Matching Items (34)

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AGE, GENDER, AND TRAVEL SOCIALIZATION EFFECTS ON CHILDHOOD AND ADULTHOOD TRANSIT USE

Description

The objective of this research paper is to analyze and determine the relationships between childhood and adulthood transit behavior. The study investigates gender differences for each generation regarding childhood transit experiences. Childhood travel socialization was studied to understand its effects

The objective of this research paper is to analyze and determine the relationships between childhood and adulthood transit behavior. The study investigates gender differences for each generation regarding childhood transit experiences. Childhood travel socialization was studied to understand its effects on childhood transit experience and perception. Lastly, childhood transit experience and perception were analyzed to determine their effect on adult transit usage. The variables the study analyzed were childhood peer impression of public transit, parental opinion of the safety of public transit, and the respondents’ childhood public transit experience. These variables were investigated to determine if they had an effect on adult use of public transit. The survey Transit Center’s Who’s On Board: 2014 Mobility Attitudes Survey (WOBMAS) was used to perform these analyses. The results showed that gender equality appears to be increasing in younger generations with respect to their ability to travel alone on public transit. In addition, men were more likely to travel by themselves on public transit when compared to women. There is a direct correlation between childhood travel socialization and childhood transit experience and opinion. However, there appears to be no correlation between childhood travel socialization and a child’s likeliness to travel on public transit alone. Childhood travel socialization had a counterintuitive effect on adult transit usage. On the contrary, it appears that childhood experience is significantly linked to adult transit usage. The data suggests that the earlier a person travels on public transit alone, the more likely they are to ride it as an adult.

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2019-05

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Epilepsy and school performance: the influence of teacher factors and seizure control on children with epilepsy

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Epilepsy is a chronic illness impacting the lives of over 300,000 children nationally. Sexson and Madan-Swain offer a theory that addresses successful school reentry in children that are chronically ill. Their theory posits that successful school reentry is influenced by

Epilepsy is a chronic illness impacting the lives of over 300,000 children nationally. Sexson and Madan-Swain offer a theory that addresses successful school reentry in children that are chronically ill. Their theory posits that successful school reentry is influenced by school personnel with appropriate attitudes, training experiences, and by factors relating to the child's illness. The parents of 74 students, between second and twelfth grades, completed a questionnaire addressing their child's epilepsy and their current level of seizure control. Each child's homeroom teacher also completed a survey regarding their training experiences about epilepsy and their attitudes towards individuals with epilepsy. Additional information was gathered from the child's school regarding attendance rates, most recent Terra Nova test scores (a group achievement test), and special education enrollment status. Data were analyzed via four multiple regression analyses and one logistic regression analysis. It was found that seizure control was a significant predictor for attendance, academic achievement (i.e., mathematics, writing, and reading), and special education enrollment. Additionally, teachers' attitudes towards epilepsy were a significant predictor of academic achievement (writing and reading) and special education enrollment. Teacher training experience was not a significant predictor in any of the analyses.

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Date Created
2011

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The factor structure of curriculum-based writing indices at Grades 3, 7, and 10

Description

National assessment data indicate that the large majority of students in America perform below expected proficiency levels in the area of writing. Given the importance of writing skills, this is a significant problem. Curriculum-based measurement, when used for progress monitoring

National assessment data indicate that the large majority of students in America perform below expected proficiency levels in the area of writing. Given the importance of writing skills, this is a significant problem. Curriculum-based measurement, when used for progress monitoring and intervention planning, has been shown to lead to improved academic achievement. However, researchers have not yet been able to establish the validity of curriculum-based measures of writing (CBM-W). This study examined the structural validity of CBM-W using exploratory factor analysis. The participants for this study were 253 third, 154 seventh, and 154 tenth grade students. Each participant completed a 3-minute writing sample in response to a narrative prompt. The writing samples were scored for fifteen different CBM-W indices. Separate analyses were conducted for each grade level to examine differences in the CBM-W construct across grade levels. Due to extreme multicollinearity, principal components analysis rather than common factor analysis was used to examine the structure of writing as measured by CBM-W indices. The overall structure of CBM-W indices was found to remain stable across grade levels. In all cases a three-component solution was supported, with the components being labeled production, accuracy, and sentence complexity. Limitations of the study and implications for progress monitoring with CBM-W are discussed, including the recommendation for a combination of variables that may provide more reliable and valid measurement of the writing construct.

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Date Created
2012

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The cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships of early childhood school assessment policies with reading instruction and reading achievement: evidence from early childhood longitudinal study

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The purposes of this study were (1) to examine the direct and indirect effect of school-level testing policies on reading achievement though changes in amount and types of reading instruction, (2) to investigate the reading trajectories moderated by school-level testing

The purposes of this study were (1) to examine the direct and indirect effect of school-level testing policies on reading achievement though changes in amount and types of reading instruction, (2) to investigate the reading trajectories moderated by school-level testing policies longitudinally, and (3) to examine the relationship between testing policies and the achievement gap by exploring whether certain student characteristics moderate the relationship between testing policy and reading achievement, using Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten (ECLS-K) Cohort of 2010-2011 data. Findings from a multilevel full structural mediation model suggest that school-level frequency of state/local standardized tests had an indirect effect on student reading achievement through changes in both amount and the types of instruction at the school-level (cross-sectional fall kindergarten sample =12,241 children nested in 1,067 kindergarten classes). The findings from a three-level growth models indicated only children of Asian background and children from high socio-economic backgrounds who had frequent standardized tests in kindergarten accelerated in their monthly reading growth, whereas other children (e.g., low SES, non-Asian children) did not show any changes in the rate of the reading growth (longitudinal sample from fall of kindergarten to spring of first grade = 7,392 children nested in 744 kindergartens). The findings from the current study suggest that testing policy is not an effective means to reduce the achievement gap of children from disadvantaged family backgrounds, underperforming children or that children from low socieo-economic backgrounds. These children did not seem to benefit from frequent standardized tests longitudinally. Implications for supporting school assessment practices and instruction are discussed.

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Date Created
2015

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The impact of partial measurement invariance on between-group comparisons of latent means for a second-order factor

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A simulation study was conducted to explore the influence of partial loading invariance and partial intercept invariance on the latent mean comparison of the second-order factor within a higher-order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) model. Noninvariant loadings or intercepts were generated

A simulation study was conducted to explore the influence of partial loading invariance and partial intercept invariance on the latent mean comparison of the second-order factor within a higher-order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) model. Noninvariant loadings or intercepts were generated to be at one of the two levels or both levels for a second-order CFA model. The numbers and directions of differences in noninvariant loadings or intercepts were also manipulated, along with total sample size and effect size of the second-order factor mean difference. Data were analyzed using correct and incorrect specifications of noninvariant loadings and intercepts. Results summarized across the 5,000 replications in each condition included Type I error rates and powers for the chi-square difference test and the Wald test of the second-order factor mean difference, estimation bias and efficiency for this latent mean difference, and means of the standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) and the root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA).

When the model was correctly specified, no obvious estimation bias was observed; when the model was misspecified by constraining noninvariant loadings or intercepts to be equal, the latent mean difference was overestimated if the direction of the difference in loadings or intercepts of was consistent with the direction of the latent mean difference, and vice versa. Increasing the number of noninvariant loadings or intercepts resulted in larger estimation bias if these noninvariant loadings or intercepts were constrained to be equal. Power to detect the latent mean difference was influenced by estimation bias and the estimated variance of the difference in the second-order factor mean, in addition to sample size and effect size. Constraining more parameters to be equal between groups—even when unequal in the population—led to a decrease in the variance of the estimated latent mean difference, which increased power somewhat. Finally, RMSEA was very sensitive for detecting misspecification due to improper equality constraints in all conditions in the current scenario, including the nonzero latent mean difference, but SRMR did not increase as expected when noninvariant parameters were constrained.

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2016

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Modeling motivation: examining the structural validity of the Sport Motivation Scale-6 among runners

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Two models of motivation are prevalent in the literature on sport and exercise participation (Deci & Ryan, 1991; Vallerand, 1997, 2000). Both models are grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985; Ryan & Deci, 2000) and consider the relationshi

Two models of motivation are prevalent in the literature on sport and exercise participation (Deci & Ryan, 1991; Vallerand, 1997, 2000). Both models are grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985; Ryan & Deci, 2000) and consider the relationship between intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation in explaining behavior choice and outcomes. Both models articulate the relationship between need satisfaction (i.e., autonomy, competence, relatedness; Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000; Ryan & Deci, 2000) and various cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes as a function of self-determined motivation. Despite these comprehensive models, inconsistencies remain between the theories and their practical applications. The purpose of my study was to examine alternative theoretical models of intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation using the Sport Motivation Scale-6 (SMS-6; Mallett et al., 2007) to more thoroughly study the structure of motivation and the practical utility of using such a scale to measure motivation among runners. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate eight alternative models. After finding unsatisfactory fit of these models, exploratory factor analysis was conducted post hoc to further examine the measurement structure of motivation. A three-factor structure of general motivation, external accolades, and isolation/solitude explained motivation best, although high cross-loadings of items suggest the structure of this construct still lacks clarity. Future directions to modify item content and re-examine structure as well as limitations of this study are discussed.

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Date Created
2012

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An experimental replication and refinement of the undoing hypothesis of positive emotions

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Broaden and build theory (BBT; Fredrickson, 1998; 2001) postulates that positive emotions expand the scope of one's attention and thought-action repertoires (Fredrickson & Branigan, 2005). Within the boundaries of BBT, the undoing hypothesis (Fredrickson, 1998, Fredrickson & Levenson, 1998) argues

Broaden and build theory (BBT; Fredrickson, 1998; 2001) postulates that positive emotions expand the scope of one's attention and thought-action repertoires (Fredrickson & Branigan, 2005). Within the boundaries of BBT, the undoing hypothesis (Fredrickson, 1998, Fredrickson & Levenson, 1998) argues that positive emotions themselves do not bring forth specific action tendencies or urges; therefore, they do not consequently require an increase in cardiovascular activity to carry out the urge. On the other hand, positive emotions have evolved to subdue the cardiovascular response previously initiated by negative emotions. This dissertation proposes that the real power of positive emotions might be to undo not the effects of negative emotions themselves, however, but simply reduce the arousal itself. This dissertation used minor physiological arousal (e.g., a step-stool task) to simulate the cardiovascular effects of the stress manipulations used in previous tests of the undoing hypothesis by Fredrickson and colleagues. This dissertation asks if positive emotions undo the cardiovascular reactivity of an emotionally neutral stimulus. Positive emotions were induced through one film clip (i.e., a happy film clip) and was compared to a neutral film clip (no emotion elicited). An experimental design measured the effects of arousal induction and film clip on participants' cardiovascular activity. Results indicated that positive emotions had the same effect as no emotions on participants' cardiovascular activity. Implications for theory and research are provided, as well as an assessment of the study's strengths and limitations. Finally, several directions for future research are offered.

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Date Created
2012

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Measuring school engagement: a longitudinal evaluation of the School Liking and Avoidance Questionnaire from kindergarten through sixth grade

Description

Few measurement tools provide reliable, valid data on both children's emotional and behavioral engagement in school. The School Liking and Avoidance Questionnaire (SLAQ) is one such self-report measure developed to evaluate a child's degree of engagement in the school setting

Few measurement tools provide reliable, valid data on both children's emotional and behavioral engagement in school. The School Liking and Avoidance Questionnaire (SLAQ) is one such self-report measure developed to evaluate a child's degree of engagement in the school setting as it is manifest in a child's school liking and school avoidance. This study evaluated the SLAQ's dimensionality, reliability, and validity. Data were gathered on children from kindergarten through 6th grade (n=396). Participants reported on their school liking and avoidance in the spring of each school year. Scores consistently represented two distinct, yet related subscales (i.e., school liking and school avoidance) that were reliable and stable over time. Validation analyses provided some corroboration of the construct validity of the SLAQ subscales, but evidence of predictive validity was inconsistent with the hypothesized relations (i.e., early report of school liking and school avoidance did not predict later achievement outcomes). In sum, the findings from this study provide some support for the dimensionality, reliability, and validity of the SLAQ and suggest that it can be used for the assessment of young children's behavioral and emotional engagement in school.

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Date Created
2011

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Relations of race, mother's education, and early education on kindergarten academic readiness of children with and without diabetes

Description

Chronic illness can affect multiple domains of functioning, yet scientific understanding of the effects across the lifespan and under multiple contexts is still developing. For instance, research consistently indicates the early years of a child's life are pivotal for early

Chronic illness can affect multiple domains of functioning, yet scientific understanding of the effects across the lifespan and under multiple contexts is still developing. For instance, research consistently indicates the early years of a child's life are pivotal for early intervening to positively affect physical, cognitive, and socio-emotional development; unfortunately, the impact of chronic illnesses, and thus appropriate interventions, during this time are not well-established. Academic achievement is one area in which children with chronic illness are negatively affected and research suggests that the effects of illness can be exacerbated by certain social determinants of health and demographic characteristics; however, no recent studies have examined these relationships for children at school entry. The current study utilized the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) to examine variations in early academic readiness in reading and mathematics by diabetes status, race, and social determinants, specifically mother's education and access to early childhood education, among children born in 2001. Results of the current study indicated that children with diabetes scored lower on reading and mathematics relative to their non-diabetic peers. Significant interactions were evident for diabetes status by mother's education, race/ethnicity, and by early childhood education. Children in homes whose mothers had the lowest level of education did not score as high as children in homes with mothers who had higher levels of education. Among children without diabetes, those identified as Asian, Pacific Islander, or Native Hawaiian outperformed White, Black, Hispanic, American Indian, and multi-race groups on measures of reading and mathematics, whereas among children with diabetes, those identified as multiracial scored highest. Regardless of diabetes status, children who attended preschool outperformed those who did not, yet children without diabetes who had not attended preschool outperformed diabetic children who did receive such services. Findings support the need for targeted early intervention as preschool alone did not mitigate the effects of diabetes on academic performance.

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Date Created
2012

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The ability of oral fluency to predict reading comprehension among ELL children learning to read

Description

The current study analyzed existing data, collected under a previous U.S. Department of Education Reading First grant, to investigate the strength of the relationship between scores on the first- through third-grade Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills - Oral

The current study analyzed existing data, collected under a previous U.S. Department of Education Reading First grant, to investigate the strength of the relationship between scores on the first- through third-grade Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills - Oral Reading Fluency (DIBELS-ORF) test and scores on a reading comprehension test (TerraNova-Reading) administered at the conclusion of second- and third-grade. Participants were sixty-five English Language Learners (ELLs) learning to read in a school district adjacent to the U.S.-Mexico border. DIBELS-ORF and TerraNova-Reading scores were provided by the school district, which administers the assessments in accordance with state and federal mandates to monitor early literacy skill development. Bivariate correlation results indicate moderate-to-strong positive correlations between DIBELS-ORF scores and TerraNova-Reading performance that strengthened between grades one and three. Results suggest that the concurrent relationship between oral reading fluency scores and performance on standardized and high-stakes measures of reading comprehension may be different among ELLs as compared to non-ELLs during first- and second-grade. However, by third-grade the correlations approximate those reported in previous non-ELL studies. This study also examined whether the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), a receptive vocabulary measure, could explain any additional variance on second- and third-grade TerraNova-Reading performance beyond that explained by the DIBELS-ORF. The PPVT was individually administered by researchers collecting data under a Reading First research grant prior to the current study. Receptive vocabulary was found to be a strong predictor of reading comprehension among ELLs, and largely overshadowed the predictive ability of the DIBELS-ORF during first-grade. Results suggest that receptive vocabulary scores, used in conjunction with the DIBELS-ORF, may be useful for identifying beginning ELL readers who are at risk for third-grade reading failure as early as first-grade.

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Date Created
2011