Matching Items (70)

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Biology-based matched signal processing and physics-based modeling for improved detection

Description

Peptide microarrays have been used in molecular biology to profile immune responses and develop diagnostic tools. When the microarrays are printed with random peptide sequences, they can be used

Peptide microarrays have been used in molecular biology to profile immune responses and develop diagnostic tools. When the microarrays are printed with random peptide sequences, they can be used to identify antigen antibody binding patterns or immunosignatures. In this thesis, an advanced signal processing method is proposed to estimate epitope antigen subsequences as well as identify mimotope antigen subsequences that mimic the structure of epitopes from random-sequence peptide microarrays. The method first maps peptide sequences to linear expansions of highly-localized one-dimensional (1-D) time-varying signals and uses a time-frequency processing technique to detect recurring patterns in subsequences. This technique is matched to the aforementioned mapping scheme, and it allows for an inherent analysis on how substitutions in the subsequences can affect antibody binding strength. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated by estimating epitopes and identifying potential mimotopes for eight monoclonal antibody samples.

The proposed mapping is generalized to express information on a protein's sequence location, structure and function onto a highly localized three-dimensional (3-D) Gaussian waveform. In particular, as analysis of protein homology has shown that incorporating different kinds of information into an alignment process can yield more robust alignment results, a pairwise protein structure alignment method is proposed based on a joint similarity measure of multiple mapped protein attributes. The 3-D mapping allocates protein properties into distinct regions in the time-frequency plane in order to simplify the alignment process by including all relevant information into a single, highly customizable waveform. Simulations demonstrate the improved performance of the joint alignment approach to infer relationships between proteins, and they provide information on mutations that cause changes to both the sequence and structure of a protein.

In addition to the biology-based signal processing methods, a statistical method is considered that uses a physics-based model to improve processing performance. In particular, an externally developed physics-based model for sea clutter is examined when detecting a low radar cross-section target in heavy sea clutter. This novel model includes a process that generates random dynamic sea clutter based on the governing physics of water gravity and capillary waves and a finite-difference time-domain electromagnetics simulation process based on Maxwell's equations propagating the radar signal. A subspace clutter suppression detector is applied to remove dominant clutter eigenmodes, and its improved performance over matched filtering is demonstrated using simulations.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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On asynchronous communication systems: capacity bounds and relaying schemes

Description

Practical communication systems are subject to errors due to imperfect time alignment among the communicating nodes. Timing errors can occur in different forms depending on the underlying communication scenario. This

Practical communication systems are subject to errors due to imperfect time alignment among the communicating nodes. Timing errors can occur in different forms depending on the underlying communication scenario. This doctoral study considers two different classes of asynchronous systems; point-to-point (P2P) communication systems with synchronization errors, and asynchronous cooperative systems. In particular, the focus is on an information theoretic analysis for P2P systems with synchronization errors and developing new signaling solutions for several asynchronous cooperative communication systems. The first part of the dissertation presents several bounds on the capacity of the P2P systems with synchronization errors. First, binary insertion and deletion channels are considered where lower bounds on the mutual information between the input and output sequences are computed for independent uniformly distributed (i.u.d.) inputs. Then, a channel suffering from both synchronization errors and additive noise is considered as a serial concatenation of a synchronization error-only channel and an additive noise channel. It is proved that the capacity of the original channel is lower bounded in terms of the synchronization error-only channel capacity and the parameters of both channels. On a different front, to better characterize the deletion channel capacity, the capacity of three independent deletion channels with different deletion probabilities are related through an inequality resulting in the tightest upper bound on the deletion channel capacity for deletion probabilities larger than 0.65. Furthermore, the first non-trivial upper bound on the 2K-ary input deletion channel capacity is provided by relating the 2K-ary input deletion channel capacity with the binary deletion channel capacity through an inequality. The second part of the dissertation develops two new relaying schemes to alleviate asynchronism issues in cooperative communications. The first one is a single carrier (SC)-based scheme providing a spectrally efficient Alamouti code structure at the receiver under flat fading channel conditions by reducing the overhead needed to overcome the asynchronism and obtain spatial diversity. The second one is an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)-based approach useful for asynchronous cooperative systems experiencing excessive relative delays among the relays under frequency-selective channel conditions to achieve a delay diversity structure at the receiver and extract spatial diversity.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Localization in wireless sensor networks

Description

In many applications, measured sensor data is meaningful only when the location of sensors is accurately known. Therefore, the localization accuracy is crucial. In this dissertation, both location estimation and

In many applications, measured sensor data is meaningful only when the location of sensors is accurately known. Therefore, the localization accuracy is crucial. In this dissertation, both location estimation and location detection problems are considered.

In location estimation problems, sensor nodes at known locations, called anchors, transmit signals to sensor nodes at unknown locations, called nodes, and use these transmissions to estimate the location of the nodes. Specifically, the location estimation in the presence of fading channels using time of arrival (TOA) measurements with narrowband communication signals is considered. Meanwhile, the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) for localization error under different assumptions is derived. Also, maximum likelihood estimators (MLEs) under these assumptions are derived.

In large WSNs, distributed location estimation algorithms are more efficient than centralized algorithms. A sequential localization scheme, which is one of distributed location estimation algorithms, is considered. Also, different localization methods, such as TOA, received signal strength (RSS), time difference of arrival (TDOA), direction of arrival (DOA), and large aperture array (LAA) are compared under different signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions. Simulation results show that DOA is the preferred scheme at the low SNR regime and the LAA localization algorithm provides better performance for network discovery at high SNRs. Meanwhile, the CRLB for the localization error using the TOA method is also derived.

A distributed location detection scheme, which allows each anchor to make a decision as to whether a node is active or not is proposed. Once an anchor makes a decision, a bit is transmitted to a fusion center (FC). The fusion center combines all the decisions and uses a design parameter $K$ to make the final decision. Three scenarios are considered in this dissertation. Firstly, location detection at a known location is considered. Secondly, detecting a node in a known region is considered. Thirdly, location detection in the presence of fading is considered. The optimal thresholds are derived and the total probability of false alarm and detection under different scenarios are derived.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Data-Driven Representation Learning in Multimodal Feature Fusion

Description

Modern machine learning systems leverage data and features from multiple modalities to gain more predictive power. In most scenarios, the modalities are vastly different and the acquired data are heterogeneous

Modern machine learning systems leverage data and features from multiple modalities to gain more predictive power. In most scenarios, the modalities are vastly different and the acquired data are heterogeneous in nature. Consequently, building highly effective fusion algorithms is at the core to achieve improved model robustness and inferencing performance. This dissertation focuses on the representation learning approaches as the fusion strategy. Specifically, the objective is to learn the shared latent representation which jointly exploit the structural information encoded in all modalities, such that a straightforward learning model can be adopted to obtain the prediction.

We first consider sensor fusion, a typical multimodal fusion problem critical to building a pervasive computing platform. A systematic fusion technique is described to support both multiple sensors and descriptors for activity recognition. Targeted to learn the optimal combination of kernels, Multiple Kernel Learning (MKL) algorithms have been successfully applied to numerous fusion problems in computer vision etc. Utilizing the MKL formulation, next we describe an auto-context algorithm for learning image context via the fusion with low-level descriptors. Furthermore, a principled fusion algorithm using deep learning to optimize kernel machines is developed. By bridging deep architectures with kernel optimization, this approach leverages the benefits of both paradigms and is applied to a wide variety of fusion problems.

In many real-world applications, the modalities exhibit highly specific data structures, such as time sequences and graphs, and consequently, special design of the learning architecture is needed. In order to improve the temporal modeling for multivariate sequences, we developed two architectures centered around attention models. A novel clinical time series analysis model is proposed for several critical problems in healthcare. Another model coupled with triplet ranking loss as metric learning framework is described to better solve speaker diarization. Compared to state-of-the-art recurrent networks, these attention-based multivariate analysis tools achieve improved performance while having a lower computational complexity. Finally, in order to perform community detection on multilayer graphs, a fusion algorithm is described to derive node embedding from word embedding techniques and also exploit the complementary relational information contained in each layer of the graph.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Robust distributed parameter estimation in wireless sensor networks

Description

Fully distributed wireless sensor networks (WSNs) without fusion center have advantages such as scalability in network size and energy efficiency in communications. Each sensor shares its data only with neighbors

Fully distributed wireless sensor networks (WSNs) without fusion center have advantages such as scalability in network size and energy efficiency in communications. Each sensor shares its data only with neighbors and then achieves global consensus quantities by in-network processing. This dissertation considers robust distributed parameter estimation methods, seeking global consensus on parameters of adaptive learning algorithms and statistical quantities.

Diffusion adaptation strategy with nonlinear transmission is proposed. The nonlinearity was motivated by the necessity for bounded transmit power, as sensors need to iteratively communicate each other energy-efficiently. Despite the nonlinearity, it is shown that the algorithm performs close to the linear case with the added advantage of power savings. This dissertation also discusses convergence properties of the algorithm in the mean and the mean-square sense.

Often, average is used to measure central tendency of sensed data over a network. When there are outliers in the data, however, average can be highly biased. Alternative choices of robust metrics against outliers are median, mode, and trimmed mean. Quantiles generalize the median, and they also can be used for trimmed mean. Consensus-based distributed quantile estimation algorithm is proposed and applied for finding trimmed-mean, median, maximum or minimum values, and identification of outliers through simulation. It is shown that the estimated quantities are asymptotically unbiased and converges toward the sample quantile in the mean-square sense. Step-size sequences with proper decay rates are also discussed for convergence analysis.

Another measure of central tendency is a mode which represents the most probable value and also be robust to outliers and other contaminations in data. The proposed distributed mode estimation algorithm achieves a global mode by recursively shifting conditional mean of the measurement data until it converges to stationary points of estimated density function. It is also possible to estimate the mode by utilizing grid vector as well as kernel density estimator. The densities are estimated at each grid point, while the points are updated until they converge to a global mode.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Outage Probability Analysis of Full-Duplex Amplify-and-Forward MIMO Relay Systems

Description

Multiple-input multiple-output systems have gained focus in the last decade due to the benefits they provide in enhancing the quality of communications. On the other hand, full-duplex communication has attracted

Multiple-input multiple-output systems have gained focus in the last decade due to the benefits they provide in enhancing the quality of communications. On the other hand, full-duplex communication has attracted remarkable attention due to its ability to improve the spectral efficiency compared to the existing half-duplex systems. Using full-duplex communications on MIMO co-operative networks can provide us solutions that can completely outperform existing systems with simultaneous transmission and reception at high data rates.

This thesis considers a full-duplex MIMO relay which amplifies and forwards the received signals, between a source and a destination that do not a have line of sight. Full-duplex mode raises the problem of self-interference. Though all the links in the system undergo frequency flat fading, the end-to-end effective channel is frequency selective. This is due to the imperfect cancellation of the self-interference at the relay and this residual self-interference acts as intersymbol interference at the destination which is treated by equalization. This also leads to complications in form of recursive equations to determine the input-output relationship of the system. This also leads to complications in the form of recursive equations to determine the input-output relationship of the system.

To overcome this, a signal flow graph approach using Mason's gain formula is proposed, where the effective channel is analyzed with keen notice to every loop and path the signal traverses. This gives a clear understanding and awareness about the orders of the polynomials involved in the transfer function, from which desired conclusions can be drawn. But the complexity of Mason's gain formula increases with the number of antennas at relay which can be overcome by the proposed linear algebraic method. Input-output relationship derived using simple concepts of linear algebra can be generalized to any number of antennas and the computation complexity is comparatively very low.

For a full-duplex amplify-and-forward MIMO relay system, assuming equalization at the destination, new mechanisms have been implemented at the relay that can compensate the effect of residual self-interference namely equal-gain transmission and antenna selection. Though equal-gain transmission does not perform better than the maximal ratio transmission, a trade-off can be made between performance and implementation complexity. Using the proposed antenna selection strategy, one pair of transmit-receive antennas at the relay is selected based on four selection criteria discussed. Outage probability analysis is performed for all the strategies presented and detailed comparison has been established. Considering minimum mean-squared error decision feedback equalizer at the destination, a bound on the outage probability has been obtained for the antenna selection case and is used for comparisons. A cross-over point is observed while comparing the outage probabilities of equal-gain transmission and antenna selection techniques, as the signal-to-noise ratio increases and from that point antenna selection outperforms equal-gain transmission and this is explained by the fact of reduced residual self-interference in antenna selection method.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Channel Estimation in Half and Full Duplex Relays

Description

Both two-way relays (TWR) and full-duplex (FD) radios are spectrally efficient, and their integration shows great potential to further improve the spectral efficiency, which offers a solution to the fifth

Both two-way relays (TWR) and full-duplex (FD) radios are spectrally efficient, and their integration shows great potential to further improve the spectral efficiency, which offers a solution to the fifth generation wireless systems. High quality channel state information (CSI) are the key components for the implementation and the performance of the FD TWR system, making channel estimation in FD TWRs crucial.

The impact of channel estimation on spectral efficiency in half-duplex multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) TWR systems is investigated. The trade-off between training and data energy is proposed. In the case that two sources are symmetric in power and number of antennas, a closed-form for the optimal ratio of data energy to total energy is derived. It can be shown that the achievable rate is a monotonically increasing function of the data length. The asymmetric case is discussed as well.

Efficient and accurate training schemes for FD TWRs are essential for profiting from the inherent spectrally efficient structures of both FD and TWRs. A novel one-block training scheme with a maximum likelihood (ML) estimator is proposed to estimate the channels between the nodes and the residual self-interference (RSI) channel simultaneously. Baseline training schemes are also considered to compare with the one-block scheme. The Cramer-Rao bounds (CRBs) of the training schemes are derived and analyzed by using the asymptotic properties of Toeplitz matrices. The benefit of estimating the RSI channel is shown analytically in terms of Fisher information.

To obtain fundamental and analytic results of how the RSI affects the spectral efficiency, one-way FD relay systems are studied. Optimal training design and ML channel estimation are proposed to estimate the RSI channel. The CRBs are derived and analyzed in closed-form so that the optimal training sequence can be found via minimizing the CRB. Extensions of the training scheme to frequency-selective channels and multiple relays are also presented.

Simultaneously sensing and transmission in an FD cognitive radio system with MIMO is considered. The trade-off between the transmission rate and the detection accuracy is characterized by the sum-rate of the primary and the secondary users. Different beamforming and combining schemes are proposed and compared.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Remote Sensing For Vital Signs Monitoring Using Advanced Radar Signal Processing Techniques

Description

In the past half century, low-power wireless signals from portable radar sensors, initially continuous-wave (CW) radars and more recently ultra-wideband (UWB) radar systems, have been successfully used to detect

In the past half century, low-power wireless signals from portable radar sensors, initially continuous-wave (CW) radars and more recently ultra-wideband (UWB) radar systems, have been successfully used to detect physiological movements of stationary human beings.

The thesis starts with a careful review of existing signal processing techniques and state of the art methods possible for vital signs monitoring using UWB impulse systems. Then an in-depth analysis of various approaches is presented.

Robust heart-rate monitoring methods are proposed based on a novel result: spectrally the fundamental heartbeat frequency is respiration-interference-limited while its higher-order harmonics are noise-limited. The higher-order statistics related to heartbeat can be a robust indication when the fundamental heartbeat is masked by the strong lower-order harmonics of respiration or when phase calibration is not accurate if phase-based method is used. Analytical spectral analysis is performed to validate that the higher-order harmonics of heartbeat is almost respiration-interference free. Extensive experiments have been conducted to justify an adaptive heart-rate monitoring algorithm. The scenarios of interest are, 1) single subject, 2) multiple subjects at different ranges, 3) multiple subjects at same range, and 4) through wall monitoring.

A remote sensing radar system implemented using the proposed adaptive heart-rate estimation algorithm is compared to the competing remote sensing technology, a remote imaging photoplethysmography system, showing promising results.

State of the art methods for vital signs monitoring are fundamentally related to process the phase variation due to vital signs motions. Their performance are determined by a phase calibration procedure. Existing methods fail to consider the time-varying nature of phase noise. There is no prior knowledge about which of the corrupted complex signals, in-phase component (I) and quadrature component (Q), need to be corrected. A precise phase calibration routine is proposed based on the respiration pattern. The I/Q samples from every breath are more likely to experience similar motion noise and therefore they should be corrected independently. High slow-time sampling rate is used to ensure phase calibration accuracy. Occasionally, a 180-degree phase shift error occurs after the initial calibration step and should be corrected as well. All phase trajectories in the I/Q plot are only allowed in certain angular spaces. This precise phase calibration routine is validated through computer simulations incorporating a time-varying phase noise model, controlled mechanic system, and human subject experiment.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Directional information flow and applications

Description

In the late 1960s, Granger published a seminal study on causality in time series, using linear interdependencies and information transfer. Recent developments in the field of information theory have introduced

In the late 1960s, Granger published a seminal study on causality in time series, using linear interdependencies and information transfer. Recent developments in the field of information theory have introduced new methods to investigate the transfer of information in dynamical systems. Using concepts from Chaos and Markov theory, much of these methods have evolved to capture non-linear relations and information flow between coupled dynamical systems with applications to fields like biomedical signal processing. This thesis deals with the application of information theory to non-linear multivariate time series and develops measures of information flow to identify significant drivers and response (driven) components in networks of coupled sub-systems with variable coupling in strength and direction (uni- or bi-directional) for each connection. Transfer Entropy (TE) is used to quantify pairwise directional information. Four TE-based measures of information flow are proposed, namely TE Outflow (TEO), TE Inflow (TEI), TE Net flow (TEN), and Average TE flow (ATE). First, the reliability of the information flow measures on models, with and without noise, is evaluated. The driver and response sub-systems in these models are identified. Second, these measures are applied to electroencephalographic (EEG) data from two patients with focal epilepsy. The analysis showed dominant directions of information flow between brain sites and identified the epileptogenic focus as the system component typically with the highest value for the proposed measures (for example, ATE). Statistical tests between pre-seizure (preictal) and post-seizure (postictal) information flow also showed a breakage of the driving of the brain by the focus after seizure onset. The above findings shed light on the function of the epileptogenic focus and understanding of ictogenesis. It is expected that they will contribute to the diagnosis of epilepsy, for example by accurate identification of the epileptogenic focus from interictal periods, as well as the development of better seizure detection, prediction and control methods, for example by isolating pathologic areas of excessive information flow through electrical stimulation.

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Date Created
  • 2011

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DSP algorithm and software development on the iPhone/iPad platform

Description

The ease of use of mobile devices and tablets by students has generated a lot of interest in the area of engineering education. By using mobile technologies in signal analysis

The ease of use of mobile devices and tablets by students has generated a lot of interest in the area of engineering education. By using mobile technologies in signal analysis and applied mathematics, undergraduate-level courses can broaden the scope and effectiveness of technical education in classrooms. The current mobile devices have abundant memory and powerful processors, in addition to providing interactive interfaces. Therefore, these devices can support the implementation of non-trivial signal processing algorithms. Several existing visual programming environments such as Java Digital Signal Processing (J-DSP), are built using the platform-independent infrastructure of Java applets. These enable students to perform signal-processing exercises over the Internet. However, some mobile devices do not support Java applets. Furthermore, mobile simulation environments rely heavily on establishing robust Internet connections with a remote server where the processing is performed. The interactive Java Digital Signal Processing tool (iJDSP) has been developed as graphical mobile app on iOS devices (iPads, iPhones and iPod touches). In contrast to existing mobile applications, iJDSP has the ability to execute simulations directly on the mobile devices, and is a completely stand-alone application. In addition to a substantial set of signal processing algorithms, iJDSP has a highly interactive graphical interface where block diagrams can be constructed using a simple drag-n-drop procedure. Functions such as visualization of the convolution operation, and an interface to wireless sensors have been developed. The convolution module animates the process of the continuous and discrete convolution operations, including time-shift and integration, so that users can observe and learn, intuitively. The current set of DSP functions in the application enables students to perform simulation exercises on continuous and discrete convolution, z-transform, filter design and the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). The interface to wireless sensors in iJDSP allows users to import data from wireless sensor networks, and use the rich suite of functions in iJDSP for data processing. This allows users to perform operations such as localization, activity detection and data fusion. The exercises and the iJDSP application were evaluated by senior-level students at Arizona State University (ASU), and the results of those assessments are analyzed and reported in this thesis.

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Date Created
  • 2012