Matching Items (40)

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Voltage Sense Amplifier (VSA) Design For RRAM Cross-Point Memory Array Structures

Description

RRAM is an emerging technology that looks to replace FLASH NOR and possibly NAND memory. It is attractive because it uses an adjustable resistance and does not rely on charge;

RRAM is an emerging technology that looks to replace FLASH NOR and possibly NAND memory. It is attractive because it uses an adjustable resistance and does not rely on charge; in the sub-10nm feature size circuitry this is critical. However, RRAM cross-point arrays suffer tremendously from leakage currents that prevent proper readings in larger array sizes. In this research an exponential IV selector was added to each cell to minimize this current. Using this technique the largest array-size supportable was determined to be 512x512 cells using the conventional voltage sense amplifier by HSPICE simulations. However, with the increase in array size, the sensing latency also remarkably increases due to more sneak path currents, approaching 873 ns for the 512x512 array.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

Usage of a Texas Instruments Smart SensorTag for Personal Applications: Fall Detection and Prevention to Enhance Elderly Living

Description

Every engineer is responsible for completing a capstone project as a culmination of accredited university learning to demonstrate technical knowledge and enhance interpersonal skills, like teamwork, communication, time management, and

Every engineer is responsible for completing a capstone project as a culmination of accredited university learning to demonstrate technical knowledge and enhance interpersonal skills, like teamwork, communication, time management, and problem solving. This project, with three or four engineers working together in a group, emphasizes not only the importance of technical skills acquired through laboratory procedures and coursework, but the significance of soft skills as one transitions from a university to a professional workplace; it also enhances the understanding of an engineer's obligation to ethically improve society by harnessing technical knowledge to bring about change. The CC2541 Smart SensorTag is a device manufactured by Texas Instruments that focuses on the use of wireless sensors to create low energy applications, or apps; it is equipped with Bluetooth Smart, which enables it to communicate wirelessly with similar devices like smart phones and computers, assisting greatly in app development. The device contains six built-in sensors, which can be utilized to track and log personal data in real-time; these sensors include a gyroscope, accelerometer, humidifier, thermometer, barometer, and magnetometer. By combining the data obtained through the sensors with the ability to communicate wirelessly, the SensorTag can be used to develop apps in multiple fields, including fitness, recreation, health, safety, and more. Team SensorTag chose to focus on health and safety issues to complete its capstone project, creating applications intended for use by senior citizens who live alone or in assisted care homes. Using the SensorTag's ability to track multiple local variables, the team worked to collect data that verified the accuracy and quality of the sensors through repeated experimental trials. Once the sensors were tested, the team developed applications accessible via smart phones or computers to trigger an alarm and send an alert via vibration, e-mail, or Tweet if the SensorTag detects a fall. The fall detection service utilizes the accelerometer and gyroscope sensors with the hope that such a system will prevent severe injuries among the elderly, allow them to function more independently, and improve their quality of life, which is the obligation of engineers to better through their work.

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Date Created
  • 2015-12

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Digital Modeling of Analog Effect Circuits

Description

While SPICE circuit simulation software gives researchers and industry accurate information regarding the behavior and characteristics of circuits, the auditory effect of SPICE circuit simulation on audio circuits is not

While SPICE circuit simulation software gives researchers and industry accurate information regarding the behavior and characteristics of circuits, the auditory effect of SPICE circuit simulation on audio circuits is not well documented. This project takes a thoroughly analyzed and popular audio effect circuit called the Ibanez Tubescreamer and simulates its distortion effect on a .wav file in order to hear the effect of SPICE simulation. Specifically, the TS-808 schematic is drawn in the SPICE program LTSPICE and simulated using generated sinusoids and recorded .wav files. Specific components are imported using .MODEL and .SUBCKT to accurately represent the diodes, bipolar transistors, op amps, and other components in order to hear how each component affects the response. Various transient responses are extracted as .wav files and assembled as figures in order to characterize the result of the circuit on the input. Once the actual circuit is built and debugged, all of the same transient analysis is applied and then compared to the SPICE simulation figures gathered in the digital simulation. These results are then compared along with a subjective hearing test of the digital simulation and analog circuit in order to test the validity of the SPICE simulations. The digital simulations reveal that the distortion follows the signature characteristics of Ibanez Tubescreamer which shows that SPICE simulation will give insight into the real effects of audio circuits modeled in SPICE programs. Diodes--such as Silicon, Germanium, Zener, Red LEDs and Blue LEDs--can dramatically change the waveforms and sound of the inputs within the circuit where as the Op-amps--such as the JRC4558, TL072, and NE5532--have little to no effect on the waveforms and subjective effects on the output .wav files. After building the circuit and hearing the difference between the analog circuit and digital simulation, the differences between the two are apparent but very similar in nature--proving that the SPICE simulation can give meaningful insight into the sound of the actual analog circuit. Some of the differences can be explained by the variance of equipment and environment used in recording and playback. Since this project did not use high fidelity audio recording equipment and consistency in the equipment used for playback, it is uncertain if the simulation and actual circuit could be classified as completely accurate. Any further work on the project would be recording and playing back in a constant environment and looking into a wider range of specific components instead of looking into one permutation.

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Date Created
  • 2015-12

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Current Sensing Amplifier Design for RRAM Crossbar Arrays

Description

Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) is an emerging type of non-volatile memory technology that seeks to replace FLASH memory. The RRAM crossbar array is advantageous in its relatively small cell

Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) is an emerging type of non-volatile memory technology that seeks to replace FLASH memory. The RRAM crossbar array is advantageous in its relatively small cell area and faster read latency in comparison to NAND and NOR FLASH memory; however, the crossbar array faces design challenges of its own in sneak-path currents that prevent proper reading of memory stored in the RRAM cell. The Current Sensing Amplifier is one method of reading RRAM crossbar arrays. HSpice simulations are used to find the associated reading delays of the Current Sensing Amplifier with respect to various sizes of RRAM crossbar arrays, as well as the largest array size compatible for accurate reading. It is found that up to 1024x1024 arrays are achievable with a worst-case read delay of 815ps, and it is further likely 2048x2048 arrays are able to be read using the Current Sensing Amplifier. In comparing the Current Sensing Amplifier latency results with previously obtained latency results from the Voltage Sensing Amplifier, it is shown that the Voltage Sensing Amplifier reads arrays in sizes up to 256x256 faster while the Current Sensing Amplifier reads larger arrays faster.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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High Efficiency Electronics for Space Applications

Description

The Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MESFET) has high potential to enter analog and RF applications due to their high breakdown voltage and switching frequency characteristics. These MESFET devices could

The Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MESFET) has high potential to enter analog and RF applications due to their high breakdown voltage and switching frequency characteristics. These MESFET devices could allow for high voltage analog circuits to be integrated with low voltage digital circuits on a single chip in an extremely cost effective way. Higher integration leads to electronics with increased functionality and a smaller finished product. The MESFETs are designed in-house by the research group led by Dr. Trevor Thornton. The layouts are then sent to multi-project wafer (MPW) integrated circuit foundry companies, such as the Metal Oxide Semiconductor Implementation Service (MOSIS) to be fabricated. Once returned, the electrical characteristics of the devices are measured. The MESFET has been implemented in various applications by the research group, including the low dropout linear regulator (LDO) and RF power amplifier. An advantage of the MESFET is that it can function in extreme environments such as space, allowing for complex electrical systems to continue functioning properly where traditional transistors would fail.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Stochastic learning in oxide binary synaptic device for neuromorphic computing

Description

Hardware implementation of neuromorphic computing is attractive as a computing paradigm beyond the conventional digital computing. In this work, we show that the SET (off-to-on) transition of metal oxide resistive

Hardware implementation of neuromorphic computing is attractive as a computing paradigm beyond the conventional digital computing. In this work, we show that the SET (off-to-on) transition of metal oxide resistive switching memory becomes probabilistic under a weak programming condition. The switching variability of the binary synaptic device implements a stochastic learning rule. Such stochastic SET transition was statistically measured and modeled for a simulation of a winner-take-all network for competitive learning. The simulation illustrates that with such stochastic learning, the orientation classification function of input patterns can be effectively realized. The system performance metrics were compared between the conventional approach using the analog synapse and the approach in this work that employs the binary synapse utilizing the stochastic learning. The feasibility of using binary synapse in the neurormorphic computing may relax the constraints to engineer continuous multilevel intermediate states and widens the material choice for the synaptic device design.

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Date Created
  • 2013-10-31

Multi-level control of conductive nano-filament evolution in HfO2 ReRAM by pulse-train operations

Description

Precise electrical manipulation of nanoscale defects such as vacancy nano-filaments is highly desired for the multi-level control of ReRAM. In this paper we present a systematic investigation on the pulse-train

Precise electrical manipulation of nanoscale defects such as vacancy nano-filaments is highly desired for the multi-level control of ReRAM. In this paper we present a systematic investigation on the pulse-train operation scheme for reliable multi-level control of conductive filament evolution. By applying the pulse-train scheme to a 3 bit per cell HfO2 ReRAM, the relative standard deviations of resistance levels are improved up to 80% compared to the single-pulse scheme. The observed exponential relationship between the saturated resistance and the pulse amplitude provides evidence for the gap-formation model of the filament-rupture process.

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Date Created
  • 2014-03-26

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Formation of biomimetic membranes on inorganic supports of different surface morphology and macroscopic geometry

Description

Biological membranes are critical to cell sustainability by selectively permeating polar molecules into the intracellular space and providing protection to the interior organelles. Biomimetic membranes (model cell membranes) are often

Biological membranes are critical to cell sustainability by selectively permeating polar molecules into the intracellular space and providing protection to the interior organelles. Biomimetic membranes (model cell membranes) are often used to fundamentally study the lipid bilayer backbone structure of the biological membrane. Lipid bilayer membranes are often supported using inorganic materials in an effort to improve membrane stability and for application to novel biosensing platforms. Published literature has shown that a variety of dense inorganic materials with various surface properties have been investigated for the study of biomimetic membranes. However, literature does not adequately address the effect of porous materials or supports with varying macroscopic geometries on lipid bilayer membrane behavior. The objective of this dissertation is to present a fundamental study on the synthesis of lipid bilayer membranes supported by novel inorganic supports in an effort to expand the number of available supports for biosensing technology. There are two fundamental areas covered including: (1) synthesis of lipid bilayer membranes on porous inorganic materials and (2) synthesis and characterization of cylindrically supported lipid bilayer membranes. The lipid bilayer membrane formation behavior on various porous supports was studied via direct mass adsorption using a quartz crystal microbalance. Experimental results demonstrate significantly different membrane formation behaviors on the porous inorganic supports. A lipid bilayer membrane structure was formed only on SiO2 based surfaces (dense SiO2 and silicalite, basic conditions) and gamma-alumina (acidic conditions). Vesicle monolayer adsorption was observed on gamma-alumina (basic conditions), and yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) of varying roughness. Parameters such as buffer pH, surface chemistry and surface roughness were found to have a significant impact on the vesicle adsorption kinetics. Experimental and modeling work was conducted to study formation and characterization of cylindrically supported lipid bilayer membranes. A novel sensing technique (long-period fiber grating refractometry) was utilized to measure the formation mechanism of lipid bilayer membranes on an optical fiber. It was found that the membrane formation kinetics on the fiber was similar to its planar SiO2 counterpart. Fluorescence measurements verified membrane transport behavior and found that characterization artifacts affected the measured transport behavior.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Evaluation and characterization of Silicon MESFETs in low dropout regulators

Description

The partially-depleted (PD) silicon Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MESFET) is becoming more and more attractive for analog and RF applications due to its high breakdown voltage. Compared to conventional

The partially-depleted (PD) silicon Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MESFET) is becoming more and more attractive for analog and RF applications due to its high breakdown voltage. Compared to conventional CMOS high voltage transistors, the silicon MESFET can be fabricated in commercial standard Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) CMOS foundries without any change to the process. The transition frequency of the device is demonstrated to be 45GHz, which makes the MESFET suitable for applications in high power RF power amplifier designs. Also, high breakdown voltage and low turn-on resistance make it the ideal choice for switches in the switching regulator designs. One of the anticipated applications of the MESFET is for the pass device for a low dropout linear regulator. Conventional NMOS and PMOS linear regulators suffer from high dropout voltage, low bandwidth and poor stability issues. In contrast, the N-MESFET pass transistor can provide an ultra-low dropout voltage and high bandwidth without the need for an external compensation capacitor to ensure stability. In this thesis, the design theory and problems of the conventional linear regulators are discussed. N-MESFET low dropout regulators are evaluated and characterized. The error amplifier used a folded cascode architecture with gain boosting. The source follower topology is utilized as the buffer to sink the gate leakage current from the MESFET. A shunt-feedback transistor is added to reduce the output impedance and provide the current adaptively. Measurement results show that the dropout voltage is less than 150 mV for a 1A load current at 1.8V output. Radiation measurements were done for discrete MESFET and fully integrated LDO regulators, which demonstrate their radiation tolerance ability for aerospace applications.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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A fast settling oversampled digital sliding-mode controller for DC-DC buck converters

Description

Sliding-Mode Control (SMC) has several benefits over traditional Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID) control in terms of fast transient response, robustness to parameter and component variations, and low sensitivity to loop disturbances. An

Sliding-Mode Control (SMC) has several benefits over traditional Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID) control in terms of fast transient response, robustness to parameter and component variations, and low sensitivity to loop disturbances. An All-Digital Sliding-Mode (ADSM) controlled DC-DC converter, utilizing single-bit oversampled frequency domain digitizers is proposed. In the proposed approach, feedback and reference digitizing Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADC) are based on a single-bit, first order Sigma-Delta frequency to digital converter, running at 32MHz over-sampling rate. The ADSM regulator achieves 1% settling time in less than 5uSec for a load variation of 600mA. The sliding-mode controller utilizes a high-bandwidth hysteretic differentiator and an integrator to perform the sliding control law in digital domain. The proposed approach overcomes the steady state error (or DC offset), and limits the switching frequency range, which are the two common problems associated with sliding-mode controllers. The IC is designed and fabricated on a 0.35um CMOS process occupying an active area of 2.72mm-squared. Measured peak efficiency is 83%.

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Date Created
  • 2013