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Interlaboratory Study to Determine Repeatability of the Damp-Heat Test Method for Potential-Induced Degradation and Polarization in Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Modules

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To test reproducibility of a technical specification under development for potential-induced degradation (PID) and polarization, three crystalline silicon module types were distributed in five replicas each to five laboratories. Stress

To test reproducibility of a technical specification under development for potential-induced degradation (PID) and polarization, three crystalline silicon module types were distributed in five replicas each to five laboratories. Stress tests were performed in environmental chambers at 60 °C, 85% relative humidity, 96 h, and with module nameplate system voltage applied. Results from the modules tested indicate that the test protocol can discern susceptibility to PID according to the pass/fail criteria with acceptable consistency from lab to lab; however, areas for improvement are indicated to achieve better uniformity in temperature and humidity on the module surfaces. In the analysis of variance of the results, 6% of the variance was attributed to laboratory influence, 34% to module design, and 60% to variability in test results within a given design. Testing with the additional factor of illumination with ultraviolet light slowed or arrested the degradation. Testing at 25 °C with aluminum foil as the module ground was also examined for comparison. The foil, as tested, did not itself achieve consistent contact to ground at all surfaces, but methods to ensure more consistent grounding were found and proposed. The rates of degradation in each test are compared, and details affecting the rates are discussed.

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  • 2015-01-01

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Potential induced degradation (PID) of pre-stressed photovoltaic modules: effect of glass surface conductivity disruption

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Potential induced degradation (PID) due to high system voltages is one of the major degradation mechanisms in photovoltaic (PV) modules, adversely affecting their performance due to the combined effects of

Potential induced degradation (PID) due to high system voltages is one of the major degradation mechanisms in photovoltaic (PV) modules, adversely affecting their performance due to the combined effects of the following factors: system voltage, superstrate/glass surface conductivity, encapsulant conductivity, silicon nitride anti-reflection coating property and interface property (glass/encapsulant; encapsulant/cell; encapsulant/backsheet). Previous studies carried out at ASU's Photovoltaic Reliability Laboratory (ASU-PRL) showed that only negative voltage bias (positive grounded systems) adversely affects the performance of commonly available crystalline silicon modules. In previous studies, the surface conductivity of the glass surface was obtained using either conductive carbon layer extending from the glass surface to the frame or humidity inside an environmental chamber. This thesis investigates the influence of glass surface conductivity disruption on PV modules. In this study, conductive carbon was applied only on the module's glass surface without extending to the frame and the surface conductivity was disrupted (no carbon layer) at 2cm distance from the periphery of frame inner edges. This study was carried out under dry heat at two different temperatures (60 °C and 85 °C) and three different negative bias voltages (-300V, -400V, and -600V). To replicate closeness to the field conditions, half of the selected modules were pre-stressed under damp heat for 1000 hours (DH 1000) and the remaining half under 200 hours of thermal cycling (TC 200). When the surface continuity was disrupted by maintaining a 2 cm gap from the frame to the edge of the conductive layer, as demonstrated in this study, the degradation was found to be absent or negligibly small even after 35 hours of negative bias at elevated temperatures. This preliminary study appears to indicate that the modules could become immune to PID losses if the continuity of the glass surface conductivity is disrupted at the inside boundary of the frame. The surface conductivity of the glass, due to water layer formation in a humid condition, close to the frame could be disrupted just by applying a water repelling (hydrophobic) but high transmittance surface coating (such as Teflon) or modifying the frame/glass edges with water repellent properties.

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Date Created
  • 2012