the use of metformin did not. Abnormal signaling cascades resulting in unrestricted proliferation may lead to the development of brain cancer, such as GBM. In Chapter 3 of this dissertation, we hypothesize that the inhibition of the protein kinase, aPKCλ results in halted GBM progression (invasion and proliferation) due to its central location in multiple signaling cascades. Using in-vitro and in-vivo models, we show that aPKCλ functions as a critical node in GBM signaling as both cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous signaling converge on aPKCλ resulting in pathogenic downstream effects. This dissertation aims to uncover the molecular mechanisms involved in cell signaling pathways which are responsible for critical cellular effects such as proliferation, invasion and transcriptional regulation.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014