Matching Items (50)

133327-Thumbnail Image.png

A Tool for the Parametric Modelling of Aircraft Landing Gear

Description

This paper outlines the development of a script which utilizes a series of user-defined input parameters to construct base-level CAD models of aircraft landing gear. With an increased focus on computation development of aircraft models to allow for a rapidprototyping

This paper outlines the development of a script which utilizes a series of user-defined input parameters to construct base-level CAD models of aircraft landing gear. With an increased focus on computation development of aircraft models to allow for a rapidprototyping design process, this program seeks to allow designers to check for the validity of design integration before moving forward on systems testing. With this script, users are able to visually analyze the landing gear configurations on an aircraft in both the gear up and gear down configuration. The primary purpose this serves is to determine the validity of the gear's potential to fit within the limited real estate on an aircraft body. This, theoretically, can save time by weeding out infeasible designs before moving forward with subsystem performance testing. The script, developed in Python, constructs CAD models of dual and dual-tandem main landing gear configurations in the CAD program Rhino5. With an included design template consisting of 33 parameters, the script allows for a reasonable trade off between conciseness and flexibility of design.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2018-05

133363-Thumbnail Image.png

Effects of Diffusers with and without Vortex Generators on Overall Flow and Velocity Distribution

Description

An in-depth analysis on the effects vortex generators cause to the boundary layer separation that occurs when an internal flow passes through a diffuser is presented. By understanding the effects vortex generators demonstrate on the boundary layer, they can be

An in-depth analysis on the effects vortex generators cause to the boundary layer separation that occurs when an internal flow passes through a diffuser is presented. By understanding the effects vortex generators demonstrate on the boundary layer, they can be utilized to improve the performance and efficiencies of diffusers and other internal flow applications. An experiment was constructed to acquire physical data that could assess the change in performance of the diffusers once vortex generators were applied. The experiment consisted of pushing air through rectangular diffusers with half angles of 10, 20, and 30 degrees. A velocity distribution model was created for each diffuser without the application of vortex generators before modeling the velocity distribution with the application of vortex generators. This allowed the two results to be directly compared to one another and the improvements to be quantified. This was completed by using the velocity distribution model to find the partial mass flow rate through the outer portion of the diffuser's cross-sectional area. The analysis concluded that the vortex generators noticeably increased the performance of the diffusers. This was best seen in the performance of the 30-degree diffuser. Initially the diffuser experienced airflow velocities near zero towards the edges. This led to 0.18% of the mass flow rate occurring in the outer one-fourth portion of the cross-sectional area. With the application of vortex generators, this percentage increased to 5.7%. The 20-degree diffuser improved from 2.5% to 7.9% of the total mass flow rate in the outer portion and the 10-degree diffuser improved from 11.9% to 19.2%. These results demonstrate an increase in performance by the addition of vortex generators while allowing the possibility for further investigation on improvement through the design and configuration of these vortex generators.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2018-05

131986-Thumbnail Image.png

An Experimental Investigation of Aerodynamic Drag on Different Cycling Outfits

Description

An experimental investigation was conducted to calculate the aerodynamic drag on a cyclist wearing different types of clothing. The different outfits worn for this experiment were a professional skinsuit, a professional cycling kit, a t-shirt and shorts, and a long-sleeved

An experimental investigation was conducted to calculate the aerodynamic drag on a cyclist wearing different types of clothing. The different outfits worn for this experiment were a professional skinsuit, a professional cycling kit, a t-shirt and shorts, and a long-sleeved flannel and jeans. The aerodynamic drag was ultimately found using the coast down method, a process in which a cyclist increases their speed to a chosen maximum threshold, and upon reaching this speed, ceases the pedal stroke and maintains the aero position until the bicycle comes to a stop. The data was gathered using an AeroPod, speed sensor, and GPS unit. The data gathered was imported into Excel for data analysis. The average CdA values at race speed (26-30 ft/s) for the skinsuit, cycling kit, t-shirt and shorts, and flannel were calculated to be 4.180 ft2, 3.668 ft2, 4.884 ft2, and 4.223 ft2, respectively. These race speed averages were found using data from three separate Ironman Triathlons. The cycling kit was found to be the most aerodynamic at the race speed. The results of this study reveal that cycling apparel can only be optimized for a small range of speeds and cycling outside of this optimal range delays the initiation of the reduction of boundary layer separation, thus resulting in more critical time spent in the flow transition region. The skinsuit’s performance was more aerodynamically efficient than the cycling kit at speeds greater than 36.8 mph. The cycling kit is more aerodynamic for speeds slower than 36.8 mph. The slickness of the skinsuit was found to be detrimental to the cyclist’s aerodynamic drag, as the lack of roughness on the skinsuit prevented the initiation of turbulent flow, which results in a decrease in drag. Overall, the experiment confirmed the hypothesis that a cyclist is more aerodynamic when wearing cycling apparel as opposed to casual, loose-fitting clothing.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2019-12

134285-Thumbnail Image.png

Investigation into the von Karman Vortex Street and the Relationship Between Reynolds and Strouhal Numbers

Description

This experiment used hotwire anemometry to examine the von Kármán vortex street and how different surface conditions affect the wake profile of circular airfoils, or bluff bodies. Specifically, this experiment investigated how the various surface conditions affected the shedding frequency

This experiment used hotwire anemometry to examine the von Kármán vortex street and how different surface conditions affect the wake profile of circular airfoils, or bluff bodies. Specifically, this experiment investigated how the various surface conditions affected the shedding frequency and Strouhal Number of the vortex street as Reynolds Number is increased. The cylinders tested varied diameter, surface finish, and wire wrapping. Larger diameters corresponded with lower shedding frequencies, rougher surfaces decreased Strouhal Number, and the addition of thick wires to the surface of the cylinder completely disrupted the vortex shedding to the point where there was almost no dominant shedding frequency. For the smallest diameter cylinder tested, secondary dominant frequencies were observed, suggesting harmonics.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2017-05

134301-Thumbnail Image.png

Leading Edge Geometry Effects on Pressure Drag and Pressure Thrust for Various Wing Geometries

Description

The purpose of this paper is to discover what geometric characteristics of a wing and airfoil help to maximize leading edge suction through experimental testing. Three different stages of testing were conducted: a Proof of Concept, a Primary Experiment, and

The purpose of this paper is to discover what geometric characteristics of a wing and airfoil help to maximize leading edge suction through experimental testing. Three different stages of testing were conducted: a Proof of Concept, a Primary Experiment, and a Secondary Experiment. The Proof of Concept shows the effects of leading edge suction and the benefits it can posses. The Primary Experiment provided inconclusive data due to inaccuracies in the equipment. As a result, the Secondary Experiment was conducted in order to reduce the error effect as much as possible on the data. Unfortunately the Secondary Experiment provided inaccurate data as well. However, this paper does provide enough evidence to begin to question some of the long held beliefs regarding theoretical induced drag and whether it is true under all circumstances, or if it is only a good approximation for airfoils with full leading-edge suction effects.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
2017-05

134064-Thumbnail Image.png

Ionic Wind Propulsion

Description

This paper describes the research done to attempt to scale up thrusts produced by ionic wind thrusters, or "lifters" to magnitudes needed to power a 2 kg hobbyist remote-control airplane. It includes background information on the Biefeld-Brown effect and the

This paper describes the research done to attempt to scale up thrusts produced by ionic wind thrusters, or "lifters" to magnitudes needed to power a 2 kg hobbyist remote-control airplane. It includes background information on the Biefeld-Brown effect and the thrust it produces, an experiment that attempted to prove that thrust can be scaled up from smaller ionic wind thrusters to larger scales, and two models predicting thruster geometries and power sources needed to reach these thrusts. An ionic wind thruster could not be created that would power the hobbyist remote as a high-voltage power source with voltage and power high enough could not be obtained. Thrusters were created for the experiment using balsa wood, aluminum foil, and thin copper wire, and were powered using a 30 kV transformer. The thrusters attempted to test for correlations between thrust, electrode length, and current; electric field strength, and thrust; and thrust optimization through opening up air flow through the collector electrode. The experiment was inconclusive as all the thrusters failed to produce measurable thrust. Further experimentation suggests the chief failure mode is likely conduction from the collector electrode to the nearby large conductive surface of the scale.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2017-12

133322-Thumbnail Image.png

Aerodynamic Stability of Small Bluff Bodied Vehicle

Description

Each year, the CanSat Competition organizers release aerospace based engineering mission objectives for collegiate teams to compete in. This year, the design is an aerodynamically stable probe that will descend from an altitude of 725 meters at a rate between

Each year, the CanSat Competition organizers release aerospace based engineering mission objectives for collegiate teams to compete in. This year, the design is an aerodynamically stable probe that will descend from an altitude of 725 meters at a rate between 10-30 meters/sec until it reaches an altitude of 300 meters, where it will then release a parachute as its aerobraking mechanism as it descends at 5 meters/sec until it reaches the ground. The focus of this paper is to investigate the design of the probe itself and how slender body theory and cross flow drag affect the lift and aerodynamic stability of this bluff body. A tool is developed inside of MATLAB which calculates the slender body lift as well as the lift from the cross flow drag. It then uses that information to calculate the total moment about the center of gravity for a range of angles of attack and free stream velocities. This tool is then used to optimize the geometry of the probe. These geometries are used to construct a prototype and that prototype is tested by a drop test from a 6-story building. The initial tests confirm the calculations that the probe, bluff body, is stable and self-correcting in its descent. Future work involves more high-altitude and ground-level tests that will further verify and improve on the current design.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2018-05

135488-Thumbnail Image.png

How Surface Roughness Contributes to the Overall Drag of Certain Spherical Objects

Description

This thesis focused on verifying previous literature and research that has been conducted on different spherical objects. Mainly, verifying literature that examines both how surface roughness contributes to the overall drag and how wake turbulence is affected by different surface

This thesis focused on verifying previous literature and research that has been conducted on different spherical objects. Mainly, verifying literature that examines both how surface roughness contributes to the overall drag and how wake turbulence is affected by different surface roughness. The goal of this project is to be able to capture data that shows that the flow transition from laminar to turbulent occurs at lower Reynolds numbers for a rough spherical object rather than a perfectly smooth sphere. In order to achieve this goal, both force balance testing and hot-wire testing were conducted in the Aero-lab complex in USE170. The force balance was mounted and used in the larger wind tunnel while the hot-wire probe was mounted and used in the smaller wind tunnel. Both of the wind tunnels utilized LABVIEW software in order to collect and convert the qualitative values provided by the testing probes and equipment. The two main types of testing equipment that were used in this project were the force balance and the hot-wire probe. The overall results from the experiment were inconclusive based on the limitations of both the testing probes and the testing facility itself. Overall, the experiment yielded very limited results due to these limitations.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2016-05

134932-Thumbnail Image.png

An Experimental Study of the Effect of Induction and Exhaust Systems on a Vehicle's Fuel Efficiency

Description

This thesis focuses on the effects of an engine's induction and exhaust systems on vehicle fuel efficiency, along with the challenges accompanying improvement of this parameter. The aim of the project was to take an unconventional approach by investigating potential

This thesis focuses on the effects of an engine's induction and exhaust systems on vehicle fuel efficiency, along with the challenges accompanying improvement of this parameter. The aim of the project was to take an unconventional approach by investigating potential methods of increasing fuel economy via change of these systems outside the engine, as finding substantial gains via this method negates the need to alter engine architectures, potentially saving manufacturers research and development costs. The ultimate goal was to determine the feasibility of modifying induction and exhaust systems to increase fuel efficiency via reduction of engine pumping losses and increase in volumetric efficiency, with the hope that this research can aid others researching engine design in both educational and commercial settings. The first step toward achieving this goal was purchasing a test vehicle and performing experimental fuel efficiency testing on the unmodified, properly serviced specimen. A test route was devised to provide for a well-rounded fuel efficiency measurement for each trial. After stock vehicle trials were completed, the vehicle was to be taken out of service for a turbocharger system installation; unfortunately, challenges arose that could not be rectified within the project timeframe, and this portion of the project was aborted, to be investigated in the future. This decision was made after numerous fitment and construction issues with prefabricated turbo conversion parts were found, including induction and exhaust pipe size problems and misalignments, kit component packaging issues such as intercooler dimensions being too large, as well as manufacturing oversights, like failure to machine flanges flat for sealing and specification of incorrect flange sizes for mating components. After returning the vehicle to stock condition by removing the partially installed turbocharger system, the next step in the project was then installation of high-flow induction and exhaust systems on the test vehicle, followed by fuel efficiency testing using the same procedure as during the first portion of the experiment. After analysis of the quantitative and qualitative data collected during this thesis project, several conclusions were made. First, the replacement of stock intake and exhaust systems with high-flow variants did make for a statistically significant increase in fuel efficiency, ranging between 10 and 20 percent on a 95% confidence interval. Average fuel efficiency of the test vehicle rose from 21.66 to 24.90 MPG, an impressive increase considering the relative simplicity of the modifications. The tradeoff made was in noise produced by the vehicle; while the high-flow induction system only resulted in increased noise under very high-load circumstances, the high-flow exhaust system created additional noise under numerous load conditions, limiting the market applicability for this system. The most ideal vehicle type for this type of setup is sports/enthusiast cars, as increased noise is often considered a desirable addition to the driving experience; light trucks also represent an excellent application opportunity for these systems, as noise is not a primary concern in production of these vehicles. Finally, it was found that investing in high-flow induction and exhaust systems may not be a wise investment at the consumer level due to the lengthy payoff period, but for manufacturers, these systems represent a lucrative opportunity to increase fuel efficiency, potentially boosting sales and profits, as well as allowing the company to more easily meet federal CAFE standards in America. After completion of this project, there are several further research directions that could be taken to expand upon what was learned. The fuel efficiency improvements realized by installing high-flow induction and exhaust systems together on a vehicle were experimentally measured during testing; determining the individual effects of each of these systems installed on a vehicle would be the next logical research step within the same vein. Noise, vibration, and harshness increases after installing these systems were also noticed during experimental trials, so another future research direction could be an investigation into reducing these unwanted effects of high-flow systems. Finally, turbocharging to increase a vehicle's fuel efficiency, the original topic of this thesis, is another very important, contemporary issue in the world of improving vehicle fuel efficiency, and with manufacturers consistently moving toward turbocharged platform development, is a prime research topic in this area of study. In conclusion, the results from this thesis project exhibit that high-flow induction and exhaust systems can substantially improve a vehicle's fuel efficiency without modifying any internal engine components. This idea of improving a vehicle's fuel economy from outside the engine will ideally be further researched, such as by investigating turbocharger systems and their ability to improve fuel efficiency, as well as be developed and implemented by others in their educational projects and commercial products.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2016-12

135623-Thumbnail Image.png

Wake Survey of Bluff Bodies in Flow

Description

The aerodynamics of golf club heads effect the forces on the club head throughout the swing. The bluff body geometry and passive flow control elements make the aerodynamics of golf club heads far more complex. The theory behind

The aerodynamics of golf club heads effect the forces on the club head throughout the swing. The bluff body geometry and passive flow control elements make the aerodynamics of golf club heads far more complex. The theory behind the geometry of the bluff body aerodynamics relies on the state of the boundary layer and its interaction with the golf club head. Laminar and turbulent boundary layer flow result in drag, but in varying degrees. Separation, or attachment, of the boundary layer in these laminar and turbulent boundary layer flows is part of the cause of the induced drag. Skin friction and pressure drag are the two forms of surface forces which vary according to the state of the boundary layer. To review the state of the boundary layer flow and provide validation data for the corresponding, the golf club head was tested in a wind tunnel. Drag readings from the experiment showed the lowest drag occurred while the club face was perpendicular to the flow from the range of 50 miles per hour to 90 miles per hour. Additionally, the decrease in drag varied greatly depending on the orientation of golf club head. The decrease in the coefficient for the club perpendicular to the flow was approximately 3.99*〖10〗^(-6) C_d/Re while the decrease for the club at 110° was 1.07*〖10〗^(-6) C_d/Re. The general trend of the slopes indicated the pressure drag resulted in major variations while the drag due to skin friction remained relatively constant.
For the testing of the golf club head, two probes were developed to measure the turbulent intensity in the flow. The probes, based on Rossow’s (1993) three probe system, compared the dynamic pressure of the flow with the stream-wise dynamic pressure in the flow. The resultant measurements could then produce the ratio of the cross-stream fluctuations in velocity to the time-averaged velocity. The turbulence intensity calculations would provide insight on the turbulence in the boundary layer flow and wake.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2016-05