Tolerance analysis of prefabricated components poses challenges to effective quality control of accelerated construction projects in urban areas. In busy urban environments, accelerated construction methods quickly assemble prefabricated components to achieve workflows that are more efficient and reduce impacts of construction on urban traffic and business. Accelerated constructions also bring challenges of “fit-up:” misalignments between components can occur due to less detailed tolerance assessments of components. Conventional tolerance checking approaches, such as manual mock-up, cannot provide detailed geometric assessments in a timely manner. This paper proposes the integration of an adaptive 3D imaging and spatial pattern analysis methods to achieve detailed and frequent “fit-up” analysis of prefabricated components. The adaptive 3D imaging methods progressively adjust imaging parameters of a laser scanner according to the geometric complexities of prefabricated components captured in data collected so far. The spatial pattern analysis methods automatically analyze deviations of prefabricated components from as-designed models to derive tolerance networks that capture relationships between tolerances of components and identify risks of misalignments.