Matching Items (39)

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Is it Hunger or Hormones? Association of Plasma Ghrelin Levels with Eating Behaviors and Weight Cycling History in Obese and Overweight Women

Description

Weight cycling (WC) is characterized by repeated bouts of weight loss followed by regain. WC has been associated with a number of adverse health consequences and is a risk factor

Weight cycling (WC) is characterized by repeated bouts of weight loss followed by regain. WC has been associated with a number of adverse health consequences and is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Body weight regulation is complex. Little is known about why women who intentionally lose weight are so likely to regain their weight back. Humans are motivated by a variety of psychological pressures as well as physiological stimuli that influence eating behaviors and weight control. One of the complex factors that has been shown to predict weight regain, in weight-reduced individuals, is hunger. Ghrelin is a known gastrointestinal hormone that rises during weight loss and is a strong trigger of hunger and increased appetite. Increased ghrelin levels have been associated with disordered eating behaviors and active weight loss. The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-R18) describes elements that may affect hunger and satiety. These factors are: cognitive restraint (CR, defined as regulating food intake because of weight maintenance), uncontrolled eating (UE, defined as difficulty in regulating eating), and emotional eating (EE, refers to the tendency to eat more than needed because of mood state). Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the associations of fasting plasma ghrelin with eating behaviors and weight cycling in overweight and obese women. Methods: This is a cross-sectional observation of women aged 20-60 years who completed a Weight and Lifestyle Inventory (WALI) and the TFEQ-R18. Women provided a 12-h fasting blood sample and plasma ghrelin was measured using a commercial radioimmunoassay (ELISA kit Cat# EZGRA-88k). Intra- and inter-assay CVs were 88.4% + 13.8% and 84.4% + 8.4% respectively. Descriptive data were computed and Pearson correlations were assessed adjusting for age and body weight (SPSS, v23). Results: A WC Index (WCI) was computed as number of WC reported x the amount of weight lost per cycle. 61 women (mean age: 39.3 + 11 yr; BMI: 31.4 + 7; WCI: 70 + 60; range = 0 to 253) completed questionnaires. Ghrelin was significantly and negatively correlated to weight (R= -0.25, P = 0.03), BMI (R= -0.32, P = .006), UE (R = -0.29, p = 0.02), and EE (R = -0.29, p = 0.04). Ghrelin was not significantly related to WCI. WCI was not significantly correlated with any TFEQ-18 subscales. Conclusion: In this observational study, lower ghrelin was associated with higher UE and EE. Thus physiological hunger sensations from ghrelin secretion, is not a likely stimulus of eating behavior in these women. There are a host of psychological triggers, such as stress, loneliness, guilt, anger etc. that may enhance eating. Future research will need to explore what psychological triggers influence eating behavior and why obese women are resistant to the powerful physiological hunger cues of ghrelin.

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  • 2016-05

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BONE AND MUSCLE: EFFECT OF EXERCISE ON OSTEOPOROSIS AND SARCOPENIA

Description

Osteosarcopenia is a newly formed term that combines the symptoms of osteoporosis and sarcopenia together because of their concurrent appearances in life. They are both age-related, debilitating conditions that affect

Osteosarcopenia is a newly formed term that combines the symptoms of osteoporosis and sarcopenia together because of their concurrent appearances in life. They are both age-related, debilitating conditions that affect older adults’ skeleton and musculoskeletal system. Osteoporosis specifically targets the cells of the bone and make them weak and porous. Sarcopenia attacks the skeletal muscles and deteriorates the muscle fibers, decreasing mass and strength. Both diseases put sedentary elders at high risk of sustaining fractures and proneness to fall. The manifestation of one condition typically leads to the other because of their obvious physical attachments as well as their direct chemical crosstalk. The onset of osteosarcopenia is subtle coinciding with age related processes that become greatly exacerbated and accelerated when coupled with chronic inactivity. Thus, a critical intervention for managing the disability associated with osteosarcopenia is physical activity. While some pharmacological treatments or supplements are known to have positive results in stemming further bone loss, regular participation in moderate-intensity exercises is considered the most effective treatment for attenuating further bone and muscle loss.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Bariatric Surgery: The Good, Bad, & Questionable

Description

Obesity has developed into a worldwide health problem that is associated with many risks. The elements causing obesity are complex and numerous including behavioral, psychological, and physiological. Traditional methods of

Obesity has developed into a worldwide health problem that is associated with many risks. The elements causing obesity are complex and numerous including behavioral, psychological, and physiological. Traditional methods of weight loss have demonstrated short-lived positive health benefits and minimal long-term weight loss, which has led to the prevalence of bariatric surgery as an answer to long-term weight loss for Class III obesity. Gastric bypass surgery has become especially popular for its numerous benefits including successful weight loss, improvements in obesity-related diseases, and increased lifespan. Bariatric surgery is still not a perfect solution. Negative effects after surgery range from surgical complications and vitamin deficiencies to altered hormonal levels and metabolic rates. Many questions regarding bariatric surgery still remain including the impact of adolescent bariatric surgery, long-term bone effects, and long-term psychosocial and lifestyle components of bariatric patients. Understanding the good, the bad, and several of the remaining questions regarding bariatric surgery, will help health professionals be more appreciative of the complexity of treating their obese patients.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Resistance Training Influences on Resting Metabolic Rate in Men and Women

Description

Obesity is becoming more prevalent in the United States and is a result of a several of factors, including an individual's genetics, environment, and societal influences. Of the most important,

Obesity is becoming more prevalent in the United States and is a result of a several of factors, including an individual's genetics, environment, and societal influences. Of the most important, however, when managing weight is the balance between energy expenditure and energy intake. One's total energy expenditure is constituted of four main components: resting metabolic rate (RMR), thermic effect of food, non-exercise thermogenesis, and exercise thermogenesis. The most prominent of these is RMR, which accounts for about 60-70% of an individual's total energy expenditure.

Differences in RMR amongst individuals is dependent on a multitude of variables including height, adiposity, age, body mass, training status, and of most importance, fat-free mass (FFM). Research shows that the greater the body size, the greater the RMR. This positive association between height and body mass with RMR is attributed to more massive organ systems needed in order to meet the greater metabolic demands of a bigger individual. Research also supports that age is negatively associated with RMR. This is mostly due to sarcopenia, or the loss of muscle mass. The most important determinant of RMR, however, is FFM. Unlike body mass, FFM only accounts for metabolically active tissues including muscle, bone, blood, and all organs. Fat-free mass has been reported to account for up to 80% of the variance in RMR. Resistance training is shown to increase FFM, which results in increases in RMR. However, there are several elements to a successful, progressive resistance training protocols that result in increases in muscular strength and hypertrophy. Strength and hypertrophy gains result in a greater oxidative capacity of muscle, and consequentially a greater RMR. The most influential factor in muscular strength and hypertrophic resistance training is intensity. Moderate intensity programs are recommended for the nonathletic adult population for safety purposes. An intensity 4 of about 80% 1 RM is appropriate for increases in FFM. Training protocols lasting at least three months and that incorporate whole-body exercises have the greatest effects on FFM and RMR. Most studies show that increases in FFM of 1-2 kg are necessary increase RMR by about 3-8%. Interestingly, RT can produce similar increases in RMR and FFM in obese and overweight populations in leaner individuals. Implementing resistance training has been shown to be an effective method in managing weight and increasing both RMR and FFM.

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Date Created
  • 2018-12

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Between-Monitor Differences in Step Counts Are Related to Body Size: Implications for Objective Physical Activity Measurement

Description

Background
The quantification of the relationships between walking and health requires that walking is measured accurately. We correlated different measures of step accumulation to body size, overall physical activity level,

Background
The quantification of the relationships between walking and health requires that walking is measured accurately. We correlated different measures of step accumulation to body size, overall physical activity level, and glucose regulation.
Methods
Participants were 25 men and 25 women American Indians without diabetes (Age: 20-34 years) in Phoenix, Arizona, USA. We assessed steps/day during 7 days of free living, simultaneously with three different monitors (Accusplit-AX120, MTI-ActiGraph, and Dynastream-AMP). We assessed total physical activity during free-living with doubly labeled water combined with resting metabolic rate measured by expired gas indirect calorimetry. Glucose tolerance was determined during an oral glucose tolerance test.
Findings
Based on observed counts in the laboratory, the AMP was the most accurate device, followed by the MTI and the AX120, respectively. The estimated energy cost of 1000 steps per day was lower in the AX120 than the MTI or AMP. The correlation between AX120-assessed steps/day and waist circumference was significantly higher than the correlation between AMP steps and waist circumference. The difference in steps per day between the AX120 and both the AMP and the MTI were significantly related to waist circumference.
Interpretation
Between-monitor differences in step counts influence the observed relationship between walking and obesity-related traits.

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Date Created
  • 2011-04-27

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TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS: INTERVENTIONS FOR BLOOD GLUCOSE CONTROL

Description

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease characterized by chronically elevated levels of glucose in the bloodstream. Glucose is a form of sugar that is used as fuel by the body’s

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease characterized by chronically elevated levels of glucose in the bloodstream. Glucose is a form of sugar that is used as fuel by the body’s cells. Blood glucose levels are usually tightly controlled and regulated through a negative feedback system. When this system fails, however, glucose can accumulate in the bloodstream. This system failure typically results from insufficient insulin release due to malfunctioning pancreatic beta cells or the body has developed a resistance to insulin. Excessive glucose accumulation contributes to chronic inflammation and the hardening of blood vessels in the body. This inflammation contributes to a multitude of debilitating health issues such as neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy, renal failure, and/or gangrene of the limbs. Additionally, DM is the 7th leading cause of death in the United States and its treatment comes with a significant economic deficit. While there is currently no cure, pharmaceuticals, dietary modification, physical activity, and weight control are the four main approaches for DM intervention and control. These four approaches each operate to regulate glucose using different biological pathways in order to reduce and regulate blood glucose levels. These pathways include improving insulin sensitivity and correcting pancreatic beta cell function. The purpose of this paper will be to provide an overview of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as well as to review the physiological mechanisms involved with glucose control and finally to discuss the use and effectiveness of the main interventional approaches used with the treatment of T2DM: pharmaceuticals, dietary control, physical activity and weight control.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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“ASUKI Step” Pedometer Intervention in University Staff: Rationale and Design

Description

Background:
We describe the study design and methods used in a 9-month pedometer-based worksite intervention called “ASUKI Step” conducted at the Karolinska Institutet (KI) in Stockholm, Sweden and Arizona State

Background:
We describe the study design and methods used in a 9-month pedometer-based worksite intervention called “ASUKI Step” conducted at the Karolinska Institutet (KI) in Stockholm, Sweden and Arizona State University (ASU) in the greater Phoenix area, Arizona.

Methods/Design:
“ASUKI Step” was based on the theory of social support and a quasi-experimental design was used for evaluation. Participants included 2,118 faculty, staff, and graduate students from ASU (n = 712) and KI (n = 1,406) who participated in teams of 3–4 persons. The intervention required participants to accumulate 10,000 steps each day for six months, with a 3-month follow-up period. Steps were recorded onto a study-specific website. Participants completed a website-delivered questionnaire four times to identify socio-demographic, health, psychosocial and environmental correlates of study participation. One person from each team at each university location was randomly selected to complete physical fitness testing to determine their anthropometric and cardiovascular health and to wear an accelerometer for one week. Study aims were: 1) to have a minimum of 400 employee participants from each university site reach a level of 10, 000 steps per day on at least 100 days (3.5 months) during the trial period; 2) to have 70% of the employee participants from each university site maintain two or fewer inactive days per week, defined as a level of less than 3,000 steps per day; 3) to describe the socio-demographic, psychosocial, environmental and health-related determinants of success in the intervention; and 4) to evaluate the effects of a pedometer-based walking intervention in a university setting on changes in self-perceived health and stress level, sleep patterns, anthropometric measures and fitness. Incentives were given for compliance to the study protocol that included weekly raffles for participation prizes and a grand finale trip to Arizona or Sweden for teams with most days over 10,000 steps.

Discussion:
“ASUKI Step” is designed to increase the number of days employees walk 10,000 steps and to reduce the number of days employees spend being inactive. The study also evaluates the intra- and interpersonal determinants for success in the intervention and in a sub-sample of the study, changes in physical fitness and body composition during the study.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012-08-15

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Acute affects [i.e. effects] of a walking workstation on ambulatory blood pressure in prehypertensive adults

Description

INTRODUCTION: Exercise performed at moderate to vigorous intensities has been shown to generate a post exercise hypotensive response. Whether this response is observed with very low exercise intensities is unclear.

INTRODUCTION: Exercise performed at moderate to vigorous intensities has been shown to generate a post exercise hypotensive response. Whether this response is observed with very low exercise intensities is unclear. PURPOSE: To compare post physical activity ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) response to a single worksite walking day and a normal sedentary work day in pre-hypertensive adults. METHODS: Participants were 7 pre-hypertensive (127 + 8 mmHg / 83 + 8 mmHg) adults (3 male, 4 female, age = 42 + 12 yr) who participated in a randomized, cross-over study that included a control and a walking treatment. Only those who indicated regularly sitting at least 8 hours/day and no structured physical activity were enrolled. Treatment days were randomly assigned and were performed one week apart. Walking treatment consisted of periodically increasing walk time up to 2.5 hours over the course of an 8 hour work day on a walking workstation (Steelcase Company, Grand Rapids, MI). Walk speed was set at 1 mph. Participants wore an ambulatory blood pressure cuff (Oscar 2, SunTech Medical, Morrisville, NC) for 24-hours on both treatment days. Participants maintained normal daily activities on the control day. ABP data collected from 9:00 am until 10:00 pm of the same day were included in statistical analyses. Linear mixed models were used to detect differences in systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) by treatment condition over the whole day and post workday for the time periods between 4 -10 pm when participants were no longer at work. RESULTS:BP was significantly lower in response to the walking treatment compared to the control day (Mean SBP 126 +7 mmHg vs.124 +7 mmHg, p=.043; DBP 80 + 3 mmHg vs. 77 + 3 mmHg, p = 0.001 respectively). Post workday (4:00 to 10:00 pm) SBP decreased 3 mmHg (p=.017) and DBP decreased 4 mmHg (p<.001) following walking. CONCLUSION: Even low intensity exercise such as walking on a walking workstation is effective for significantly reducing acute BP when compared to a normal work day.

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Date Created
  • 2013

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Upper extremity biomechanics in native and non-native signers

Description

Individuals fluent in sign language who have at least one deaf parent are considered native signers while those with non-signing, hearing parents are non-native signers. Musculoskeletal pain from repetitive motion

Individuals fluent in sign language who have at least one deaf parent are considered native signers while those with non-signing, hearing parents are non-native signers. Musculoskeletal pain from repetitive motion is more common from non-natives than natives. The goal of this study was twofold: 1) to examine differences in upper extremity (UE) biomechanical measures between natives and non-natives and 2) upon creating a composite measure of injury-risk unique to signers, to compare differences in scores between natives and non-natives. Non-natives were hypothesized to have less favorable biomechanical measures and composite injury-risk scores compared to natives. Dynamometry was used for measurement of strength, electromyography for ‘micro’ rest breaks and muscle tension, optical motion capture for ballistic signing, non-neutral joint angle and work envelope, a numeric pain rating scale for pain, and the modified Strain Index (SI) as a composite measure of injury-risk. There were no differences in UE strength (all p≥0.22). Natives had more rest (natives 76.38%; non-natives 26.86%; p=0.002) and less muscle tension (natives 11.53%; non-natives 48.60%; p=0.008) for non-dominant upper trapezius across the first minute of the trial. For ballistic signing, no differences were found in resultant linear segment acceleration when producing the sign for ‘again’ (natives 27.59m/s2; non-natives 21.91m/s2; p=0.20). For non-neutral joint angle, natives had more wrist flexion-extension motion when producing the sign for ‘principal’ (natives 54.93°; non-natives 46.23°; p=0.04). Work envelope demonstrated the greatest significance when determining injury-risk. Natives had a marginally greater work envelope along the z-axis (inferior-superior) across the first minute of the trial (natives 35.80cm; non-natives 30.84cm; p=0.051). Natives (30%) presented with a lower pain prevalence than non-natives (40%); however, there was no significant difference in the modified SI scores (natives 4.70 points; non-natives 3.06 points; p=0.144) and no association between presence of pain with the modified SI score (r=0.087; p=0.680). This work offers a comprehensive analysis of all the previously identified UE biomechanics unique to signers and helped to inform a composite measure of injury-risk. Use of the modified SI demonstrates promise, although its lack of association with pain does confirm that injury-risk encompasses other variables in addition to a signer’s biomechanics.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Implementing the Exercise is MedicineTM solution: a process evaluation conducted in a university-based healthcare system

Description

Background: Exercise is Medicine (EIM) is a health promotion strategy for addressing physical inactivity in healthcare. However, it is unknown how to successfully implement the processes.

Purpose: The purpose of

Background: Exercise is Medicine (EIM) is a health promotion strategy for addressing physical inactivity in healthcare. However, it is unknown how to successfully implement the processes.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to understand how implementing EIM influenced provider behaviors in a university-based healthcare system, using a process evaluation.

Methods: A multiple baseline, time series design was used. Providers were allocated to three groups. Group 1 (n=11) was exposed to an electronic medical record (EMR) systems change, EIM-related resources, and EIM training session. Group 2 (n=5) received the EMR change and resources but no training. Group 3 (n=6) was only exposed to the systems change. The study was conducted across three phases. Outcomes included asking about patient physical activity (PA) as a vital sign (PAVS), prescribing PA (ExRx), and providing PA resources or referrals. Patient surveys and EMR data were examined. Time series analysis, chi-square, and logistic regression were used.

Results: Patient survey data revealed the systems change increased patient reports of being asked about PA, χ2(4) = 95.47, p < .001 for all groups. There was a significant effect of training and resource dissemination on patients receiving PA advice, χ2(4) = 36.25, p < .001. Patients receiving PA advice was greater during phase 2 (OR = 4.7, 95% CI = 2.0-11.0) and phase 3 (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.2-7.4). Increases were also observed in EMR data for PAVS, χ2(2) = 29.27, p <. 001 during implementation for all groups. Increases in PA advice χ2(2) = 140.90, p < .001 occurred among trained providers only. No statistically significant change was observed for ExRx, PA resources or PA referrals. However, visual analysis showed an upwards trend among trained providers.

Conclusions: An EMR systems change is effective for increasing the collection of the PAVS. Training and resources may influence provider behavior but training alone increased provider documentation. The low levels of documented outcomes for PA advice, ExRx, resources, or referrals may be due to the limitations of the EMR system. This approach was effective for examining the EIM Solution and scaled-up, longer trials may yield more robust results.

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Date Created
  • 2019