Matching Items (11)

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The Riccati System and a Diffusion-Type Equation

Description

We discuss a method of constructing solutions of the initial value problem for diffusion-type equations in terms of solutions of certain Riccati and Ermakov-type systems. A nonautonomous Burgers-type equation is

We discuss a method of constructing solutions of the initial value problem for diffusion-type equations in terms of solutions of certain Riccati and Ermakov-type systems. A nonautonomous Burgers-type equation is also considered. Examples include, but are not limited to the Fokker-Planck equation in physics, the Black-Scholes equation and the Hull-White model in finance.

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  • 2014-05-15

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A Graphical Approach to a Model of a Neuronal Tree with a Variable Diameter

Description

Tree-like structures are ubiquitous in nature. In particular, neuronal axons and dendrites have tree-like geometries that mediate electrical signaling within and between cells. Electrical activity in neuronal trees is typically

Tree-like structures are ubiquitous in nature. In particular, neuronal axons and dendrites have tree-like geometries that mediate electrical signaling within and between cells. Electrical activity in neuronal trees is typically modeled using coupled cable equations on multi-compartment representations, where each compartment represents a small segment of the neuronal membrane. The geometry of each compartment is usually defined as a cylinder or, at best, a surface of revolution based on a linear approximation of the radial change in the neurite. The resulting geometry of the model neuron is coarse, with non-smooth or even discontinuous jumps at the boundaries between compartments. We propose a hyperbolic approximation to model the geometry of neurite compartments, a branched, multi-compartment extension, and a simple graphical approach to calculate steady-state solutions of an associated system of coupled cable equations. A simple case of transient solutions is also briefly discussed.

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  • 2014-07-09

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Translation, Analysis, and Application of a Russian-Language Graph Theory Paper

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In translating the Russian-language math paper “On Applications of Graph Theory for the Description and Analysis of Information Flow Diagrams in Control Systems” (V.L. Epstein, 1964) we endeavor not only

In translating the Russian-language math paper “On Applications of Graph Theory for the Description and Analysis of Information Flow Diagrams in Control Systems” (V.L. Epstein, 1964) we endeavor not only to analyze the specific applications of this paper’s analysis of adjacency matrices to current topics of interest in graph theory, but also to demonstrate in general the value of translating foreign language papers.

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  • 2020-12

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WIGNER FUNCTION APPROACH TO OSCILLATING SOLUTIONS OF THE 1D-QUINTIC NONLINEAR SCHRÖDINGER EQUATION

Description

In this paper, we study oscillating solutions of the 1D-quintic nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the help of Wigner's quasiprobability distribution in quantum phase space. An "absolute squeezing property", namely a

In this paper, we study oscillating solutions of the 1D-quintic nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the help of Wigner's quasiprobability distribution in quantum phase space. An "absolute squeezing property", namely a periodic in time total localization of wave packets at some finite spatial points without violation of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, is analyzed in this nonlinear model.

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  • 2013-08-15

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Spiral laser beams in inhomogeneous media

Description

Explicit solutions of the inhomogeneous paraxial wave equation in a linear and quadratic approximation are applied to wave fields with invariant features, such as oscillating laser beams in a parabolic

Explicit solutions of the inhomogeneous paraxial wave equation in a linear and quadratic approximation are applied to wave fields with invariant features, such as oscillating laser beams in a parabolic waveguide and spiral light beams in varying media. A similar effect of superfocusing of particle beams in a thin monocrystal film, harmonic oscillations of cold trapped atoms, and motion in magnetic field are also mentioned.

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Date Created
  • 2013-08-15

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The minimum-uncertainty squeezed states for atoms and photons in a cavity

Description

We describe a multi-parameter family of the minimum-uncertainty squeezed states for the harmonic oscillator in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. They are derived by the action of the corresponding maximal kinematical invariance

We describe a multi-parameter family of the minimum-uncertainty squeezed states for the harmonic oscillator in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. They are derived by the action of the corresponding maximal kinematical invariance group on the standard ground state solution. We show that the product of the variances attains the required minimum value 1/4 only at the instances that one variance is a minimum and the other is a maximum, when the squeezing of one of the variances occurs. The generalized coherent states are explicitly constructed and their Wigner function is studied. The overlap coefficients between the squeezed, or generalized harmonic, and the Fock states are explicitly evaluated in terms of hypergeometric functions and the corresponding photon statistics are discussed. Some applications to quantum optics, cavity quantum electrodynamics and superfocusing in channelling scattering are mentioned. Explicit solutions of the Heisenberg equations for radiation field operators with squeezing are found.

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  • 2013-08-15

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The Pauli-Lubanski Vector in a Group-Theoretical Approach to Relativistic Wave Equations

Description

Chapter 1 introduces some key elements of important topics such as; quantum mechanics,

representation theory of the Lorentz and Poincare groups, and a review of some basic rela- ´

tivistic wave equations

Chapter 1 introduces some key elements of important topics such as; quantum mechanics,

representation theory of the Lorentz and Poincare groups, and a review of some basic rela- ´

tivistic wave equations that will play an important role in the work to follow. In Chapter 2,

a complex covariant form of the classical Maxwell’s equations in a moving medium or at

rest is introduced. In addition, a compact, Lorentz invariant, form of the energy-momentum

tensor is derived. In chapter 3, the concept of photon helicity is critically analyzed and its

connection with the Pauli-Lubanski vector from the viewpoint of the complex electromag- ´

netic field, E+ iH. To this end, a complex covariant form of Maxwell’s equations is used.

Chapter 4 analyzes basic relativistic wave equations for the classical fields, such as Dirac’s

equation, Weyl’s two-component equation for massless neutrinos and the Proca, Maxwell

and Fierz-Pauli equations, from the viewpoint of the Pauli-Lubanski vector and the Casimir ´

operators of the Poincare group. A connection between the spin of a particle/field and ´

consistency of the corresponding overdetermined system is emphasized in the massless

case. Chapter 5 focuses on the so-called generalized quantum harmonic oscillator, which

is a Schrodinger equation with a time-varying quadratic Hamiltonian operator. The time ¨

evolution of exact wave functions of the generalized harmonic oscillators is determined

in terms of the solutions of certain Ermakov and Riccati-type systems. In addition, it is

shown that the classical Arnold transform is naturally connected with Ehrenfest’s theorem

for generalized harmonic oscillators. In Chapter 6, as an example of the usefulness of the

methods introduced in Chapter 5 a model for the quantization of an electromagnetic field

in a variable media is analyzed. The concept of quantization of an electromagnetic field

in factorizable media is discussed via the Caldirola-Kanai Hamiltonian. A single mode

of radiation for this model is used to find time-dependent photon amplitudes in relation

to Fock states. A multi-parameter family of the squeezed states, photon statistics, and the

uncertainty relation, are explicitly given in terms of the Ermakov-type system.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Computational and analytical mathematical techniques for modeling heterogeneity

Description

This dissertation is intended to tie together a body of work which utilizes a variety of methods to study applied mathematical models involving heterogeneity often omitted with classical modeling techniques.

This dissertation is intended to tie together a body of work which utilizes a variety of methods to study applied mathematical models involving heterogeneity often omitted with classical modeling techniques. I posit three cogent classifications of heterogeneity: physiological, behavioral, and local (specifically connectivity in this work). I consider physiological heterogeneity using the method of transport equations to study heterogeneous susceptibility to diseases in open populations (those with births and deaths). I then present three separate models of behavioral heterogeneity. An SIS/SAS model of gonorrhea transmission in a population of highly active men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) is presented to study the impact of safe behavior (prevention and self-awareness) on the prevalence of this endemic disease. Behavior is modeled in this examples via static parameters describing consistent condom use and frequency of STD testing. In an example of behavioral heterogeneity, in the absence of underlying dynamics, I present a generalization to ``test theory without an answer key" (also known as cultural consensus modeling or CCM). CCM is commonly used to study the distribution of cultural knowledge within a population. The generalized framework presented allows for selecting the best model among various extensions of CCM: multiple subcultures, estimating the degree to which individuals guess yes, and making competence homogenous in the population. This permits model selection based on the principle of information criteria. The third behaviorally heterogeneous model studies adaptive behavioral response based on epidemiological-economic theory within an $SIR$ epidemic setting. Theorems used to analyze the stability of such models with a generalized, non-linear incidence structure are adapted and applied to the case of standard incidence and adaptive incidence. As an example of study in spatial heterogeneity I provide an explicit solution to a generalization of the continuous time approximation of the Albert-Barabasi scale-free network algorithm. The solution is found by recursively solving the differential equations via integrating factors, identifying a pattern for the coefficients and then proving this observed pattern is consistent using induction. An application to disease dynamics on such evolving structures is then studied.

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  • 2012

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Symplectic topology and geometric quantum mechanics

Description

The theory of geometric quantum mechanics describes a quantum system as a Hamiltonian dynamical system, with a projective Hilbert space regarded as the phase space. This thesis extends the theory

The theory of geometric quantum mechanics describes a quantum system as a Hamiltonian dynamical system, with a projective Hilbert space regarded as the phase space. This thesis extends the theory by including some aspects of the symplectic topology of the quantum phase space. It is shown that the quantum mechanical uncertainty principle is a special case of an inequality from J-holomorphic map theory, that is, J-holomorphic curves minimize the difference between the quantum covariance matrix determinant and a symplectic area. An immediate consequence is that a minimal determinant is a topological invariant, within a fixed homology class of the curve. Various choices of quantum operators are studied with reference to the implications of the J-holomorphic condition. The mean curvature vector field and Maslov class are calculated for a lagrangian torus of an integrable quantum system. The mean curvature one-form is simply related to the canonical connection which determines the geometric phases and polarization linear response. Adiabatic deformations of a quantum system are analyzed in terms of vector bundle classifying maps and related to the mean curvature flow of quantum states. The dielectric response function for a periodic solid is calculated to be the curvature of a connection on a vector bundle.

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  • 2011

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Global behavior of finite energy solutions to the focusing nonlinear Schrödinger Equation in d dimension

Description

Nonlinear dispersive equations model nonlinear waves in a wide range of physical and mathematics contexts. They reinforce or dissipate effects of linear dispersion and nonlinear interactions, and thus, may be

Nonlinear dispersive equations model nonlinear waves in a wide range of physical and mathematics contexts. They reinforce or dissipate effects of linear dispersion and nonlinear interactions, and thus, may be of a focusing or defocusing nature. The nonlinear Schrödinger equation or NLS is an example of such equations. It appears as a model in hydrodynamics, nonlinear optics, quantum condensates, heat pulses in solids and various other nonlinear instability phenomena. In mathematics, one of the interests is to look at the wave interaction: waves propagation with different speeds and/or different directions produces either small perturbations comparable with linear behavior, or creates solitary waves, or even leads to singular solutions. This dissertation studies the global behavior of finite energy solutions to the $d$-dimensional focusing NLS equation, $i partial _t u+Delta u+ |u|^{p-1}u=0, $ with initial data $u_0in H^1,; x in Rn$; the nonlinearity power $p$ and the dimension $d$ are chosen so that the scaling index $s=frac{d}{2}-frac{2}{p-1}$ is between 0 and 1, thus, the NLS is mass-supercritical $(s>0)$ and energy-subcritical $(s<1).$ For solutions with $ME[u_0]<1$ ($ME[u_0]$ stands for an invariant and conserved quantity in terms of the mass and energy of $u_0$), a sharp threshold for scattering and blowup is given. Namely, if the renormalized gradient $g_u$ of a solution $u$ to NLS is initially less than 1, i.e., $g_u(0)<1,$ then the solution exists globally in time and scatters in $H^1$ (approaches some linear Schr"odinger evolution as $ttopminfty$); if the renormalized gradient $g_u(0)>1,$ then the solution exhibits a blowup behavior, that is, either a finite time blowup occurs, or there is a divergence of $H^1$ norm in infinite time. This work generalizes the results for the 3d cubic NLS obtained in a series of papers by Holmer-Roudenko and Duyckaerts-Holmer-Roudenko with the key ingredients, the concentration compactness and localized variance, developed in the context of the energy-critical NLS and Nonlinear Wave equations by Kenig and Merle. One of the difficulties is fractional powers of nonlinearities which are overcome by considering Besov-Strichartz estimates and various fractional differentiation rules.

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Date Created
  • 2011