Matching Items (27)

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The role of ambiguity tolerance in career decision making

Description

The role of ambiguity tolerance in career decision making was examined in a sample of college students (n = 275). Three hypotheses were proposed regarding the direct prediction of ambiguity

The role of ambiguity tolerance in career decision making was examined in a sample of college students (n = 275). Three hypotheses were proposed regarding the direct prediction of ambiguity tolerance on career indecision, the indirect prediction of ambiguity tolerance on career indecision through environmental and self explorations, and the moderation effect of ambiguity tolerance on the link of environmental and self explorations with career indecision. Results supported the significance of ambiguity tolerance with respect to career indecision, finding that it directly predicted general indecisiveness, dysfunctional beliefs, lack of information, and inconsistent information, and moderated the prediction of environmental exploration on inconsistent information. The implications of this study are discussed and suggestions for future research are provided.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-08-01

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Reciprocal Influence Model of Working Alliance and Therapeutic Outcome Over Individual Therapy Course

Description

A reciprocal influence model of the working alliance and the therapeutic outcome was examined in a sample of clients (n = 638) seen by novice therapists. Past researchers have found

A reciprocal influence model of the working alliance and the therapeutic outcome was examined in a sample of clients (n = 638) seen by novice therapists. Past researchers have found a relation between the working alliance and symptom improvement and this relation has been interpreted as the alliance leading to such symptom change. The current study was an examination of whether the alliance does indeed lead to symptom change, or whether symptom change leads to subsequent alliance change, or whether each is related to the other in a reciprocal way over time. By modeling the longitudinal development of the working alliance and the symptomatic severity over the individual therapy course, we found support for the reciprocal model being superior to the unidirectional models. The ideas of relationship as strategy and relationship as outcome along with the reciprocal pattern revealed in the findings were discussed with respect to the theoretical and clinical implications. We also discussed the limitations of the study and provided suggestions for future research.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-07-01

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Career Decision Ambiguity Tolerance Scale: Construction and initial validations

Description

The Career Decision Ambiguity Tolerance Scale (CDAT) measures individual evaluations of and responses to ambiguity encountered in career decision making. It was developed and initially validated through two studies of

The Career Decision Ambiguity Tolerance Scale (CDAT) measures individual evaluations of and responses to ambiguity encountered in career decision making. It was developed and initially validated through two studies of college students. An exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis consistently showed a three-factor structure for career decision ambiguity tolerance, consisting of preference, tolerance, and aversion. In addition to support for construct validity and subscale reliabilities, the findings also support the scale's incremental validity in predicting career indecision, career decision-making self-efficacy, and career adaptability over and beyond general ambiguity tolerance. The theoretical meaning and practical application of the CDAT were discussed along with its limitations and suggestions for future research.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-06-01

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Interpersonal problem type, gender, and outcome in psychotherapy

Description

This study examined the relationship that gender in interaction with interpersonal problem type has with outcome in psychotherapy. A sample of 200 individuals, who sought psychotherapy at a counselor training

This study examined the relationship that gender in interaction with interpersonal problem type has with outcome in psychotherapy. A sample of 200 individuals, who sought psychotherapy at a counselor training facility, completed the Outcome Questionnaire-45(OQ-45) and the reduced version of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-32). This study was aimed at examining whether gender (male and female), was related to treatment outcome, and whether this relationship was moderated by two interpersonal distress dimensions: dominance and affiliation. A hierarchical regression analyses was performed and indicated that gender did not predict psychotherapy treatment outcome, and neither dominance nor affiliation were moderators of the relationship between gender and outcome in psychotherapy.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Time perspective as a predictor of psychological distress

Description

In 2012, there were an estimated 43.7 million adults in the United States that had a diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder (US Department of Health and Human Services [HHS],

In 2012, there were an estimated 43.7 million adults in the United States that had a diagnosable mental, behavioral, or emotional disorder (US Department of Health and Human Services [HHS], 2013). Given the large frequency of disorders, it is beneficial to learn about what factors influence psychological distress. One construct that has been increasingly examined in association with mental disorders is time perspective. The current study will investigate whether or not time perspective, as measured by the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI), has a unique contribution to the prediction of psychological distress. Studies have shown that time perspective has been related to psychological symptomology. Also, previous studies have shown that time perspective has been related to the constructs of neuroticism and negative affect, which have also been shown to be related to psychological distress. I also included the deviation from an optimal time perspective (DOTP) as a predictor separate from the ZTPI scales. So, I investigated whether or not time perspective has a unique influence on psychological distress when controlling for the previously mentioned related constructs. I also controlled for gender and age by including them as covariates in the regression analyses. I found that the past positive sub-scale and DOTP were significant predictors of psychological distress. Implications of these findings are discussed.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Professional Help-seeking Attitudes among Latter-day Saints: The Role of Gender, Distress, and Religiosity

Description

Factors of gender, marital status, and psychological distress are known to be related to help-seeking attitudes. This study sought to explore and understand the relations between gender, marital status, religiosity,

Factors of gender, marital status, and psychological distress are known to be related to help-seeking attitudes. This study sought to explore and understand the relations between gender, marital status, religiosity, psychological distress, and help-seeking attitudes among members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons). The moderating effect of religious commitment on psychological distress and attitudes towards seeking professional help was explored through an online survey of 1,201 Latter-day Saint individuals. It was predicted that gender and marital status would predict distress and helping seeking attitudes and that religiosity would moderate the relation between distress and help-seeking attitudes among religious individuals, with individuals who experience high distress and low religiosity being more likely to seek help than individuals with high distress and high religiosity. Participants completed the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K-10), Religious Commitment Inventory-10, and the Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help-Short Form online. Multiple hierarchical regressions were used to test the study hypotheses. Although the accounted for variances were small, gender was the most significant variable associated with both distress and help seeking. Females reported higher distress and being more willing to seek psychological help than did males. Religiosity did not moderate the relation between distress and help-seeking attitudes. These findings are discussed in light of previous research and gender role schemas as relevant to Mormon culture.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Understanding and predicting activist intentions: an extension of the theory of planned behavior

Description

Despite the societal importance of activism, the understanding of activist intentions remained limited (Liebert, Leve, & Hu, 2011; Klar & Kasser, 2009). The current study used the Theory of

Despite the societal importance of activism, the understanding of activist intentions remained limited (Liebert, Leve, & Hu, 2011; Klar & Kasser, 2009). The current study used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to examine two structural models of low-risk activist intentions and high-risk activist intentions (Ajzen, 1991). The traditional TPB model was tested against a hybrid commitment model that also assessed past activist behaviors and activist identity. Participants (N = 383) were recruited through social media, professional list-serves, and word of mouth. Results indicated a good model fit for both the traditional TPB model (CFI = .98; RMSEA = .05; SRMR = .03; χ2(120) = 3760.62, p < .01) and the commitment model (CFI = .97; RMSEA = .05; SRMR = .04; χ2(325) = 7848.07, p < .01). The commitment model accounted for notably more variance in both low-risk activist intentions (78.9% in comparison to 26.5% for the traditional TPB model) and high-risk activist intentions (58.9% in comparison to 11.2% for the traditional TPB model). Despite this, the traditional TPB model was deemed the better model as the higher variance explained in the commitment model was almost entirely due to the inclusion of past low-risk activist behaviors and past high-risk activist behaviors. A post-hoc analysis that incorporated sexual orientation and religious affiliation as covariates into the traditional model also led to a good-fitting model (CFI = .98; RMSEA = .04; SRMR = .04; χ2(127) = 217.18, p < .01) and accounted for increased variance in low-risk activist intentions (29.7%) and high-risk activist intentions (18.7%) compared to the traditional model. The merits of each of the structural models and the practical implications for practice and research were discussed

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Parent Caregivers of a Child with a Chronic Illness: Effects on Psychological Outcomes

Description

Over 25% of children in the United States suffer from a chronic illness, and close to 70% of all childhood deaths are due to chronic illness. Prevalence of childhood chronic

Over 25% of children in the United States suffer from a chronic illness, and close to 70% of all childhood deaths are due to chronic illness. Prevalence of childhood chronic illness continues to increase, and as a result, the pervasiveness of parents faced with stress associated with caregiving for their child with a chronic illness is also rising. The Stress Process Model (SPM) conceptualizes the caregiving experience as a multidimensional process influenced by the caregiving context, primary and secondary stressors, resources, and caregiver outcomes. Utilizing the SPM, the goals of this study were to examine the relations between caregiving stress (role overload and role strain) and resources (instrumental support, social support, and positive attitudes) and psychological outcomes (depression and anxiety) to determine whether resources moderated the associations between caregiving stress and psychological outcomes.

Participants included 200 parent caregivers of a child with a chronic illness. Participants responded to an online survey that measured demographics, role overload (Role Overload scale), role strain (The Revised Caregiver Burden Measure), instrumental support and social support (Medical Outcomes Survey), positive attitudes about caregiving (Brief Assessment Scale for Caregivers), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), and anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale-7). Pearson correlations and six hierarchical regression models were tested to examine caregiving stress, resources, and psychological outcomes.

Consistent with the study hypotheses, positive correlations between caregiving stress (role overload and role strain) and depression and anxiety were found. Negative correlations were found between resources (instrumental support, social support, positive attitudes) and depression and anxiety. Both instrumental support and social support had negative moderating effects on the relations between role overload and psychological outcomes (depression and anxiety). Positive attitudes also negatively moderated the relations between role strain and psychological outcomes. Thus, when participants reported high instrumental and social support, they also reported low depression and anxiety, even when role overload was high. Participants also reported low anxiety and depression when they reported high positive attitudes, even when role strain was high. Implications of these findings are discussed.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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The relation of ethnicity to outcome as moderated by interpersonal distress

Description

This work analyzed the role of interpersonal problems in interaction with ethnicity to predict psychotherapy outcome. A total of 262 individuals, who underwent psychotherapy at a counseling training facility, completed

This work analyzed the role of interpersonal problems in interaction with ethnicity to predict psychotherapy outcome. A total of 262 individuals, who underwent psychotherapy at a counseling training facility, completed the Outcome Questionnaire-45 (OQ-45) and the reduced version of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-32). This study posited the following research question: Is the magnitude of the effect of ethnicity on treatment outcome conditional on certain IP dimensions (dominance or affiliation)? The purpose of this research was to determine whether or not ethnicity, represented by 3 ethnic groups (Whites, Hispanics, and Asians), was related to treatment outcome, and if this relationship was moderated by two interpersonal distress dimensions: dominance and affiliation. The results of the hierarchical regression analyses indicated that ethnicity did not predict post-treatment outcome gain, and neither affiliation nor dominance was a moderator of the relationship between outcome and ethnicity.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Pre-treatment client interpersonal problems relation to the initial working alliance using multilevel modeling

Description

This study examined the relationship of client pretreatment interpersonal problems (measured by the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems) to the therapeutic alliance (as measured early in treatment by a self report

This study examined the relationship of client pretreatment interpersonal problems (measured by the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems) to the therapeutic alliance (as measured early in treatment by a self report version of the Working Alliance Inventory‐ Short) using multilevel modeling to account for client and counselor variables. Specifically, the correlations of dominance, hostility and cold/distance interpersonal problems with the initial working alliance were investigated. Participants consisted of 144 clients and 44 graduate student counselors at the Counselor Training Center at Arizona State University. The intraclass value of .23 indicated there is a sizable effect, with counselor differences accounting for 23% of the variance in client alliance ratings, supporting the use of multilevel modeling. There was a dominance counselor gender interaction with working alliance scores. Clients who had problems with dominance reported higher working alliance scores with male counselors while clients who had problems with submissiveness reported higher working alliance scores with female counselors. Hostile dominance interpersonal problems were associated with lower initial working alliance scores regardless of counselor gender. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012