Matching Items (19)

Adaptive goal setting and financial incentives: a 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial to increase adults’ physical activity

Description

Background
Emerging interventions that rely on and harness variability in behavior to adapt to individual performance over time may outperform interventions that prescribe static goals (e.g., 10,000 steps/day). The purpose

Background
Emerging interventions that rely on and harness variability in behavior to adapt to individual performance over time may outperform interventions that prescribe static goals (e.g., 10,000 steps/day). The purpose of this factorial trial was to compare adaptive vs. static goal setting and immediate vs. delayed, non-contingent financial rewards for increasing free-living physical activity (PA).
Methods
A 4-month 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial tested main effects for goal setting (adaptive vs. static goals) and rewards (immediate vs. delayed) and interactions between factors to increase steps/day as measured by a Fitbit Zip. Moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) minutes/day was examined as a secondary outcome.
Results
Participants (N = 96) were mainly female (77%), aged 41 ± 9.5 years, and all were insufficiently active and overweight/obese (mean BMI = 34.1 ± 6.2). Participants across all groups increased by 2389 steps/day on average from baseline to intervention phase (p < .001). Participants receiving static goals showed a stronger increase in steps per day from baseline phase to intervention phase (2630 steps/day) than those receiving adaptive goals (2149 steps/day; difference = 482 steps/day, p = .095). Participants receiving immediate rewards showed stronger improvement (2762 step/day increase) from baseline to intervention phase than those receiving delayed rewards (2016 steps/day increase; difference = 746 steps/day, p = .009). However, the adaptive goals group showed a slower decrease in steps/day from the beginning of the intervention phase to the end of the intervention phase (i.e. less than half the rate) compared to the static goals group (−7.7 steps vs. -18.3 steps each day; difference = 10.7 steps/day, p < .001) resulting in better improvements for the adaptive goals group by study end. Rate of change over the intervention phase did not differ between reward groups. Significant goal phase x goal setting x reward interactions were observed.
Conclusions
Adaptive goals outperformed static goals (i.e., 10,000 steps) over a 4-month period. Small immediate rewards outperformed larger, delayed rewards. Adaptive goals with either immediate or delayed rewards should be preferred for promoting PA.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-03-29

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Longitudinal social networks impacts on weight and weight-related behaviors assessed using mobile-based ecological momentary assessments: Study Protocols for the SPARC study

Description

Background
The transition from the home to college is a phase in which emerging adults shift toward more unhealthy eating and physical activity patterns, higher body mass indices, thus increasing

Background
The transition from the home to college is a phase in which emerging adults shift toward more unhealthy eating and physical activity patterns, higher body mass indices, thus increasing risk of overweight/obesity. Currently, little is understood about how changing friendship networks shape weight gain behaviors. This paper describes the recruitment, data collection, and data analytic protocols for the SPARC (Social impact of Physical Activity and nutRition in College) study, a longitudinal examination of the mechanisms by which friends and friendship networks influence nutrition and physical activity behaviors and weight gain in the transition to college life.
Methods
The SPARC study aims to follow 1450 university freshmen from a large university over an academic year, collecting data on multiple aspects of friends and friendship networks. Integrating multiple types of data related to student lives, ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) are administered via a cell phone application, devilSPARC. EMAs collected in four 1-week periods (a total of 4 EMA waves) are integrated with linked data from web-based surveys and anthropometric measurements conducted at four times points (for a total of eight data collection periods including EMAs, separated by ~1 month). University databases will provide student card data, allowing integration of both time-dated data on food purchasing, use of physical activity venues, and geographical information system (GIS) locations of these activities relative to other students in their social networks.
Discussion
Findings are intended to guide the development of more effective interventions to enhance behaviors among college students that protect against weight gain during college.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-08-30

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SCAT: Short-form Corner Store Audit Tool

Description

Programs such as the Healthy Corner Store Initiative have been widely adopted in recent years to increase the availability of healthy foods in small retail food stores. Valid and reliable

Programs such as the Healthy Corner Store Initiative have been widely adopted in recent years to increase the availability of healthy foods in small retail food stores. Valid and reliable measures are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of these programs. The validated instruments currently available for assessments require in-person evaluations, with surveys taking up to 30 minutes per store to complete. This instrument was developed by researchers at Arizona State University to simplify the process of evaluating the effectiveness of healthy store interventions, and to enable community partners and practitioners to conduct their own evaluations of food access. The SCAT was validated against an adapted version of the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey for Corner Stores, and tested for feasibility of use over the telephone. The SCAT was found to discriminate between corner stores in the top 20% of healthfulness scores from those in the lower 80% with 89% accuracy.

In 2015 a panel of experts was convened by Healthy Eating Research, a program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, to establish a set of minimum guidelines small retail food stores could reach to be classified as meeting basic or preferred stocking levels. Work is currently in progress to assess how the SCAT scores correlate with basic and preferred levels. 

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Determining Medical-Surgical Nurses' Perceptions of Alcohol-Abusing Patients

Description

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine perceptions of medical-surgical nurses of alcohol-abusing patients admitted to an acute care facility Background: Studies report that many nurses have negative

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine perceptions of medical-surgical nurses of alcohol-abusing patients admitted to an acute care facility Background: Studies report that many nurses have negative feelings about substance-abusing patients (Neville & Roan, 2014). It has been found nurses report a lack of knowledge about substance abuse disorders, as well as a view that substance abusing patients are more emotionally challenging and dangerous, often leading to decreased motivation and lower levels of job satisfaction (van Boekel, Brouwers, van Weeghel & Garrestsen, 2013). However, studies have found that additional education can positively impact nurses' perceptions (Arthur, 2001). Methods/Approach: This study is a descriptive design using a 17-question 2-part survey. The first part of the survey includes seven demographic questions pertaining to the participants' characteristics and experiences. The second part of the survey is adapted from the Short Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Perception Questionnaire (SAAPPQ), a valid and reliable instrument used to assess healthcare providers' attitudes toward working with alcohol-abusing patients. Results: Eighty four medical-surgical nurses participated in the study. Over half reported having four hours or less of continuing education on alcohol abuse disorder. Regression analyses identified positive relationships between factors, particularly continuing education, on perceptions of alcohol-abusing patients. Conclusions/Implications: Results of this study can be used to determine what factors contribute to nurses' perceptions of alcohol-abusing patients in the medical-surgical unit, therefore aiding in identifying and developing effective policies, protocols, and interventions aimed at improving quality of patient care in this specific patient population.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Exploring the Development of Writing Abilities and Writing Confidence in RN-BSN Students

Description

The purpose of the study was to explore students' writing abilities throughout the online RN-BSN program at a large urban university in the Southwest. The aims of the study were:

The purpose of the study was to explore students' writing abilities throughout the online RN-BSN program at a large urban university in the Southwest. The aims of the study were: 1) explore how students' writing abilities, confidence in writing, and ability to locate resources change throughout the online RN-BSN program, 2) identify which aspects of writing students consider to be their strengths and/or challenges, and 3) explore which factors predict how well students write, their confidence in writing, and their ability to locate resources. After obtaining IRB approval, an invitation to participate in the study was sent to students enrolled in four different courses within the RN-BSN program. Students who chose to participate completed a 16-item questionnaire in which they rated their writing abilities, confidences, and skills, indicated strengths and challenges in their writing, and skills in locating evidence-based resources. An improvement was noted in students' self-rated academic writing confidence, professional writing confidence, internet reference skills, and library reference skills. The number of years as a registered nurse predicted overall writing ability and academic writing confidence.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Assessing the Influence of Hispanic Patient's Perception of Physician's Cultural Competence on Patient Satisfaction

Description

Physician's cultural competence is important in healthcare because it helps improve quality of care as well as address healthcare disparities among minorities. Additionally, it positively correlates with patient satisfaction, which

Physician's cultural competence is important in healthcare because it helps improve quality of care as well as address healthcare disparities among minorities. Additionally, it positively correlates with patient satisfaction, which has been shown to increase treatment adherence and improve medical outcomes. This study investigated the effect of physician's cultural competence on patient satisfaction in a Latino population and how these compared to a European-American population. Physician's Cultural Competence for Patient Satisfaction (PCCPS) scale developed by Dr. Ahmed was utilized in this study. The PCCPS scale deconstructed physician's cultural competence into five subcategories: Macro-cultural, Proxemics/Chronemics, Language, Patient-centered Cultural Competence, and Patient Satisfaction. This scale and various demographic questions were incorporated into a survey that was distributed amongst participating patients. Gathered data was analyzed to determine which demographic factors and subcategories of physician's cultural competence were more relevant or important when interacting with patients that have distinct cultural backgrounds, such as Latino and European-American. Findings from this study will add to building a foundation of evidence in health care that advocates for a more holistic approach to medicine and incorporates cultural competence as an important determinant to predicting health care outcomes.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Relationship Satisfaction Across Fourteen Days: A Smartphone-Based Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

Description

Almost sixty percent of adults within the United States are in a married or committed, cohabiting relationship. This study sought to examine the trajectory of relationship satisfaction over 14 consecutive

Almost sixty percent of adults within the United States are in a married or committed, cohabiting relationship. This study sought to examine the trajectory of relationship satisfaction over 14 consecutive days employing an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) method. Daily reports of relationship satisfaction were collected via a smartphone application developed from the LifeData platform. Phone-based interview questions posed one week after the 14-day EMA period afforded evaluation of usability and acceptability, in preparation for a much larger study of couples coping with cancer. Twenty-seven adults in a married or committed, cohabitating relationship served as participants, recruited from researchmatch.org. (These individuals were not coping with cancer.) Participants received a smartphone notification between 7:30pm and 8:30pm each day, with 45 minutes to begin recording their responses. A single item from the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (item #31) was used to assess relationship satisfaction. Findings revealed a marginally significant increase in satisfaction over the course of 14 days (b = 0.04, t = 1.85, p = .077). In addition, an intraclass correlation (ICC) value of 0.59 indicated larger between-person variability than within-person variability, suggesting that satisfaction varies more from one individual to another than it does within individuals over time. Finally, plots of mean relationship satisfaction by the standard deviation of relationship satisfaction showed lower variability in day-to-day satisfaction among those who were on average more satisfied with their relationship compared to those who were on average less satisfied. Feedback regarding convenience and ease of the application indicated favorable attitudes towards smartphone-based data collection.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Egg Intake and Dietary Quality among Overweight and Obese Mexican-American Postpartum Women

Description

Despite their low cost and high nutrient density, the contribution of eggs to nutrient intake and dietary quality among Mexican-American postpartum women has not been evaluated. Nutrient intake and dietary

Despite their low cost and high nutrient density, the contribution of eggs to nutrient intake and dietary quality among Mexican-American postpartum women has not been evaluated. Nutrient intake and dietary quality, as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010), were measured in habitually sedentary overweight/obese (body mass index (BMI) = 29.7 ± 3.5 kg/m[superscript 2]) Mexican-American postpartum women (28 ± 6 years) and compared between egg consumers (n = 82; any egg intake reported in at least one of three 24-h dietary recalls) and non-consumers (n = 57). Egg consumers had greater intake of energy (+808 kJ (193 kcal) or 14%; p = 0.033), protein (+9 g or 17%; p = 0.031), total fat (+9 g or 19%; p = 0.039), monounsaturated fat (+4 g or 24%; p = 0.020), and several micronutrients than non-consumers. Regarding HEI-2010 scores, egg consumers had a greater total protein foods score than non-consumers (4.7 ± 0.7 vs. 4.3 ± 1.0; p = 0.004), and trends for greater total fruit (2.4 ± 1.8 vs. 1.9 ± 1.7; p = 0.070) and the total composite HEI-2010 score (56.4 ± 12.6 vs. 52.3 ± 14.4; p = 0.082). Findings suggest that egg intake could contribute to greater nutrient intake and improved dietary quality among postpartum Mexican-American women. Because of greater energy intake among egg consumers, recommendations for overweight/obese individuals should include avoiding excessive energy intake and incorporating eggs to a nutrient-dense, fiber-rich dietary pattern.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-10-02

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A comparison of a social support physical activity intervention in weight management among post-partum Latinas

Description

Background
Weight gain during the childbearing years and failure to lose pregnancy weight after birth contribute to the development of obesity in postpartum Latinas.
Methods
Madres para la Salud [Mothers

Background
Weight gain during the childbearing years and failure to lose pregnancy weight after birth contribute to the development of obesity in postpartum Latinas.
Methods
Madres para la Salud [Mothers for Health] was a 12-month, randomized controlled trial exploring a social support intervention with moderate-intensity physical activity (PA) seeking to effect changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation, and depression symptoms in sedentary postpartum Latinas. This report describes the efficacy of the Madres intervention.
Results
The results show that while social support increased during the active intervention delivery, it declined to pre-intervention levels by the end of the intervention. There were significant achievements in aerobic and total steps across the 12 months of the intervention, and declines in body adiposity assessed with bioelectric impedance.
Conclusions
Social support from family and friends mediated increases in aerobic PA resulting in decrease in percent body fat.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-09-19

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How PA Programs Successfully Promote Diversity in Admissions

Description

More underrepresented minority (URM) healthcare professionals are needed to improve health equity. Although holistic review in admissions has the potential to increase URM participation in health professions, recent data suggest

More underrepresented minority (URM) healthcare professionals are needed to improve health equity. Although holistic review in admissions has the potential to increase URM participation in health professions, recent data suggest that its impact varies substantially. The purpose of the dissertation research described here was to identify interventions to increase diversity among healthcare professionals and explore holistic review use in physician assistant (PA) program admissions to advance understanding of effective practices. PA programs were selected as an important prototype for exploratory studies since the extent of holistic review use in PA programs was unknown; at the same time, URM representation among PA students has decreased over the last 15 years.

A critical review of the literature revealed that various holistic review practices have been used by several health professions programs to successfully increase URM enrollment and that organizational culture may be a factor that promotes success. Following this, 2017 Physician Assistant Education Association survey data were analyzed to assess the frequency of holistic review in PA programs and examine its association with URM matriculation. Results from 221 of the 223 PA programs accredited at the time showed that 77.5% used holistic review, and its use modestly correlated with proportion of first-year students identified as ethnic minorities (rs = .20, p < .01). Of particular interest, some programs using holistic review had substantially higher proportions of URM students than others. This finding laid the foundation for a qualitative multiple case study to explore the role of organizational culture as a hypothesized antecedent to effective holistic admissions processes.

Survey study responses were used to select two PA program ‘cases’ that met criteria consistent with a proposed conceptual framework linking organizational culture that values diversity (or ‘diversity culture’) to holistic admissions associated with high URM enrollment. Directed content analysis of data revealed that diversity culture appears to be a strong driver of practices that support enrolling diverse classes of students.

Overall, this mixed methods program of research advances understanding of holistic review, its utility, and the influence of organizational culture. The research generated important insights with ramifications for current practice and future studies within PA and across health professions programs.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019