Matching Items (39)

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Bariatric Surgery: The Good, Bad, & Questionable

Description

Obesity has developed into a worldwide health problem that is associated with many risks. The elements causing obesity are complex and numerous including behavioral, psychological, and physiological. Traditional methods of weight loss have demonstrated short-lived positive health benefits and minimal

Obesity has developed into a worldwide health problem that is associated with many risks. The elements causing obesity are complex and numerous including behavioral, psychological, and physiological. Traditional methods of weight loss have demonstrated short-lived positive health benefits and minimal long-term weight loss, which has led to the prevalence of bariatric surgery as an answer to long-term weight loss for Class III obesity. Gastric bypass surgery has become especially popular for its numerous benefits including successful weight loss, improvements in obesity-related diseases, and increased lifespan. Bariatric surgery is still not a perfect solution. Negative effects after surgery range from surgical complications and vitamin deficiencies to altered hormonal levels and metabolic rates. Many questions regarding bariatric surgery still remain including the impact of adolescent bariatric surgery, long-term bone effects, and long-term psychosocial and lifestyle components of bariatric patients. Understanding the good, the bad, and several of the remaining questions regarding bariatric surgery, will help health professionals be more appreciative of the complexity of treating their obese patients.

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2018-05

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TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS: INTERVENTIONS FOR BLOOD GLUCOSE CONTROL

Description

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease characterized by chronically elevated levels of glucose in the bloodstream. Glucose is a form of sugar that is used as fuel by the body’s cells. Blood glucose levels are usually tightly controlled and regulated

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease characterized by chronically elevated levels of glucose in the bloodstream. Glucose is a form of sugar that is used as fuel by the body’s cells. Blood glucose levels are usually tightly controlled and regulated through a negative feedback system. When this system fails, however, glucose can accumulate in the bloodstream. This system failure typically results from insufficient insulin release due to malfunctioning pancreatic beta cells or the body has developed a resistance to insulin. Excessive glucose accumulation contributes to chronic inflammation and the hardening of blood vessels in the body. This inflammation contributes to a multitude of debilitating health issues such as neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy, renal failure, and/or gangrene of the limbs. Additionally, DM is the 7th leading cause of death in the United States and its treatment comes with a significant economic deficit. While there is currently no cure, pharmaceuticals, dietary modification, physical activity, and weight control are the four main approaches for DM intervention and control. These four approaches each operate to regulate glucose using different biological pathways in order to reduce and regulate blood glucose levels. These pathways include improving insulin sensitivity and correcting pancreatic beta cell function. The purpose of this paper will be to provide an overview of type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as well as to review the physiological mechanisms involved with glucose control and finally to discuss the use and effectiveness of the main interventional approaches used with the treatment of T2DM: pharmaceuticals, dietary control, physical activity and weight control.

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2019-05

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Resistance Training Influences on Resting Metabolic Rate in Men and Women

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Obesity is becoming more prevalent in the United States and is a result of a several of factors, including an individual's genetics, environment, and societal influences. Of the most important, however, when managing weight is the balance between energy expenditure

Obesity is becoming more prevalent in the United States and is a result of a several of factors, including an individual's genetics, environment, and societal influences. Of the most important, however, when managing weight is the balance between energy expenditure and energy intake. One's total energy expenditure is constituted of four main components: resting metabolic rate (RMR), thermic effect of food, non-exercise thermogenesis, and exercise thermogenesis. The most prominent of these is RMR, which accounts for about 60-70% of an individual's total energy expenditure.

Differences in RMR amongst individuals is dependent on a multitude of variables including height, adiposity, age, body mass, training status, and of most importance, fat-free mass (FFM). Research shows that the greater the body size, the greater the RMR. This positive association between height and body mass with RMR is attributed to more massive organ systems needed in order to meet the greater metabolic demands of a bigger individual. Research also supports that age is negatively associated with RMR. This is mostly due to sarcopenia, or the loss of muscle mass. The most important determinant of RMR, however, is FFM. Unlike body mass, FFM only accounts for metabolically active tissues including muscle, bone, blood, and all organs. Fat-free mass has been reported to account for up to 80% of the variance in RMR. Resistance training is shown to increase FFM, which results in increases in RMR. However, there are several elements to a successful, progressive resistance training protocols that result in increases in muscular strength and hypertrophy. Strength and hypertrophy gains result in a greater oxidative capacity of muscle, and consequentially a greater RMR. The most influential factor in muscular strength and hypertrophic resistance training is intensity. Moderate intensity programs are recommended for the nonathletic adult population for safety purposes. An intensity 4 of about 80% 1 RM is appropriate for increases in FFM. Training protocols lasting at least three months and that incorporate whole-body exercises have the greatest effects on FFM and RMR. Most studies show that increases in FFM of 1-2 kg are necessary increase RMR by about 3-8%. Interestingly, RT can produce similar increases in RMR and FFM in obese and overweight populations in leaner individuals. Implementing resistance training has been shown to be an effective method in managing weight and increasing both RMR and FFM.

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2018-12

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Between-Monitor Differences in Step Counts Are Related to Body Size: Implications for Objective Physical Activity Measurement

Description

Background: The quantification of the relationships between walking and health requires that walking is measured accurately. We correlated different measures of step accumulation to body size, overall physical activity level, and glucose regulation.

Methods: Participants were 25 men and 25 women American Indians

Background: The quantification of the relationships between walking and health requires that walking is measured accurately. We correlated different measures of step accumulation to body size, overall physical activity level, and glucose regulation.

Methods: Participants were 25 men and 25 women American Indians without diabetes (Age: 20-34 years) in Phoenix, Arizona, USA. We assessed steps/day during 7 days of free living, simultaneously with three different monitors (Accusplit-AX120, MTI-ActiGraph, and Dynastream-AMP). We assessed total physical activity during free-living with doubly labeled water combined with resting metabolic rate measured by expired gas indirect calorimetry. Glucose tolerance was determined during an oral glucose tolerance test.

Findings: Based on observed counts in the laboratory, the AMP was the most accurate device, followed by the MTI and the AX120, respectively. The estimated energy cost of 1000 steps per day was lower in the AX120 than the MTI or AMP. The correlation between AX120-assessed steps/day and waist circumference was significantly higher than the correlation between AMP steps and waist circumference. The difference in steps per day between the AX120 and both the AMP and the MTI were significantly related to waist circumference.

Interpretation: Between-monitor differences in step counts influence the observed relationship between walking and obesity-related traits.

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Date Created
2011-04-27

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“ASUKI Step” Pedometer Intervention in University Staff: Rationale and Design

Description

Background:
We describe the study design and methods used in a 9-month pedometer-based worksite intervention called “ASUKI Step” conducted at the Karolinska Institutet (KI) in Stockholm, Sweden and Arizona State University (ASU) in the greater Phoenix area, Arizona.

Methods/Design:
“ASUKI Step”

Background:
We describe the study design and methods used in a 9-month pedometer-based worksite intervention called “ASUKI Step” conducted at the Karolinska Institutet (KI) in Stockholm, Sweden and Arizona State University (ASU) in the greater Phoenix area, Arizona.

Methods/Design:
“ASUKI Step” was based on the theory of social support and a quasi-experimental design was used for evaluation. Participants included 2,118 faculty, staff, and graduate students from ASU (n = 712) and KI (n = 1,406) who participated in teams of 3–4 persons. The intervention required participants to accumulate 10,000 steps each day for six months, with a 3-month follow-up period. Steps were recorded onto a study-specific website. Participants completed a website-delivered questionnaire four times to identify socio-demographic, health, psychosocial and environmental correlates of study participation. One person from each team at each university location was randomly selected to complete physical fitness testing to determine their anthropometric and cardiovascular health and to wear an accelerometer for one week. Study aims were: 1) to have a minimum of 400 employee participants from each university site reach a level of 10, 000 steps per day on at least 100 days (3.5 months) during the trial period; 2) to have 70% of the employee participants from each university site maintain two or fewer inactive days per week, defined as a level of less than 3,000 steps per day; 3) to describe the socio-demographic, psychosocial, environmental and health-related determinants of success in the intervention; and 4) to evaluate the effects of a pedometer-based walking intervention in a university setting on changes in self-perceived health and stress level, sleep patterns, anthropometric measures and fitness. Incentives were given for compliance to the study protocol that included weekly raffles for participation prizes and a grand finale trip to Arizona or Sweden for teams with most days over 10,000 steps.

Discussion:
“ASUKI Step” is designed to increase the number of days employees walk 10,000 steps and to reduce the number of days employees spend being inactive. The study also evaluates the intra- and interpersonal determinants for success in the intervention and in a sub-sample of the study, changes in physical fitness and body composition during the study.

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Date Created
2012-08-15

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Is it Hunger or Hormones? Association of Plasma Ghrelin Levels with Eating Behaviors and Weight Cycling History in Obese and Overweight Women

Description

Weight cycling (WC) is characterized by repeated bouts of weight loss followed by regain. WC has been associated with a number of adverse health consequences and is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Body weight regulation is complex. Little is

Weight cycling (WC) is characterized by repeated bouts of weight loss followed by regain. WC has been associated with a number of adverse health consequences and is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Body weight regulation is complex. Little is known about why women who intentionally lose weight are so likely to regain their weight back. Humans are motivated by a variety of psychological pressures as well as physiological stimuli that influence eating behaviors and weight control. One of the complex factors that has been shown to predict weight regain, in weight-reduced individuals, is hunger. Ghrelin is a known gastrointestinal hormone that rises during weight loss and is a strong trigger of hunger and increased appetite. Increased ghrelin levels have been associated with disordered eating behaviors and active weight loss. The Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ-R18) describes elements that may affect hunger and satiety. These factors are: cognitive restraint (CR, defined as regulating food intake because of weight maintenance), uncontrolled eating (UE, defined as difficulty in regulating eating), and emotional eating (EE, refers to the tendency to eat more than needed because of mood state). Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the associations of fasting plasma ghrelin with eating behaviors and weight cycling in overweight and obese women. Methods: This is a cross-sectional observation of women aged 20-60 years who completed a Weight and Lifestyle Inventory (WALI) and the TFEQ-R18. Women provided a 12-h fasting blood sample and plasma ghrelin was measured using a commercial radioimmunoassay (ELISA kit Cat# EZGRA-88k). Intra- and inter-assay CVs were 88.4% + 13.8% and 84.4% + 8.4% respectively. Descriptive data were computed and Pearson correlations were assessed adjusting for age and body weight (SPSS, v23). Results: A WC Index (WCI) was computed as number of WC reported x the amount of weight lost per cycle. 61 women (mean age: 39.3 + 11 yr; BMI: 31.4 + 7; WCI: 70 + 60; range = 0 to 253) completed questionnaires. Ghrelin was significantly and negatively correlated to weight (R= -0.25, P = 0.03), BMI (R= -0.32, P = .006), UE (R = -0.29, p = 0.02), and EE (R = -0.29, p = 0.04). Ghrelin was not significantly related to WCI. WCI was not significantly correlated with any TFEQ-18 subscales. Conclusion: In this observational study, lower ghrelin was associated with higher UE and EE. Thus physiological hunger sensations from ghrelin secretion, is not a likely stimulus of eating behavior in these women. There are a host of psychological triggers, such as stress, loneliness, guilt, anger etc. that may enhance eating. Future research will need to explore what psychological triggers influence eating behavior and why obese women are resistant to the powerful physiological hunger cues of ghrelin.

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2016-05

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Almond consumption and weight loss in obese and overweight adults

Description

Nut consumption, specifically almonds, have been shown to help maintain weight and influence disease risk factors in adult populations. Limited studies have been conducted examining the effect of a small dose of almonds on energy intake and body weight. The

Nut consumption, specifically almonds, have been shown to help maintain weight and influence disease risk factors in adult populations. Limited studies have been conducted examining the effect of a small dose of almonds on energy intake and body weight. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of pre-meal almond consumption on energy intake and weight in overweight and obese adults. In this study included 21, overweight or obese, participants who were considered healthy or had a controlled disease state. This 8-week parallel arm study, participants were randomized to consume an isocaloric amount of almonds, (1 oz) serving, or two (2 oz) cheese stick serving, 30 minutes before the dinner meal, 5 times per week. Anthropometric measurements including weight, waist circumference, and body fat percentage were recorded at baseline, week 1, 4, and 8. Measurement of energy intake was self-reported for two consecutive days at week 1, 4 and 8 using the ASA24 automated dietary program. The energy intake after 8 weeks of almond consumption was not significantly different when compared to the control group (p=0.965). In addition, body weight was not significantly reduced after 8 weeks of the almond intervention (p=0.562). Other parameters measured in this 8-week trial did not differ between the intervention and the control group. These data presented are underpowered and therefore inconclusive on the effects that 1 oz of almonds, in the diet, 5 per week has on energy intake and bodyweight.

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Date Created
2011

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The relationship of fat mass to lower body muscular fitness using isokinetic measures in young and middle-age women

Description

Larger people generally have more muscle mass and are stronger than smaller people. Muscular strength usually decreases with age, possibly as a function of increases in body fat percentage. However, the effect of age, body fat, and lean mass on

Larger people generally have more muscle mass and are stronger than smaller people. Muscular strength usually decreases with age, possibly as a function of increases in body fat percentage. However, the effect of age, body fat, and lean mass on peak muscular strength or muscular fatigue is not clear. This was an observational study to determine: a) the relationship of fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM) to peak knee extensor strength and fatigue in young (Y) and middle-aged (MA) women, and b) to determine differences in peak torque between Y and MA women. Participants included 132 women from two age cohorts (Y: 18-33 yrs, n = 70 and MA: 45-65 yrs, n = 62). Data from the MA cohort were collected as part of a previous study and combined with data from the Y group. Both cohorts completed physical activity questionnaires and were measured for body fat using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Both cohorts used identical procedures and machinery to assess isokinetic knee extensor peak torque (PT) at 60°/sec and to determine fatigue index (FI). FI was calculated as the percent decline of PT during 50 maximal repetitions at 240°/sec. Data were assessed for normality, and appropriate Pearson or Spearman correlations were used to compare PT and FI with body composition variables. A one-way ANOVA was used to examine differences in PT and body composition indices between age groups. In Y, FFM and FM were strongly correlated with peak torque. The correlation of FM to PT disappeared when controlling for FFM. There were no significant correlations between FFM or FM and PT in MA. PT was negatively correlated with FI in the combined groups. PT normalized for body mass and FFM were similar between age groups, but decreased with increasing size. In conclusion, PT was positively related to FFM in the combined age groups. Higher FM was not detrimental to absolute PT in Y or MA, but was detrimental to relative PT in both groups. These data suggest that perhaps FM may attenuate the normal relationship between PT and body mass.

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Date Created
2011

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Physical activity and executive functioning in college students

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ABSTRACT PHYSCIAL ACTIVITY AND EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONING IN COLLEGE STUDENTS INTRODUCTION: Regular physical activity may increase neurological development, which has been shown to increase cognitive functioning in older adults and those with dementia. Studies have also shown physical activity and exercise

ABSTRACT PHYSCIAL ACTIVITY AND EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONING IN COLLEGE STUDENTS INTRODUCTION: Regular physical activity may increase neurological development, which has been shown to increase cognitive functioning in older adults and those with dementia. Studies have also shown physical activity and exercise may positively affect executive functioning in children. Little is known about the influence of physical activity on executive functioning in college students between the ages of 18-21 years, a population that is traditionally thought of as healthy. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore the association between physical activity and executive functioning in college-aged students. We hypothesize that regular physical activity is positively associated with executive functioning scores and that this association is independent of adiposity. METHODS: Twenty males and 29 females (19.5 ± 0.1 yrs. old) participated in this study. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Executive function was assessed by Stroop Color and Word Association Test (Stroop) and Trail Making Test A & B. A verbal ability test (analogies, synonyms, antonyms) was given in order to control for intelligence. Body composition was determined by a Tanita TBF-300 Body Composition Analyzer. RESULTS: Partial correlations between physical activity/inactivity measures and measures of executive functioning were generally small (r-values ≤ 0.2) and not significant. However, there was a significant inverse correlation between log moderate physical activity minutes per week and Stroop interference scores (r=0.50, p=0.01). Also, a trend towards significance was noted for the correlation between sitting minutes per week and Stroop interference scores (r=0.4 p=0.08) CONCLUSION: These results suggest that in college students, moderate physical activity is inversely associated with executive functioning while sitting time may be positively associated with executive functioning. These findings are in contrast to previous studies in children and older adults, and may indicate a unique relationship between physical activity/inactivity and executive functioning in college students. Future studies to further examine this population in greater depth are warranted.

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Date Created
2012

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Vitamin C is not related to resting fat oxidation in healthy, non-obese adults

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ABSTRACT Vitamin C plays an important role in fatty acid metabolism because it is required for carnitine synthesis. Vitamin C has been shown to have an inverse relationship with weight and body fat percent in a number of studies. However,

ABSTRACT Vitamin C plays an important role in fatty acid metabolism because it is required for carnitine synthesis. Vitamin C has been shown to have an inverse relationship with weight and body fat percent in a number of studies. However, there has been limited research exploring the relationship between vitamin C status and fat oxidation. This cross-sectional study investigates the relationship between plasma vitamin C and fat oxidation in 69 participants and between plasma vitamin C and body fatness in 82 participants. Participants were measured for substrate utilization via indirect calorimetry while at rest and measured for body fatness via DEXA scan. Participants provided a single fasting blood draw for analysis of plasma vitamin C. Results did not show a significant association between vitamin C and fat oxidation while at rest, therefore the data do not support the hypothesis that vitamin C status affects fat oxidation in a resting state. However, a significant inverse association was found between vitamin C and both total body fat percent and visceral fat.

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Date Created
2014