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Multi-hazard damage mitigation for low-rise wood-framed structures using a CarbonFlex composite

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This study focused on investigating the ability of a polymeric-enhanced high-tenacity fabric composite called CarbonFlex to mitigate damages from multi-natural hazards, which are earthquakes and tornadoes, in wood-framed structures. Typically, wood-framed shear wall is a seismic protection system used in

This study focused on investigating the ability of a polymeric-enhanced high-tenacity fabric composite called CarbonFlex to mitigate damages from multi-natural hazards, which are earthquakes and tornadoes, in wood-framed structures. Typically, wood-framed shear wall is a seismic protection system used in low-rise wood structures. It is well-known that the main energy dissipation of the system is its fasteners (nails) which are not enough to dissipate energy leading to decreasing of structure's integrity. Moreover, wood shear walls could not sustain their stiffness after experiencing moderate wall drift which made them susceptible to strong aftershocks. Therefore, CarbonFlex shear wall system was proposed to be used in the wood-framed structures. Seven full-size CarbonFlex shear walls and a CarbonFlex wrapped structures were tested. The results were compared to those of conventional wood-framed shear walls and a wood structure. The comparisons indicated that CarbonFlex specimens could sustain their strength and fully recover their initial stiffness although they experienced four percent story drift while the stiffness of the conventional structure dramatically degraded. This indicated that CarbonFlex shear wall systems provided a better seismic protection to wood-framed structures. To evaluate capability of CarbonFlex to resist impact damages from wind-borne debris in tornadoes, several debris impact tests of CarbonFlex and a carbon fiber reinforced storm shelter's wall panels were conducted. The results showed that three CarbonFlex wall panels passed the test at the highest debris impact speed and the other two passed the test at the second highest speed while the carbon fiber panel failed both impact speeds.

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Date Created
2013

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The development and engineering application of a fiber reinforced hybrid matrix composite for structural retrofitting and damage mitigation

Description

Civil infrastructures are susceptible to damage under the events of natural or manmade disasters. Over the last two decades, the use of emerging engineering materials, such as the fiber-reinforced plastics (FRPs), in structural retrofitting have gained significant popularity. However, due

Civil infrastructures are susceptible to damage under the events of natural or manmade disasters. Over the last two decades, the use of emerging engineering materials, such as the fiber-reinforced plastics (FRPs), in structural retrofitting have gained significant popularity. However, due to their inherent brittleness and lack of energy dissipation, undesirable failure modes of the FRP-retrofitted systems, such as sudden laminate fracture and debonding, have been frequently observed. In this light, a Carbon-fiber reinforced Hybrid-polymeric Matrix Composite (or CHMC) was developed to provide a superior, yet affordable, solution for infrastructure damage mitigation and protection. The microstructural and micromechanical characteristics of the CHMC was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nanoindentation technique. The mechanical performance, such as damping, was identified using free and forced vibration tests. A simplified analytical model based on micromechanics was developed to predict the laminate stiffness using the modulus profile tested by the nanoindentation. The prediction results were verified by the flexural modulus calculated from the vibration tests. The feasibility of using CHMC to retrofit damaged structural systems was investigated via a series of structural component level tests. The effectiveness of using CHMC versus conventional carbon-fiber reinforced epoxy (CF/ epoxy) to retrofit notch damaged steel beams were tested. The comparison of the test results indicated the superior deformation capacity of the CHMC retrofitted beams. The full field strain distributions near the critical notch tip region were experimentally determined by the digital imaging correlation (DIC), and the results matched well with the finite element analysis (FEA) results. In the second series of tests, the application of CHMC was expanded to retrofit the full-scale fatigue-damaged concrete-encased steel (or SRC) girders. Similar to the notched steel beam tests, the CHMC retrofitted SRC girders exhibited substantially better post-peak load ductility than that of CF/ epoxy retrofitted girder. Lastly, a quasi-static push over test on the CHMC retrofitted reinforced concrete shear wall further highlighted the CHMC's capability of enhancing the deformation and energy dissipating potential of the damaged civil infrastructure systems. Analytical and numerical models were developed to assist the retrofitting design using the newly developed CHMC material.

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Date Created
2013