Matching Items (6)

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Measuring the sustainability of protected area-based tourism systems: a multimethod approach

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This research assessed the sustainability of protected area-based tourism systems in Nepal. The research was composed of three interrelated studies. The first study evaluated different approaches to protected area governance.

This research assessed the sustainability of protected area-based tourism systems in Nepal. The research was composed of three interrelated studies. The first study evaluated different approaches to protected area governance. This was a multiple-case study research involving three protected areas in Nepal: the Annapurna Conservation Area, Chitwan National Park, and the Kanchenjunga Conservation Area. Data were collected from various published and unpublished sources and supplemented with 55 face-to-face interviews. Results revealed that outcomes pertaining to biodiversity conservation, community livelihoods, and sustainable tourism vary across these protected areas. The study concluded that there is no institutional panacea for managing protected areas. The second study diagnosed the sustainability of tourism in two destination communities: Ghandruk and Sauraha, which are located within the Annapurna Conservation Area and Chitwan National Park, respectively. A systemic, holistic approach--the social-ecological system framework--was used to analyze the structures, processes, and outcomes of tourism development. Data collection involved 45 face-to-face semi-structured interviews and a review of published and unpublished documents. Results revealed that tourism has several positive and a few negative sociocultural, economic, and ecological outcomes in both communities. Overall, tourism has progressed towards sustainability in these destinations. The third study examined tourism stakeholders' perspectives regarding sustainable tourism outcomes in protected areas. The study compared the responses of residents with residents, as well as tourists with tourists, across the Annapurna Conservation Area and Chitwan National Park. Tourism sustainability was evaluated with six tourism impact subscales measuring negative and positive ecological, economic, and social impacts. Data were collected using the survey method. Respondents included 230 residents and 205 tourists in Annapurna, and 220 residents and 210 tourists in Chitwan. The findings revealed that the residents across these protected areas perceived positive and negative impacts differently, as did the tourists, suggesting that the form of tourism development affects the sustainability outcomes in protected areas. Overall, this research concluded that protected areas and tourism are intricately related, and sustainable management of a protected area-based tourism system requires a polycentric adaptive approach that warrants a broad participation of relevant stakeholders.

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  • 2014

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The importance of streetscapes and servicescapes in tourist shopping villages: a case study of two Arizona communities

Description

Many communities that once relied on the extractive industries have since turned to tourism to find another source of income. These communities are primarily old mining towns. Since these towns

Many communities that once relied on the extractive industries have since turned to tourism to find another source of income. These communities are primarily old mining towns. Since these towns have started to reinvent themselves, they have become important places of study. Previous literature has found specific factors that are common in tourist shopping villages. Currently, there is not much research that has explored the affect the streetscape and servicescape have on visitor experiences. Existing research focuses on urban shopping settings such as shopping malls. This study interviewed employees and surveyed visitors in two suburban tourist shopping villages in Arizona. More specifically, it is aimed to explore how the streetscapes and servicescapes in tourist shopping villages influence visitors' overall experience, intent to return to the village, and their purchasing behavior. This study adds to the current literature on tourist shopping villages and the streetscapes and servicescapes as there is a limited amount of information available. To date, the majority of scholarly information available describes the factors of tourist shopping villages and does not attempt to identify their importance for tourists. This study may serve as a stepping platform for future research. The findings of this study offer important implications for destination marketing organizations, different stakeholders of tourism, and the policy makers. This study primarily focuses on the tourists' view of tourist shopping villages, and can offer insight into how to increase visitor spending.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Production, transmission, and consumption of Red Tourism in China: a model of the circuit of red heritage and tourism

Description

Because of its ability to harbor social values, norms, and beliefs, heritage has always been utilized as an ideological vehicle. One prominent example of politicizing heritage is Chinese red tourism,

Because of its ability to harbor social values, norms, and beliefs, heritage has always been utilized as an ideological vehicle. One prominent example of politicizing heritage is Chinese red tourism, comprised of state-promoted tours to revolutionary memorial sites. It is expected to generate political, economic, and social benefits, particularly to reinforce the legitimate leadership of the Chinese Communist Party. Statistics show that dramatic market growth in red tourism has occurred over the past decade. Yet it is still heavily driven by the government and thus whether long-term sustainability can be achieved is still questionable.

This dissertation explores the dynamics of red tourism from the perspective of a meaning-making process, where tourism discourses circulate among the processes of production, transmission, and consumption. The results reveal that higher-level government primarily assumes the leading role, whereas local government is largely excluded from strategy making processes and primarily responsible for implementation and operation. Some dissonance exists between higher and lower-level governments in their goals and involvement in red tourism development. Second, intermediaries are not altruistic and attempt to maximize their own benefits. While site interpreters may provide officially authorized narratives, their primary focus is hosting higher-up administrative visitors. On the contrary, tour guides are more customer-oriented, which may lead to officially undesirable interpretations. Third, driven by multiple motives, tourists have increasingly diverse attitudes towards red heritage and participate in various political and non-political activities. A considerable degree of congruence was found between tourists' participation, motivation, memories, and perception. Quantitative results indicate that the majority of tourists have learned about the political significance and/or content of red heritage, and developed more positive attitudes towards, and support for, the CCP and the government, to a certain extent.

This dissertation contributes to current research by adopting a systematic and emic perspective to explore the dynamics of red tourism. Several conceptual frameworks were developed inductively to describe the meaning-making process. Mixed methods were used to learn about tourists' consumption and perceptions of red heritage. Implications regarding enhancing the effectiveness of the meaning-making process, limitations of the study, and potential directions for future research are also discussed.

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  • 2014

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Perceptions of nature-based tourism, travel preferences, promotions and disparity between domestic and international tourists: the case of Botswana

Description

This study explores domestic and international tourists' perceptions of nature-based tourism using the North-South conceptualization of nature and the setting up of national parks as a conceptual framework. In addition,

This study explores domestic and international tourists' perceptions of nature-based tourism using the North-South conceptualization of nature and the setting up of national parks as a conceptual framework. In addition, using Urry's (1990) tourist gaze, the study assesses tourism promotions in Botswana from locals' and tourism marketers' points of view. Moreover, the study assesses locals' tourist gaze and compares it with the international tourist gaze. Qualitative methods were used to collect data, including in-depth interviews with local residents, international tourists, and tourism promoters such as government agencies and the private sector. Photo-elicitation interviews were also carried out to help identify the respondents' gaze. Six study sites, including the protected areas of Chobe National Park (CNP), Moremi Game Reserve (MGR), two cities of Gaborone and Francistown, and two urban villages of Palapye and Maun were selected for this study. Results indicate that the way people in the South conceptualize nature is different from the way international tourists do, and this has an impact on visitations to national parks. While for international tourists nature symbolizes recreation, rejuvenation, and an opportunity `to get away from it all', for locals it is seen as a part of everyday life. Furthermore, tourism promotions in the country are geared towards promoting Western tourists' gaze with the local market gaze being totally ignored by the sector. The local gaze is also different from the Western gaze. While for international tourists visiting Botswana the gaze is directed towards wildlife and wilderness, for locals, the gaze is directed towards more traditional destinations, such as farms, as well as more `modern' attractions and `touristic' attractions.

However, it is the Western gaze that is taken into consideration by tourism promoters, thereby questioning the sustainability of an industry that disregards one group over another. The results also indicate that culture and historical events have an impact on visitations to protected areas. Policy implications are discussed.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Protected areas, tourism and rural community livelihoods in Botswana

Description

Firstly, this study uses community asset mapping guided by the Community Capitals Framework (CCF) to explore the linkages between Protected Areas (PAs), tourism and community livelihoods. Secondly, it assesses changes

Firstly, this study uses community asset mapping guided by the Community Capitals Framework (CCF) to explore the linkages between Protected Areas (PAs), tourism and community livelihoods. Secondly, it assesses changes in community needs facilitated by community participation in wildlife-based tourism in a protected area setting. Thirdly and finally, the study assesses whether the introduction of community wildlife-based tourism in a protected area as a sustainable management tool has led to the spiraling up or down of community capitals. The study adopted qualitative research method approach and made use of data collected through community asset mapping supplemented by data from focus group discussions, households, key informants, and secondary data materials that were analyzed and interpreted in light of community capital framework. The Chobe National Park (CNP) and Chobe Enclave Conservation Trust (CECT); a community living adjacent to CNP in Botswana provides the context on which this study's discussion focuses. Results indicate that the accession of Botswana from colonialism through post colonialism era intertwined considerable institutional arrangement changes in the field of protected area governance that reflects evolutionary management styles. Protected areas, tourism and community livelihoods linkages are based on many inter-dependents of community capitals relationships which are dependent on community socio-economic activities. In assessing changes in community needs, the results indicate that participation in wildlife-based tourism has brought both positive and negative changes that have implications on both the status quo for community livelihoods and protected areas, namely; the influence of changes in community capitals dynamics, mechanization and commercialization of agriculture, government funded infrastructural development, income generation, and the commodification of some of the community capitals. Finally, the increased livelihoods options and diversification dynamics, fragile wildlife-livestock co-existence, heightened human-wildlife conflicts, environmental education and awareness are the emerging themes that explain how the introduction of tourism in a protected area setting affect the spiraling up and down of the community capitals dynamics.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Negotiated tourist identities: nationality and tourist adaptation

Description

Within the media there is an abundance of reports that claim tourists are being harassed, kidnapped and even killed in some instances as a result of their representation of their

Within the media there is an abundance of reports that claim tourists are being harassed, kidnapped and even killed in some instances as a result of their representation of their country's political ideology and international relations. A qualitative study was undertaken in Bolivia to determine how a tourist avoids or copes with the fear of severe political retribution or harassment in a country whose political environment is largely opposed to that of the traveler's home country. Interviews were conducted in multiple regions of Bolivia, and the data were coded. The results show that tourists experience political retribution on a much smaller scale than initially thought, usually through non-threatening social encounters. The overall themes influencing traveler behaviors are the (Un)Apologetic American, the George W. Bush foreign policy era, avoiding perceived unsafe countries or regions, and Bolivian borders. Respondents, when asked to reflect upon their behavioral habits, do not usually forthrightly deny their country of origin but merely adapt their national identities based on their familial origins, dual citizenship, language abilities or lack thereof, familiarity with the world/regional politics or lack thereof and associating oneself with a popular region in the United States (e.g. New York), rather than the US as a whole. Interestingly, none of the Americans interviewed candidly deny their American nationality or express future intention to deny their nationality. The Americans did express feeling "singled out" at the Bolivian borders which leads to the management implication to implement an automated receipt when purchasing a Bolivian visa and improving the Ministry of Tourism website that would more clearly state visa requirements. Additionally, the image of Bolivia as a culturally and politically homogeneous country is discussed.

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Date Created
  • 2013