Matching Items (21)

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The Analysis of the Airflow around a Rotating Cylindrical Arrow

Description

This honors thesis explores and models the flow of air around a cylindrical arrow that is rotating as it moves through the air. This model represents the airflow around an archery arrow after it is released from the bow and

This honors thesis explores and models the flow of air around a cylindrical arrow that is rotating as it moves through the air. This model represents the airflow around an archery arrow after it is released from the bow and rotates while it flies through the air. This situation is important in archery because an understanding of the airflow allows archers to predict the flight of the arrow. As a result, archers can improve their accuracy and ability to hit targets. However, not many computational fluid dynamic simulations modeling the airflow around a rotating archery arrow exist. This thesis attempts to further the understanding of the airflow around a rotating archery arrow by creating a mathematical model to numerically simulate the airflow around the arrow in the presence of this rotation. This thesis uses a linearized approximation of the Navier Stokes equations to model the airflow around the arrow and explains the reasoning for using this simplification of the fully nonlinear Navier Stokes equations. This thesis continues to describe the discretization of these linearized equations using the finite difference method and the boundary conditions used for these equations. A MATLAB code solves the resulting system of equations in order to obtain a numerical simulation of this airflow around the rotating arrow. The results of the simulation for each velocity component and the pressure distribution are displayed. This thesis then discusses the results of the simulation, and the MATLAB code is analyzed to verify the convergence of the solution. Appendix A includes the full MATLAB code used for the flow simulation. Finally, this thesis explains potential future research topics, ideas, and improvements to the code that can help further the understanding and create more realistic simulations of the airflow around a flying archery arrow.

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Date Created
2019-05

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Statistical Properties of Coherent Structures in Two Dimensional Turbulence

Description

Coherent vortices are ubiquitous structures in natural flows that affect mixing and transport of substances and momentum/energy. Being able to detect these coherent structures is important for pollutant mitigation, ecological conservation and many other aspects. In recent years, mathematical criteria

Coherent vortices are ubiquitous structures in natural flows that affect mixing and transport of substances and momentum/energy. Being able to detect these coherent structures is important for pollutant mitigation, ecological conservation and many other aspects. In recent years, mathematical criteria and algorithms have been developed to extract these coherent structures in turbulent flows. In this study, we will apply these tools to extract important coherent structures and analyze their statistical properties as well as their implications on kinematics and dynamics of the flow. Such information will aide representation of small-scale nonlinear processes that large-scale models of natural processes may not be able to resolve.

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Date Created
2018-05

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Lagrangian Coherent Structure Analysis of Terminal Winds: Three-Dimensionality, Intramodel Variations, and Flight Analyses

Description

We present a study of three-dimensional Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) near the Hong Kong International Airport and relate to previous developments of two-dimensional (2D) LCS analyses. The LCS are contrasted among three independent models and against 2D coherent Doppler light

We present a study of three-dimensional Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) near the Hong Kong International Airport and relate to previous developments of two-dimensional (2D) LCS analyses. The LCS are contrasted among three independent models and against 2D coherent Doppler light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data. Addition of the velocity information perpendicular to the LIDAR scanning cone helps solidify flow structures inferred from previous studies; contrast among models reveals the intramodel variability; and comparison with flight data evaluates the performance among models in terms of Lagrangian analyses. We find that, while the three models and the LIDAR do recover similar features of the windshear experienced by a landing aircraft (along the landing trajectory), their Lagrangian signatures over the entire domain are quite different—a portion of each numerical model captures certain features resembling those LCS extracted from independent 2D LIDAR analyses based on observations.

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Date Created
2014-11-30

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Application of Short-Range LIDAR in Early Alerting for Low-Level Windshear and Turbulence at Hong Kong International Airport

Description

Hong Kong Observatory currently uses a series of meteorological instruments, including long-range LIDAR (light detection and ranging) systems, to provide alerting services of low-level windshear and turbulence for Hong Kong International Airport. For some events that are smaller in spatial

Hong Kong Observatory currently uses a series of meteorological instruments, including long-range LIDAR (light detection and ranging) systems, to provide alerting services of low-level windshear and turbulence for Hong Kong International Airport. For some events that are smaller in spatial dimensions and are rapidly changing, such as low altitude windshear and turbulence associated with buildings or man-made structures, it would be necessary to involve meteorological instruments that offer greater spatial resolution. Therefore, the Observatory has set up a short-range LIDAR on the roof of the AsiaWorld-Expo during the summers over the past several years, conducting field research on the feasibility of strengthening early alerting for windshear and turbulence over the north runway’s eastern arrival runway (Runway 25RA) and developing an automated early alerting algorithm. This paper takes the pilot reports for Runway 25RA during the 2013 field research as verification samples, using different thresholds for radial wind velocity spatial and temporal changes detected by the short-range LIDAR to calculate the relative operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and analyzes its early alerting performance.

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2013-11-30

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Prediction of heat transport in multiple tokamak devices with neural networks

Description

The OMFIT (One Modeling Framework for Integrated Tasks) modeling environment and the BRAINFUSE module have been deployed on the PPPL (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory) computing cluster with modifications that have rendered the application of artificial neural networks (NNs) to the

The OMFIT (One Modeling Framework for Integrated Tasks) modeling environment and the BRAINFUSE module have been deployed on the PPPL (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory) computing cluster with modifications that have rendered the application of artificial neural networks (NNs) to the TRANSP databases for the JET (Joint European Torus), TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor), and NSTX (National Spherical Torus Experiment) devices possible through their use. This development has facilitated the investigation of NNs for predicting heat transport profiles in JET, TFTR, and NSTX, and has promoted additional investigations to discover how else NNs may be of use to scientists at PPPL. In applying NNs to the aforementioned devices for predicting heat transport, the primary goal of this endeavor is to reproduce the success shown in Meneghini et al. in using NNs for heat transport prediction in DIII-D. Being able to reproduce the results from is important because this in turn would provide scientists at PPPL with a quick and efficient toolset for reliably predicting heat transport profiles much faster than any existing computational methods allow; the progress towards this goal is outlined in this report, and potential additional applications of the NN framework are presented.

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Created

Date Created
2015-05

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Visualizing Lagrangian Coherent Structures from Realistic Flow Data

Description

The goal of this project was to examine the separatricies that define regions of distinct flow behaviors in realistic time-dependent dynamical systems. In particular, we adapted previously available methods for computing the Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponent (FTLE) to a set of

The goal of this project was to examine the separatricies that define regions of distinct flow behaviors in realistic time-dependent dynamical systems. In particular, we adapted previously available methods for computing the Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponent (FTLE) to a set of measured wind velocity data in order to visualize the separatricies as ridges of the FTLE field in a section of the atmosphere. This visualization required a number of alterations to the original methods, including interpolation techniques and two different adaptive refinement schemes for producing more detailed results. Overall, there were two computations performed with the wind velocity data: once along a single spherical surface, on which the separatricies could be visualized as material lines, and then along a three-dimensional section of the atmosphere, for which the separatricies were material surfaces. The resulting figures provide an image of the Antarctic polar vortex from the wind velocity data, which is consistent with other data gathered on the same date.

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Created

Date Created
2014-05

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Lagrangian Skeletons in Hurricane Katrina

Description

This thesis shows analyses of mixing and transport patterns associated with Hurricane Katrina as it hit the United States in August of 2005. Specifically, by applying atmospheric velocity information from the Weather Research and Forecasting System, finite-time Lyapunov exponents have

This thesis shows analyses of mixing and transport patterns associated with Hurricane Katrina as it hit the United States in August of 2005. Specifically, by applying atmospheric velocity information from the Weather Research and Forecasting System, finite-time Lyapunov exponents have been computed and the Lagrangian Coherent Structures have been identified. The chaotic dynamics of material transport induced by the hurricane are results from these structures within the flow. Boundaries of the coherent structures are highlighted by the FTLE field. Individual particle transport within the hurricane is affected by the location of these boundaries. In addition to idealized fluid particles, we also studied inertial particles which have finite size and inertia. Basing on established Maxey-Riley equations of the dynamics of particles of finite size, we obtain a reduced equation governing the position process. Using methods derived from computer graphics, we identify maximizers of the FTLE field. Following and applying these ideas, we analyze the dynamics of inertial particle transport within Hurricane Katrina, through comparison of trajectories of dierent sized particles and by pinpointing the location of the Lagrangian Coherent Structures.

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Date Created
2012-12

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Lagrangian Transport of Inertial Particles in Hurricane Katrina

Description

Using weather data from the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), we analyze the transport of inertial particles in Hurricane Katrina in order to identify coherent patterns of motion. For our analysis, we choose a Lagrangian approach instead of an

Using weather data from the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), we analyze the transport of inertial particles in Hurricane Katrina in order to identify coherent patterns of motion. For our analysis, we choose a Lagrangian approach instead of an Eulerian approach because the Lagrangian approach is objective and frame-independent, and gives results which are better defined. In particular, we locate Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCS), which are smooth sets of fluid particles which are locally most hyperbolic (either attracting or repelling). We implement a variational method for locating LCS and compare the results to previous computation of LCS using Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponents (FTLE) to identify regions of high stretching in the fluid flow.

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Created

Date Created
2013-05

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The domain dependence of chemotaxis in a two-dimensional turbulent flow

Description

Presented is a study on the chemotaxis reaction process and its relation with flow topology. The effect of coherent structures in turbulent flows is characterized by studying nutrient uptake and the advantage that is received from motile bacteria over other

Presented is a study on the chemotaxis reaction process and its relation with flow topology. The effect of coherent structures in turbulent flows is characterized by studying nutrient uptake and the advantage that is received from motile bacteria over other non-motile bacteria. Variability is found to be dependent on the initial location of scalar impurity and can be tied to Lagrangian coherent structures through recent advances in the identification of finite-time transport barriers. Advantage is relatively small for initial nutrient found within high stretching regions of the flow, and nutrient within elliptic structures provide the greatest advantage for motile species. How the flow field and the relevant flow topology lead to such a relation is analyzed.

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Date Created
2015

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Detailed numerical simulation of liquid jet in crossflow atomization with high density ratios

Description

The atomization of a liquid jet by a high speed cross-flowing gas has many applications such as gas turbines and augmentors. The mechanisms by which the liquid jet initially breaks up, however, are not well understood. Experimental studies suggest the

The atomization of a liquid jet by a high speed cross-flowing gas has many applications such as gas turbines and augmentors. The mechanisms by which the liquid jet initially breaks up, however, are not well understood. Experimental studies suggest the dependence of spray properties on operating conditions and nozzle geom- etry. Detailed numerical simulations can offer better understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms that lead to the breakup of the injected liquid jet. In this work, detailed numerical simulation results of turbulent liquid jets injected into turbulent gaseous cross flows for different density ratios is presented. A finite volume, balanced force fractional step flow solver to solve the Navier-Stokes equations is employed and coupled to a Refined Level Set Grid method to follow the phase interface. To enable the simulation of atomization of high density ratio fluids, we ensure discrete consistency between the solution of the conservative momentum equation and the level set based continuity equation by employing the Consistent Rescaled Momentum Transport (CRMT) method. The impact of different inflow jet boundary conditions on different jet properties including jet penetration is analyzed and results are compared to those obtained experimentally by Brown & McDonell(2006). In addition, instability analysis is performed to find the most dominant insta- bility mechanism that causes the liquid jet to breakup. Linear instability analysis is achieved using linear theories for Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin- Helmholtz instabilities and non-linear analysis is performed using our flow solver with different inflow jet boundary conditions.

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Date Created
2013