Matching Items (30)

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Exposure to maternal distress in childhood and cortisol activity in young adulthood

Description

Dysregulated cortisol is a risk factor for poor health outcomes. Children of distressed mothers exhibit dysregulated cortisol, yet it is unclear whether maternal distress predicts cortisol activity in later developmental

Dysregulated cortisol is a risk factor for poor health outcomes. Children of distressed mothers exhibit dysregulated cortisol, yet it is unclear whether maternal distress predicts cortisol activity in later developmental stages. This longitudinal study examined the prospective relation between maternal distress during late childhood (9–12 years) and adolescence (15–19 years) and cortisol response in offspring in young adulthood (24–28 years). Data were collected from 51 recently divorced mothers and their children across 15 years. Higher maternal distress during late childhood was associated with lower total cortisol independent of levels of maternal distress in adolescence or young adulthood. Maternal distress during adolescence marginally predicted blunted cortisol when distress in childhood was low. Findings suggest that blunted cortisol activity in young adulthood may be a long-term consequence of exposure to maternal distress earlier in development.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-11-01

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Participation Patterns Among Mexican-American Parents Enrolled in a Universal Intervention and Their Association with Child Externalizing Outcomes

Description

This study used growth mixture modeling to examine attendance trajectories among 292 Mexican–American primary female caregivers enrolled in a universal preventive intervention and the effects of health beliefs, participation intentions,

This study used growth mixture modeling to examine attendance trajectories among 292 Mexican–American primary female caregivers enrolled in a universal preventive intervention and the effects of health beliefs, participation intentions, cultural influences, and intervention group cohesion on trajectory group membership as well as trajectory group differences on a distal outcome, immediate posttest teacher report of child externalizing (T2). Results supported four trajectory groups—early terminators (ET), mid-program terminators (MPT), low-risk persistent attenders (LRPA), and high-risk persistent attenders (HRPA). Compared with LRPAs, caregivers classified as HRPAs had weaker familism values, less parenting efficacy, and higher externalizing children with lower GPAs. Caregivers in the two persistent attender groups reported strong group cohesion and providers rated these caregivers as having strong participation intentions. Children of caregivers in the LRPA group had the lowest T2 child externalizing. Children of caregivers in the MPT group had lower T2 externalizing than did those of the ET group, suggesting partial intervention dosage can benefit families. Despite high levels of attendance, children of caregivers in the HRPA had the highest T2 externalizing, suggesting this high-risk group needed either more intensive services or a longer period for parents to implement program skills to evidence change in child externalizing.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-12-01

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Cultural Values, U.S. Neighborhood Danger, and Mexican American Parents' Parenting

Description

To begin accounting for cultural and contextual factors related to child rearing among Mexican American parents we examined whether parents' Mexican American cultural values and perceptions of neighborhood danger influenced

To begin accounting for cultural and contextual factors related to child rearing among Mexican American parents we examined whether parents' Mexican American cultural values and perceptions of neighborhood danger influenced patterns of parenting behavior in two-parent Mexican-origin families living in the U. S. To avoid forcing Mexican American parents into a predefined model of parenting styles, we used latent profile analysis to identify unique patterns of responsiveness and demandingness among mothers and fathers. Analyses were conducted using parent self-reports on parenting and replicated with youth reports on mothers' and fathers' parenting. Across reporters, most mothers and fathers exhibited a pattern of responsiveness and demandingness consistent with authoritative parenting. A small portion of parents exhibited a pattern of less-involved parenting. None of the patterns were indicative of authoritarianism. There was a modicum of evidence for no nonsense parenting among fathers. Both neighborhood danger and parents' cultural values were associated with the likelihood of employing one style of parenting over another. The value of using person-centered analytical techniques to examine parenting among Mexican Americans is discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-09-05

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Longitudinal and Integrative Tests of Family Stress Model Effects on Mexican Origin Adolescents

Description

The family stress model represents a common framework through which to examine the effects of environmental stressors on adolescent adjustment. The model suggests that economic and neighborhood stressors influence youth

The family stress model represents a common framework through which to examine the effects of environmental stressors on adolescent adjustment. The model suggests that economic and neighborhood stressors influence youth adjustment via disruptions to parenting. Incorporating integrative developmental theory, we examined the degree to which parents’ cultural value orientations mitigated the effects of stressors on parenting disruptions and the degree to which environmental adversity qualified the effect of parenting on adolescent adjustment. We tested the hypothesized Integrative Family Stress Model longitudinally in a sample of mother-youth dyads (N = 749) and father-youth dyads (N = 467) from Mexican origin families, across three times points spanning early to middle adolescence. Providing the first longitudinal evidence of family stress mediated effects, mothers’ perceptions of economic pressure were associated with increases in adolescent externalizing symptoms five years later via intermediate increases in harsh parenting. The remaining findings supported the notion that integrative developmental theory can inform family stress model hypothesis testing that is culturally and contextually relevant for wide range of diverse families and youth. For example, fathers’ perceptions of economic pressure and neighborhood danger had important implications for adolescent internalizing, via reductions in paternal warmth, but only at certain levels of neighborhood adversity. Mothers’ familism value orientations mitigated the effects of economic pressure on maternal warmth, protecting their adolescents from experiencing developmental costs associated with environmental stressors. Results are discussed in terms of identifying how integrative developmental theory intersects with the family stress model to set diverse youth on different developmental pathways.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05-01

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Gender differences in the links between alcohol-related consequences and perceived need for and utilization of treatment

Description

Past literature has indicated that the majority of people with alcohol problems never seek treatment and that this is especially true of women. Relatively few studies have investigated how different

Past literature has indicated that the majority of people with alcohol problems never seek treatment and that this is especially true of women. Relatively few studies have investigated how different types of alcohol-related consequences longitudinally predict men and women's perceived need for treatment and their utilization of treatment services. The current study sought to expand the literature by examining whether gender moderates the links between four frequently endorsed types of consequences and perceived need for or actual utilization of treatment. Two-hundred thirty-seven adults ages 21-36 completed a battery of questionnaires at two time points five years apart. Results indicated that there were four broad types of consequences endorsed by both men and women. Multiple-group models and Wald chi square tests indicated that there were no significant relationships between consequences and treatment outcomes. No gender moderation was found but post-hoc power analyses indicated that the study was underpowered to detect moderation. Researchers need to continue to study factors that predict utilization of alcohol treatment services and the process of recovery so that treatment providers can better address the needs of people with alcohol-related consequences in the areas of referral procedures, clinical assessment, and treatment service provision and planning.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Modeling relationships between cycles in psychology: potential limitations of sinusoidal and mass-spring models

Description

With improvements in technology, intensive longitudinal studies that permit the investigation of daily and weekly cycles in behavior have increased exponentially over the past few decades. Traditionally, when data have

With improvements in technology, intensive longitudinal studies that permit the investigation of daily and weekly cycles in behavior have increased exponentially over the past few decades. Traditionally, when data have been collected on two variables over time, multivariate time series approaches that remove trends, cycles, and serial dependency have been used. These analyses permit the study of the relationship between random shocks (perturbations) in the presumed causal series and changes in the outcome series, but do not permit the study of the relationships between cycles. Liu and West (2016) proposed a multilevel approach that permitted the study of potential between subject relationships between features of the cycles in two series (e.g., amplitude). However, I show that the application of the Liu and West approach is restricted to a small set of features and types of relationships between the series. Several authors (e.g., Boker & Graham, 1998) proposed a connected mass-spring model that appears to permit modeling of more general cyclic relationships. I showed that the undamped connected mass-spring model is also limited and may be unidentified. To test the severity of the restrictions of the motion trajectories producible by the undamped connected mass-spring model I mathematically derived their connection to the force equations of the undamped connected mass-spring system. The mathematical solution describes the domain of the trajectory pairs that are producible by the undamped connected mass-spring model. The set of producible trajectory pairs is highly restricted, and this restriction sets major limitations on the application of the connected mass-spring model to psychological data. I used a simulation to demonstrate that even if a pair of psychological time-varying variables behaved exactly like two masses in an undamped connected mass-spring system, the connected mass-spring model would not yield adequate parameter estimates. My simulation probed the performance of the connected mass-spring model as a function of several aspects of data quality including number of subjects, series length, sampling rate relative to the cycle, and measurement error in the data. The findings can be extended to damped and nonlinear connected mass-spring systems.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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High-Risk Sexual Behavior and Substance Use During Young Adulthood: Gender-Specific Developmental Trajectories and the Influence of Early Trauma, and Adolescent Peer and Family Processes

Description

High-risk sexual behavior (HRSB) and substance use (SU) are highly prevalent in the general population with adolescents and young adults at high risk for engaging in these behaviors. Unhealthy behavioral

High-risk sexual behavior (HRSB) and substance use (SU) are highly prevalent in the general population with adolescents and young adults at high risk for engaging in these behaviors. Unhealthy behavioral patterns established during these developmental periods can have detrimental long-term effects on physical and mental health. Health care expenditures, related to consequences of these behaviors, have been estimated to reach around $740 billion in the United States, indicating an imminent public health concern. Unfortunately, little is known about trajectories and risk factors of health risk behaviors (HRBs) beyond age 25, which is a critical developmental period regarding these behaviors. This study sought to better understand HRB trajectories throughout young adulthood as well as the mechanisms underlying the initiation and progression of these behaviors. This study used data from a large (n = 998), longitudinal, randomized-controlled trial with intensive measurement of HRBs and peer and family processes. Growth mixture modeling estimated gender-specific trajectories of HRSB and SU (tobacco, alcohol, marijuana) from ages 22-30. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR) then examined how family and peer factors, and trauma exposure during adolescence, both separately and in combination, influenced HRB trajectories. Four unique trajectories resulted for SU (low use class; increasing use class; decreasing use class; high use class) and three for HRSB (low HRSB class; increasing HRSB class; deceasing HRSB class). There were no differences in the number of classes or trajectory patterns between men and women. Results of the MLRs demonstrated that deviant peer affiliation (DP), family conflict, parental monitoring and trauma exposure impacted trajectories of tobacco and marijuana use and HRSB during young adulthood, but that the most salient influences were DP and trauma exposure. Alcohol use trajectories and differences between the increasing, decreasing and high trajectory classes for the other HRBs were difficult to predict. These results suggest that young adults are still at risk for engaging in HRBs, and there are risk factors in adolescence that influence typologies of HRBs during this developmental period. Prevention and intervention programs targeting young adulthood are needed, and better understanding factors that lead to vulnerabilities specific to this developmental period may inform targeted interventions.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Intervention Effects on Coping and Coping Efficacy: A Fifteen-Year Follow-Up of the New Beginnings Program

Description

This study examined whether the New Beginnings Program (NBP), a preventive parenting intervention, led to changes in coping strategies and coping efficacy in emerging adults whose families had participated in

This study examined whether the New Beginnings Program (NBP), a preventive parenting intervention, led to changes in coping strategies and coping efficacy in emerging adults whose families had participated in the program 15 years earlier. Gender and baseline risk were examined as moderators of these relations. Participants (M = 25.6 years; 50% female) were from 240 families that had participated in an experimental trial (NBP [mother-only, mother-child] vs. literature control). Data from the pretest and 15-year follow-up were used. Multiple regression analyses revealed that pretest risk interacted with program participation in the mother-only condition of the NBP such that offspring entering the program with higher pretest risk reported significantly less avoidant coping 15 years later. There was a marginal effect of participation in the NBP on problem-focused coping; emerging adults who had participated in the NBP had marginally higher levels of problem-focused coping. There were no significant main effects nor interactive program by risk or program by gender effects on support coping or coping efficacy. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for implementation of preventive interventions and research on pathways of coping.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Understanding the effect of non-responsive parenting on offspring externalizing problems in young adulthood: examining the roles of stress response and culture

Description

Longitudinal data from European-American (EA) and Mexican-American (MA) families (n = 179 mothers, fathers, and youth; 41% MA) was used to test a bio-psycho-cultural model of the effect of non-responsive

Longitudinal data from European-American (EA) and Mexican-American (MA) families (n = 179 mothers, fathers, and youth; 41% MA) was used to test a bio-psycho-cultural model of the effect of non-responsive parenting on externalizing problems in young adult offspring through the effect on the stress response system. Parenting behavior (acceptance, rejection, harsh discipline) was assessed when children were in late childhood (12-13 years), cortisol samples were collected during late adolescence (18-19 years), and externalizing problems were measured in young adulthood (21-22 years). Latent profile analyses were used to examine patterns of parenting behavior in EA and MA families. A path analysis framework was used to examine how non-responsive parenting interacted with acceptance to predict adolescent stress response and subsequent externalizing problems in EA and MA young adults. Results showed different patterns of parenting behavior in EA versus MA families, with MA families demonstrating a profile of high acceptance and high non-responsiveness at higher rates than EA families. In MA families, youth adherence to the traditional cultural value of familismo related to more positive perceptions of parenting behavior. Across ethnic groups, parent rejection only predicted higher externalizing problems in young adults when acceptance was high. The effect of parent harsh discipline on offspring stress response differed by ethnicity. In MA families, harsh discipline predicted dysregulated stress response in youth when acceptance was low. In EA families, harsh discipline did not relate to youth stress response. Overall, results increase the understanding of normative and adaptive parenting behaviors in MA families. Findings inform the development of culturally-competent parenting-focused interventions that can better prevent dysregulated stress response and externalizing behavior problems in ethnically diverse youth.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Predicting variation in responsiveness to the family check-up in early childhood: a mixture model approach

Description

The present study applied latent class analysis to a family-centered prevention

trial in early childhood to identify subgroups of families with differential responsiveness to the Family Check-up (FCU) intervention. The sample

The present study applied latent class analysis to a family-centered prevention

trial in early childhood to identify subgroups of families with differential responsiveness to the Family Check-up (FCU) intervention. The sample included 731 families of 2-year- olds randomized to the FCU or control and followed through age five with yearly follow up assessments (Dishion et al., 2014; Shaw et al., 2015). A two-step mixture model was used to examine whether specific constellations of family characteristics at age 2 (baseline) were related to intervention response at age 3, 4, and 5. The first step empirically identified latent classes of families based on a variety of demographic and adjustment variables selected on the basis of previous research on predictors of response to the FCU and parent training in general, as well as on the clinical observations of FCU implementers. The second step modeled the effect of the FCU on longitudinal change in children's problem behavior in each of the empirically derived latent classes. Results suggested a five-class solution, where a significant intervention effect of moderate-to- large size was observed in one of the five classes. The families within the responsive class were characterized by child neglect, legal problems, and mental health issues. Pairwise comparisons revealed that the intervention effect was significantly greater in this class of families than in two other classes that were generally less at risk for the development of disruptive behavior problems, and post hoc analyses partially supported these results. Thus, results indicated that the FCU was most successful in reducing child problem behavior in the highly distressed group of families. We conclude by discussing the potential practical utility of these results and emphasizing the need for future research to evaluate this approach's predictive accuracy.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016