Matching Items (12)

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Modified equivalent circuit for organic solar cells

Description

In this work a newly fabricated organic solar cell based on a composite of fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and regioregular poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with an added

In this work a newly fabricated organic solar cell based on a composite of fullerene derivative [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and regioregular poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with an added interfacial layer of AgOx in between the PEDOT:PSS layer and the ITO layer is investigated. Previous equivalent circuit models are discussed and an equivalent circuit model is proposed for the fabricated device. Incorporation of the AgOx interfacial layer shows an increase in fill factor (by 33%) and power conversion efficiency (by 28%). Moreover proper correlation has been achieved between the experimental and simulated I-V plots. The simulation shows that device characteristics can be explained with accuracy by the proposed model.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Novel Approaches for Improving Efficiency and Stability of Next Generation Perovskite Solar Cells

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Perovskite solar cells are the next generation organic-inorganic hybrid technology and have achieved remarkable efficiencies comparable to Si-based conventional solar cells. Since their inception in 2009 with an efficiency of

Perovskite solar cells are the next generation organic-inorganic hybrid technology and have achieved remarkable efficiencies comparable to Si-based conventional solar cells. Since their inception in 2009 with an efficiency of 3.9%, they have improved tremendously over the past decade and recently demonstrated 25.2% efficiency for single-junction devices. There are a few hurdles, however, that prevent this technology from realizing their full potential, such as stability and toxicity of the perovskites. Apart from solution processing in the fabrication of perovskites, precursor composition plays a major role in determining the quality of the thin film and its general properties. This work studies novel approaches for improving the efficiency and stability of the perovskite solar cells with minimized toxicity. The effect of excess Pb on photo-degradation in MAPbI3 perovskites in an inverted device architecture was studied with a focus on improving stability and efficiency. Precursor concentration with 5% excess Pb was found to be optimal for better efficiency and stability against photo-degradation. Further improvements in efficiency were made possible through the addition of Zirconium Acetylacetonate as a secondary electron buffer layer. A concentration of 1.5mg/ml was found to be optimal for demonstrating better efficiency and stability. Partial substitution of Pb with non-toxic Sr was also studied for improving the stability of inverted devices. Using acetate-derived precursors, 10% Sr was introduced into perovskites for improvements to the stability of the device.

In another study, triple-cation perovskites with FAMACs cations were studied with doping different amounts of Phenyl Ethyl Ammonium (PEA) to induce a quasi 2D-3D structure for improved moisture stability. Doping the perovskite with 1.67% PEA was found to be best for improved morphology with fewer pinholes, which further resulted in better VOC and stability. A passivation effect for triple-cation perovskites was further proposed with the addition of a Guanidinium Iodide layer on the perovskite. Concentrations of 1mg/ml and 2mg/ml were demonstrated to be best for reducing defects and trap states and increasing the overall stability of the device.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Characterization of Novel Thin-Films and Structures for Integrated Circuit and Photovoltaic Applications

Description

Thin films have been widely used in various applications. This research focuses on the characterization of novel thin films in the integrated circuits and photovoltaic techniques. The ion implanted layer

Thin films have been widely used in various applications. This research focuses on the characterization of novel thin films in the integrated circuits and photovoltaic techniques. The ion implanted layer in silicon can be treated as ion implanted thin film, which plays an essential role in the integrated circuits fabrication. Novel rapid annealing methods, i.e. microwave annealing and laser annealing, are conducted to activate ion dopants and repair the damages, and then are compared with the conventional rapid thermal annealing (RTA). In terms of As+ and P+ implanted Si, the electrical and structural characterization confirms that the microwave and laser annealing can achieve more efficient dopant activation and recrystallization than conventional RTA. The efficient dopant activation in microwave annealing is attributed to ion hopping under microwave field, while the liquid phase growth in laser annealing provides its efficient dopant activation. The characterization of dopants diffusion shows no visible diffusion after microwave annealing, some extent of end range of diffusion after RTA, and significant dopant diffusion after laser annealing.

For photovoltaic applications, an indium-free novel three-layer thin-film structure (transparent composited electrode (TCE)) is demonstrated as a promising transparent conductive electrode for solar cells. The characterization of TCE mainly focuses on its optical and electrical properties. Transfer matrix method for optical transmittance calculation is validated and proved to be a desirable method for predicting transmittance of TCE containing continuous metal layer, and can estimate the trend of transmittance as the layer thickness changes. TiO2/Ag/TiO2 (TAgT) electrode for organic solar cells (OSCs) is then designed using numerical simulation and shows much higher Haacke figure of merit than indium tin oxide (ITO). In addition, TAgT based OSC shows better performance than ITO based OSC when compatible hole transfer layer is employed. The electrical and structural characterization of hole transfer layers (HTLs) in OSCs reveals MoO3 is the compatible HTL for TAgT anode. In the end, the reactive ink printed Ag film for solar cell contact application is studied by characterizing its electromigration lifetime. A percolative model is proposed and validated for predicting the resistivity and lifetime of printed Ag thin films containing porous structure.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Novel electrical measurement techniques for silicon devices

Description

Semiconductor manufacturing economics necessitate the development of innovative device measurement techniques for quick assessment of products. Several novel electrical measurement techniques will be proposed for screening silicon device parameters. The

Semiconductor manufacturing economics necessitate the development of innovative device measurement techniques for quick assessment of products. Several novel electrical measurement techniques will be proposed for screening silicon device parameters. The studied parameters range from oxide reliability, and carrier lifetime in MOS capacitors to the power MOSFET reverse recovery.

It will be shown that positive charge trapping is a dominant process when thick oxides are stressed through the ramped voltage test (RVT). Exploiting the physics behind positive charge generation/trapping at high electric fields, a fast I-V measurement technique is proposed that can be used to effectively distinguish the ultra-thick oxides' intrinsic quality at low electric fields.

Next, two novel techniques will be presented for studying the carrier lifetime in MOS Capacitor devices. It will be shown that the deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) can be applied to MOS test structures as a swift mean for screening the generation lifetime. Recombination lifetime will also be addressed by introducing the optically-excited MOS technique as a promising tool.

The last part of this work is devoted to the reverse recovery behavior of the body diode of power MOSFETs. The correct interpretation of the LDMOS reverse recovery is challenging and requires special attention. A simple approach will be presented to extract meaningful lifetime values from the reverse recovery of LDMOS body-diodes exploiting their gate voltage and the magnitude of the reverse bias.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Resistivity and optical transmittance simulation on metal embedded transparent conducting oxide thin films

Description

This work focuses on simulation of electrical resistivity and optical behaviors of thin films, where an Ag or Au thin layer is embedded in zinc oxide. Enhanced conductivity and transparency

This work focuses on simulation of electrical resistivity and optical behaviors of thin films, where an Ag or Au thin layer is embedded in zinc oxide. Enhanced conductivity and transparency were earlier achieved with multilayer structured transparent conducting oxide (TCO) sandwich layer with metal (TCO/metal/TCO). Sputtering pattern of metal layer is simulated to obtain the morphology, covered area fraction, and the percolation strength. The resistivity as a function of the metal layer thickness fits the modeled trend of covered area fraction beyond the percolation threshold. This result not only presents the robustness of the simulation, but also demonstrates the influence of metal morphology in multilayer structure. Effective medium coefficients are defined from the coverage and percolation strength to obtain simulated optical transmittance which matches experimental observation. The coherence of resistivity and optical transmittance validates the simulation of the sputtered pattern and the incorporation of percolation theory in the model.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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Magnesiothermic Conversion of Sintered-Closely Packed Diatom (Coscinodiscus wailesii) Monolayer on Silicon Wafer and its Optical Properties.

Description

The hierarchical silica structure of the Coscinodiscus wailesii diatom was studied due to its intriguing optical properties. To bring the diatom into light harvesting applications, three crucial factors were investigated,

The hierarchical silica structure of the Coscinodiscus wailesii diatom was studied due to its intriguing optical properties. To bring the diatom into light harvesting applications, three crucial factors were investigated, including closely-packed diatom monolayer formation, bonding of the diatoms on a substrate, and conversion of silica diatom shells into silicon.

The closely-packed monolayer formation of diatom valves on silicon substrates was accomplished using their hydrodynamic properties and the surface tension of water. Valves dispersed on a hydrophobic surface were able to float-up with a preferential orientation (convex side facing the water surface) when water was added. The floating diatom monolayer was subsequently transferred to a silicon substrate. A closely-packed diatom monolayer on the silicon substrate was obtained after the water evaporated at room temperature.

The diatom monolayer was then directly bonded onto the substrate via a sintering process at high temperature in air. The percentage of bonded valves increased as the temperature increased. The valves started to sinter into the substrate at 1100°C. The sintering process caused shrinkage of the nanopores at temperatures above 1100°C. The more delicate structure was more sensitive to the elevated temperature. The cribellum, the most intricate nanostructure of the diatom (~50 nm), disappeared at 1125°C. The cribrum, consisting of approximated 100-300 nm diameter pores, disappeared at 1150°C. The areola, the micro-chamber-liked structure, can survive up to 1150°C. At 1200°C, the complete nanostructure was destroyed. In addition, cross-section images revealed that the valves fused into the thermally-grown oxide layer that was generated on the substrate at high temperatures.

The silica-sintered diatom close-packed monolayer, processed at 1125°C, was magnesiothermically converted into porous silicon using magnesium silicide. X-ray diffraction, infrared absorption, energy dispersive X-say spectra and secondary electron images confirmed the formation of a Si layer with preserved diatom nano-microstructure. The conversion process and subsequent application of a PEDOT:PSS coating both decreased the light reflection from the sample. The photocurrent and reflectance spectra revealed that the Si-diatom dominantly enhanced light absorption between 414 to 586 nm and 730 to 800 nm. Though some of the structural features disappeared during the sintering process, the diatom is still able to improve light absorption. Therefore, the sintering process can be used for diatom direct bonding in light harvesting applications.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Effect of microwave annealing on low energy ion implanted wafer

Description

Rapid processing and reduced end-of-range diffusion effects demonstrate that susceptor-assisted microwave annealing is an efficient processing alternative for electrically activating dopants and removing ion-implantation damage in ion-implanted semiconductors. Sheet resistance

Rapid processing and reduced end-of-range diffusion effects demonstrate that susceptor-assisted microwave annealing is an efficient processing alternative for electrically activating dopants and removing ion-implantation damage in ion-implanted semiconductors. Sheet resistance and Hall measurements provide evidence of electrical activation. Raman spectroscopy and ion channeling analysis monitor the extent of ion implantation damage and recrystallization. The presence of damage and defects in ion implanted silicon, and the reduction of the defects as a result of annealing, is observed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, moreover, the boron implanted silicon is further investigated by cross-section transmission electron microscopy. When annealing B+ implanted silicon, the dissolution of small extended defects and growth of large extended defects result in reduced crystalline quality that hinders the electrical activation process. Compared to B+ implanted silicon, phosphorus implanted samples experience more effective activation and achieve better crystalline quality. Comparison of end-of-range dopants diffusion resulting from microwave annealing and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) is done using secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Results from microwave annealed P+ implanted samples show that almost no diffusion occurs during time periods required for complete dopant activation and silicon recrystallization. The relative contributions to heating of the sample, by a SiC susceptor, and by Si self-heating in the microwave anneal, were also investigated. At first 20s, the main contributor to the sample's temperature rise is Si self-heating by microwave absorption.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Response of metal structures on chalcogenide thin films to thermal, ultraviolet and microwave processing

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Microwave (MW), thermal, and ultraviolet (UV) annealing were used to explore the response of Ag structures on a Ge-Se chalcogenide glass (ChG) thin film as flexible radiation sensors, and Te-Ti

Microwave (MW), thermal, and ultraviolet (UV) annealing were used to explore the response of Ag structures on a Ge-Se chalcogenide glass (ChG) thin film as flexible radiation sensors, and Te-Ti chalcogenide thin films as a material for diffusion barriers in microelectronics devices and processing of metallized Cu. Flexible resistive radiation sensors consisting of Ag electrodes on a Ge20Se80 ChG thin film and polyethylene naphthalate substrate were exposed to UV radiation. The sensors were mounted on PVC tubes of varying radii to induce bending strains and annealed under ambient conditions up to 150 oC. Initial sensor resistance was measured to be ~1012 Ω; after exposure to UV radiation, the resistance was ~104 Ω. Bending strain and low temperature annealing had no significant effect on the resistance of the sensors. Samples of Cu on Te-Ti thin films were annealed in vacuum for up to 30 minutes and were stable up to 500 oC as revealed using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and four-point-probe analysis. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) indicates Cu grain growth up to 500 oC and phase instability of the Te-Ti barrier at 600 oC. MW processing was performed in a 2.45-GHz microwave cavity on Cu/Te-Ti films for up to 30 seconds to induce oxide growth. Using a calibrated pyrometer above the sample, the temperature of the MW process was measured to be below a maximum of 186 oC. Four-point-probe analysis shows an increase in resistance with an increase in MW time. XRD indicates growth of CuO on the sample surface. RBS suggests oxidation throughout the Te-Ti film. Additional samples were exposed to 907 J/cm2 UV radiation in order to ensure other possible electromagnetically induced mechanisms were not active. There were no changes observed using XRD, RBS or four point probing.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Susceptor assisted microwave annealing of ion implanted silicon

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This thesis discusses the use of low temperature microwave anneal as an alternative technique to recrystallize materials damaged or amorphized due to implantation techniques. The work focuses on the annealing

This thesis discusses the use of low temperature microwave anneal as an alternative technique to recrystallize materials damaged or amorphized due to implantation techniques. The work focuses on the annealing of high-Z doped Si wafers that are incapable of attaining high temperatures required for recrystallizing the damaged implanted layers by microwave absorption The increasing necessity for quicker and more efficient processing techniques motivates study of the use of a single frequency applicator microwave cavity along with a Fe2O3 infused SiC-alumina susceptor/applicator as an alternative post implantation process. Arsenic implanted Si samples of different dopant concentrations and implantation energies were studied pre and post microwave annealing. A set of as-implanted Si samples were also used to assess the effect of inactive dopants against presence of electrically active dopants on the recrystallization mechanisms. The extent of damage repair and Si recrystallization of the damage caused by arsenic and Si implantation of Si is determined by cross-section transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Dopant activation is evaluated for the As implanted Si by sheet resistance measurements. For the same, secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis is used to compare the extent of diffusion that results from such microwave annealing with that experienced when using conventional rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Results show that compared to susceptor assisted microwave annealing, RTA caused undesired dopant diffusion. The SiC-alumina susceptor plays a predominant role in supplying heat to the Si substrate, and acts as an assistor that helps a high-Z dopant like arsenic to absorb the microwave energy using a microwave loss mechanism which is a combination of ionic and dipole losses. Comparisons of annealing of the samples were done with and without the use of the susceptor, and confirm the role played by the susceptor, since the samples donot recrystallize when the surface heating mechanism provided by the susceptor is not incorporated. Variable frequency microwave annealing was also performed over the as-implanted Si samples for durations and temperatures higher than the single frequency microwave anneal, but only partial recrystallization of the damaged layer was achieved.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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Adhesion in a copper-ruthenium multilayer nano-scale structure and the use of a Miedema plot to select a diffusion barrier metal for copper metallization

Description

Miedema's plot is used to select the Cu/metal barrier for Cu metallization.The Cu/metal barrier system selected should have positive heat of formation (Hf) so that there is no intermixing between

Miedema's plot is used to select the Cu/metal barrier for Cu metallization.The Cu/metal barrier system selected should have positive heat of formation (Hf) so that there is no intermixing between the two layers. In this case, Ru is chosen as a potential candidate, and then the barrier properties of sputtered Cu/Ru thin films on thermally grown SiO2 substrates are investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and electrical resistivity measurement. The Cu/Ru/SiO2 samples are analyzed prior to and after vacuum annealing at various temperatures of 400, 500, and 600 oC and at different interval of times of 0.5, 1 and 2 hrs for each temperature. Backscattering analysis indicate that both the copper and ruthenium thin films are thermally stable at high temperature of 600 oC, without any interdiffusion and chemical reaction between Cu and Ru thin films. No new phase formation is observed in any of the Cu/Ru/SiO2 samples. The XRD data indicate no new phase formation in any of the annealed Cu/Ru/SiO2 samples and confirmed excellent thermal stability of Cu on Ru layer. The electrical resistivity measurement indicated that the electrical resistivity value of the copper thin films annealed at 400, 500, and 600 oC is essentially constant and the copper films are thermally stable on Ru, no reaction occurs between copper films and Ru the layer. Cu/Ru/SiO2 multilayered thin film samples have been shown to possess good mechanical strength and adhesion between the Cu and Ru layers compared to the Cu/SiO2 thin film samples. The strength evaluation is carried out under static loading conditions such as nanoindentation testing. In this study, evaluation and comparison is donebased on the dynamic deformation behavior of Cu/Ru/SiO2 and Cu/SiO2 samples under scratch loading condition as a measure of tribological properties. Finally, the deformation behavior under static and dynamic loading conditions is understood using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the focused ionbeam imaging microscope (FIB) for topographical and cross-sectional imaging respectively.

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Date Created
  • 2010