Matching Items (13)

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Archaea and Bacteria Acclimate to High Total Ammonia in a Methanogenic Reactor Treating Swine Waste

Description

Inhibition by ammonium at concentrations above 1000 mgN/L is known to harm the methanogenesis phase of anaerobic digestion. We anaerobically digested swine waste and achieved steady state COD-removal efficiency of around

Inhibition by ammonium at concentrations above 1000 mgN/L is known to harm the methanogenesis phase of anaerobic digestion. We anaerobically digested swine waste and achieved steady state COD-removal efficiency of around 52% with no fatty-acid or H[subscript 2] accumulation. As the anaerobic microbial community adapted to the gradual increase of total ammonia-N (NH[subscript 3]-N) from 890 ± 295 to 2040 ± 30 mg/L, the Bacterial and Archaeal communities became less diverse. Phylotypes most closely related to hydrogenotrophic Methanoculleus (36.4%) and Methanobrevibacter (11.6%), along with acetoclastic Methanosaeta (29.3%), became the most abundant Archaeal sequences during acclimation. This was accompanied by a sharp increase in the relative abundances of phylotypes most closely related to acetogens and fatty-acid producers (Clostridium, Coprococcus, and Sphaerochaeta) and syntrophic fatty-acid Bacteria (Syntrophomonas, Clostridium, Clostridiaceae species, and Cloacamonaceae species) that have metabolic capabilities for butyrate and propionate fermentation, as well as for reverse acetogenesis. Our results provide evidence countering a prevailing theory that acetoclastic methanogens are selectively inhibited when the total ammonia-N concentration is greater than ~1000 mgN/L. Instead, acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens coexisted in the presence of total ammonia-N of ~2000 mgN/L by establishing syntrophic relationships with fatty-acid fermenters, as well as homoacetogens able to carry out forward and reverse acetogenesis.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-08-11

Nitrite Accumulation From Simultaneous Free-Ammonia and Free-Nitrous-Acid Inhibition and Oxygen Limitation in a Continuous-Flow Biofilm Reactor

Description

To achieve nitrite accumulation for shortcut biological nitrogen removal (SBNR) in a biofilm process, we explored the simultaneous effects of oxygen limitation and free ammonia (FA) and free nitrous acid

To achieve nitrite accumulation for shortcut biological nitrogen removal (SBNR) in a biofilm process, we explored the simultaneous effects of oxygen limitation and free ammonia (FA) and free nitrous acid (FNA) inhibition in the nitrifying biofilm. We used the multi-species nitrifying biofilm model (MSNBM) to identify conditions that should or should not lead to nitrite accumulation, and evaluated the effectiveness of those conditions with experiments in continuous flow biofilm reactors (CFBRs). CFBR experiments were organized into four sets with these expected outcomes based on the MSNBM as follows: (i) Control, giving full nitrification; (ii) oxygen limitation, giving modest long-term nitrite build up; (iii) FA inhibition, giving no long-term nitrite accumulation; and (iv) FA inhibition plus oxygen limitation, giving major long-term nitrite accumulation. Consistent with MSNBM predictions, the experimental results showed that nitrite accumulated in sets 2–4 in the short term, but long-term nitrite accumulation was maintained only in sets 2 and 4, which involved oxygen limitation. Furthermore, nitrite accumulation was substantially greater in set 4, which also included FA inhibition. However, FA inhibition (and accompanying FNA inhibition) alone in set 3 did not maintained long-term nitrite accumulation. Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) activity batch tests confirmed that little NOB or only a small fraction of NOB were present in the biofilms for sets 4 and 2, respectively. The experimental data supported the previous modeling results that nitrite accumulation could be achieved with a lower ammonium concentration than had been required for a suspended-growth process. Additional findings were that the biofilm exposed to low dissolved oxygen (DO) limitation and FA inhibition was substantially denser and probably had a lower detachment rate.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-01-01

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Effects of pulsed electric field treatment on enhancing lipid recovery from the microalga, Scenedesmus

Description

Chloroform and methanol are superior solvents for lipid extraction from photosynthetic microorganisms, because they can overcome the resistance offered by the cell walls and membranes, but they are too toxic

Chloroform and methanol are superior solvents for lipid extraction from photosynthetic microorganisms, because they can overcome the resistance offered by the cell walls and membranes, but they are too toxic and expensive to use for large-scale fuel production. Biomass from the photosynthetic microalga Scenedesmus, subjected to a commercially available pre-treatment technology called Focused-Pulsed® (FP), yielded 3.1-fold more crude lipid and fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) after extraction with a range of solvents. FP treatment increased the FAME-to-crude-lipid ratio for all solvents, which means that the extraction of non-lipid materials was minimized, while the FAME profile itself was unchanged compared to the control. FP treatment also made it possible to use only a small proportion of chloroform and methanol, along with isopropanol, to obtain equivalent yields of lipid and FAME as with 100% chloroform plus methanol.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-12-01

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How UV photolysis accelerates the biodegradation and mineralization of sulfadiazine (SD)

Description

Sulfadiazine (SD), one of broad-spectrum antibiotics, exhibits limited biodegradation in wastewater treatment due to its chemical structure, which requires initial mono-oxygenation reactions to initiate its biodegradation. Intimately coupling UV photolysis

Sulfadiazine (SD), one of broad-spectrum antibiotics, exhibits limited biodegradation in wastewater treatment due to its chemical structure, which requires initial mono-oxygenation reactions to initiate its biodegradation. Intimately coupling UV photolysis with biodegradation, realized with the internal loop photobiodegradation reactor, accelerated SD biodegradation and mineralization by 35 and 71 %, respectively. The main organic products from photolysis were 2-aminopyrimidine (2-AP), p-aminobenzenesulfonic acid (ABS), and aniline (An), and an SD-photolysis pathway could be identified using C, N, and S balances. Adding An or ABS (but not 2-AP) into the SD solution during biodegradation experiments (no UV photolysis) gave SD removal and mineralization rates similar to intimately coupled photolysis and biodegradation. An SD biodegradation pathway, based on a diverse set of the experimental results, explains how the mineralization of ABS and An (but not 2-AP) provided internal electron carriers that accelerated the initial mono-oxygenation reactions of SD biodegradation. Thus, multiple lines of evidence support that the mechanism by which intimately coupled photolysis and biodegradation accelerated SD removal and mineralization was through producing co-substrates whose oxidation produced electron equivalents that stimulated the initial mono-oxygenation reactions for SD biodegradation.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-11-01

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Pyrosequencing Analysis Yields Comprehensive Assessment of Microbial Communities in Pilot-Scale Two-Stage Membrane Biofilm Reactors

Description

We studied the microbial community structure of pilot two-stage membrane biofilm reactors (MBfRs) designed to reduce nitrate (NO[subscript 3]–) and perchlorate (ClO[subscript 4]–) in contaminated groundwater. The groundwater also contained

We studied the microbial community structure of pilot two-stage membrane biofilm reactors (MBfRs) designed to reduce nitrate (NO[subscript 3]–) and perchlorate (ClO[subscript 4]–) in contaminated groundwater. The groundwater also contained oxygen (O[subscript 2]) and sulfate (SO[2 over 4]–), which became important electron sinks that affected the NO[subscript 3]– and ClO[subscript 4]– removal rates. Using pyrosequencing, we elucidated how important phylotypes of each “primary” microbial group, i.e., denitrifying bacteria (DB), perchlorate-reducing bacteria (PRB), and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), responded to changes in electron-acceptor loading. UniFrac, principal coordinate analysis (PCoA), and diversity analyses documented that the microbial community of biofilms sampled when the MBfRs had a high acceptor loading were phylogenetically distant from and less diverse than the microbial community of biofilm samples with lower acceptor loadings. Diminished acceptor loading led to SO[2 over 4]– reduction in the lag MBfR, which allowed Desulfovibrionales (an SRB) and Thiothrichales (sulfur-oxidizers) to thrive through S cycling. As a result of this cooperative relationship, they competed effectively with DB/PRB phylotypes such as Xanthomonadales and Rhodobacterales. Thus, pyrosequencing illustrated that while DB, PRB, and SRB responded predictably to changes in acceptor loading, a decrease in total acceptor loading led to important shifts within the “primary” groups, the onset of other members (e.g., Thiothrichales), and overall greater diversity.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-07-01

Complete Perchlorate Reduction Using Methane as the Sole Electron Donor and Carbon Source

Description

Using a CH[subscript 4]-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR), we studied perchlorate (ClO[subscript 4]–) reduction by a biofilm performing anaerobic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification (ANMO-D). We focused on the effects

Using a CH[subscript 4]-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR), we studied perchlorate (ClO[subscript 4]–) reduction by a biofilm performing anaerobic methane oxidation coupled to denitrification (ANMO-D). We focused on the effects of nitrate (NO[subscript 3]–) and nitrite (NO[subscript 2]–) surface loadings on ClO[subscript 4]– reduction and on the biofilm community’s mechanism for ClO[subscript 4]– reduction. The ANMO-D biofilm reduced up to 5 mg/L of ClO[subscript 4]– to a nondetectable level using CH[subscript 4] as the only electron donor and carbon source when CH[subscript 4] delivery was not limiting; NO[subscript 3]– was completely reduced as well when its surface loading was ≤0.32 g N/m[superscript 2]-d. When CH[subscript 4] delivery was limiting, NO[subscript 3]– inhibited ClO[subscript 4]– reduction by competing for the scarce electron donor. NO[subscript 2]– inhibited ClO[subscript 4]– reduction when its surface loading was ≥0.10 g N/m[superscript 2]-d, probably because of cellular toxicity. Although Archaea were present through all stages, Bacteria dominated the ClO[subscript 4]–-reducing ANMO-D biofilm, and gene copies of the particulate methane mono-oxygenase (pMMO) correlated to the increase of respiratory gene copies. These pieces of evidence support that ClO[subscript 4]– reduction by the MBfR biofilm involved chlorite (ClO[subscript 2]–) dismutation to generate the O[subscript 2] needed as a cosubstrate for the mono-oxygenation of CH[subscript 4].

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-02-17

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UV photolysis for relieved inhibition of sulfadiazine (SD) to biomass growth

Description

UV photolysis was used to relieve inhibition of biomass growth by sulfadiazine (SD), a broad-spectrum anti-microbial. To investigate the effects of SD on biomass growth, three substrates—glucose alone (G), glucose

UV photolysis was used to relieve inhibition of biomass growth by sulfadiazine (SD), a broad-spectrum anti-microbial. To investigate the effects of SD on biomass growth, three substrates—glucose alone (G), glucose plus sulfadiazine (G+SD), and glucose plus photolyzed SD (G+PSD)—were used to culture the bacteria acclimated to glucose. The biomass was strongly inhibited when SD was added into the glucose solution, but inhibition was relieved to a significant degree when the SD was treated with UV irradiation as a pretreatment. The biomass growth kinetics were described well by the Monod model when glucose was used as a substrate alone, but the kinetics followed a hybrid Aiba model for non-competitive inhibition when SD was added to the solution. When photolyzed SD was added to glucose solution to replace original SD, the growth still followed Aiba inhibition, but inhibition was significantly relieved: the maximum specific growth rate (μ[subscript max]) increased by 17 %, and the Aiba inhibition concentration increased by 60 %. Aniline, a major product of UV photolysis, supported the growth of the glucose-biodegrading bacteria. Thus, UV photolysis of SD significantly relieved inhibition by lowering the SD concentration and by generating a biodegradable product.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05-01

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Phosphorus recovery from microbial biofuel residual using microwave peroxide digestion and anion exchange

Description

Sustainable production of microalgae for biofuel requires efficient phosphorus (P) utilization, which is a limited resource and vital for global food security. This research tracks the fate of P through

Sustainable production of microalgae for biofuel requires efficient phosphorus (P) utilization, which is a limited resource and vital for global food security. This research tracks the fate of P through biofuel production and investigates P recovery from the biomass using the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Our results show that Synechocystis contained 1.4% P dry weight. After crude lipids were extracted (e.g., for biofuel processing), 92% of the intracellular P remained in the residual biomass, indicating phospholipids comprised only a small percentage of cellular P. We estimate a majority of the P is primarily associated with nucleic acids. Advanced oxidation using hydrogen peroxide and microwave heating released 92% of the cellular P into orthophosphate. We then recovered the orthophosphate from the digestion matrix using two different types of anion exchange resins. One resin impregnated with iron nanoparticles adsorbed 98% of the influent P through 20 bed volumes, but only released 23% during regeneration. A strong-base anion exchange resin adsorbed 87% of the influent P through 20 bed volumes and released 50% of it upon regeneration. This recovered P subsequently supported growth of Synechocystis. This proof-of-concept recovery process reduced P demand of biofuel microalgae by 54%.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-03-01

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The effects of CO2 and H2 on CO metabolism by pure and mixed microbial cultures

Description

Background
Syngas fermentation, the bioconversion of CO, CO[subscript 2], and H[subscript 2] to biofuels and chemicals, has undergone considerable optimization for industrial applications. Even more, full-scale plants for ethanol production

Background
Syngas fermentation, the bioconversion of CO, CO[subscript 2], and H[subscript 2] to biofuels and chemicals, has undergone considerable optimization for industrial applications. Even more, full-scale plants for ethanol production from syngas fermentation by pure cultures are being built worldwide. The composition of syngas depends on the feedstock gasified and the gasification conditions. However, it remains unclear how different syngas mixtures affect the metabolism of carboxidotrophs, including the ethanol/acetate ratios. In addition, the potential application of mixed cultures in syngas fermentation and their advantages over pure cultures have not been deeply explored. In this work, the effects of CO[subscript 2] and H[subscript 2] on the CO metabolism by pure and mixed cultures were studied and compared. For this, a CO-enriched mixed culture and two isolated carboxidotrophs were grown with different combinations of syngas components (CO, CO:H[subscript 2], CO:CO[subscript 2], or CO:CO[subscript 2]:H[subscript 2]).
Results
The CO metabolism of the mixed culture was somehow affected by the addition of CO[subscript 2] and/or H[subscript 2], but the pure cultures were more sensitive to changes in gas composition than the mixed culture. CO[subscript 2] inhibited CO oxidation by the Pleomorphomonas-like isolate and decreased the ethanol/acetate ratio by the Acetobacterium-like isolate. H[subscript 2] did not inhibit ethanol or H[subscript 2] production by the Acetobacterium and Pleomorphomonas isolates, respectively, but decreased their CO consumption rates. As part of the mixed culture, these isolates, together with other microorganisms, consumed H[subscript 2] and CO[subscript 2] (along with CO) for all conditions tested and at similar CO consumption rates (2.6 ± 0.6 mmol CO L[superscript −1] day[superscript −1]), while maintaining overall function (acetate production). Providing a continuous supply of CO by membrane diffusion caused the mixed culture to switch from acetate to ethanol production, presumably due to the increased supply of electron donor. In parallel with this change in metabolic function, the structure of the microbial community became dominated by Geosporobacter phylotypes, instead of Acetobacterium and Pleomorphomonas phylotypes.
Conclusions
These results provide evidence for the potential of mixed-culture syngas fermentation, since the CO-enriched mixed culture showed high functional redundancy, was resilient to changes in syngas composition, and was capable of producing acetate or ethanol as main products of CO metabolism.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-09-16

Improving lipid recovery from Scenedesmus wet biomass by surfactant-assisted disruption

Description

Microalgae-derived lipids are good sources of biofuel, but extracting them involves high cost, energy
expenditure, and environmental risk. Surfactant treatment to disrupt Scenedesmus biomass was evaluated
as a means to

Microalgae-derived lipids are good sources of biofuel, but extracting them involves high cost, energy
expenditure, and environmental risk. Surfactant treatment to disrupt Scenedesmus biomass was evaluated
as a means to make solvent extraction more efficient. Surfactant treatment increased the recovery of fatty
acid methyl ester (FAME) by as much as 16-fold vs. untreated biomass using isopropanol extraction, and
nearly 100% FAME recovery was possible without any Folch solvent, which is toxic and expensive. Surfactant
treatment caused cell disruption and morphological changes to the cell membrane, as documented by
transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry. Surfactant treatment made it possible to extract wet
biomass at room temperature, which avoids the expense and energy cost associated with heating
and drying of biomass during the extraction process. The best FAME recovery was obtained from highlipid
biomass treated with Myristyltrimethylammonium bromide (MTAB)- and 3-(decyldimethylammonio)-
propanesulfonate inner salt (3_DAPS)-surfactants using a mixed solvent (hexane : isopropanol = 1 : 1, v/v)
vortexed for just 1 min; this was as much as 160-fold higher than untreated biomass. The critical micelle
concentration of the surfactants played a major role in dictating extraction performance, but the growth
stage of the biomass had an even larger impact on how well the surfactants disrupted the cells and
improved lipid extraction. Surfactant treatment had minimal impact on extracted-FAME profiles and,
consequently, fuel-feedstock quality. This work shows that surfactant treatment is a promising strategy for
more efficient, sustainable, and economical extraction of fuel feedstock from microalgae.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-10-20