Matching Items (7)

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Nonlinear phase based control to generate and assist oscillatory motion with wearable robotics

Description

Wearable robotics is a growing sector in the robotics industry, they can increase the productivity of workers and soldiers and can restore some of the lost function to people with

Wearable robotics is a growing sector in the robotics industry, they can increase the productivity of workers and soldiers and can restore some of the lost function to people with disabilities. Wearable robots should be comfortable, easy to use, and intuitive. Robust control methods are needed for wearable robots that assist periodic motion.

This dissertation studies a phase based oscillator constructed with a second order dynamic system and a forcing function based on the phase angle of the system. This produces a bounded control signal that can alter the damping and stiffens properties of the dynamic system. It is shown analytically and experimentally that it is stable and robust. It can handle perturbations remarkably well. The forcing function uses the states of the system to produces stable oscillations. Also, this work shows the use of the phase based oscillator in wearable robots to assist periodic human motion focusing on assisting the hip motion. One of the main problems to assist periodic motion properly is to determine the frequency of the signal. The phase oscillator eliminates this problem because the signal always has the correct frequency. The input requires the position and velocity of the system. Additionally, the simplicity of the controller allows for simple implementation.

Contributors

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Design, Modeling, and Evaluation of Soft Poly-Limbs: Toward a New Paradigm of Wearable Continuum Robotic Manipulation for Daily Living Tasks

Description

The term Poly-Limb stems from the rare birth defect syndrome, called Polymelia. Although Poly-Limbs in nature have often been nonfunctional, humans have had the fascination of functional Poly-Limbs. Science fiction

The term Poly-Limb stems from the rare birth defect syndrome, called Polymelia. Although Poly-Limbs in nature have often been nonfunctional, humans have had the fascination of functional Poly-Limbs. Science fiction has led us to believe that having Poly-Limbs leads to augmented manipulation abilities and higher work efficiency. To bring this to life however, requires a synergistic combination between robot manipulation and wearable robotics. Where traditional robots feature precision and speed in constrained environments, the emerging field of soft robotics feature robots that are inherently compliant, lightweight, and cost effective. These features highlight the applicability of soft robotic systems to design personal, collaborative, and wearable systems such as the Soft Poly-Limb.

This dissertation presents the design and development of three actuator classes, made from various soft materials, such as elastomers and fabrics. These materials are initially studied and characterized, leading to actuators capable of various motion capabilities, like bending, twisting, extending, and contracting. These actuators are modeled and optimized, using computational models, in order to achieve the desired articulation and payload capabilities. Using these soft actuators, modular integrated designs are created for functional tasks that require larger degrees of freedom. This work focuses on the development, modeling, and evaluation of these soft robot prototypes.

In the first steps to understand whether humans have the capability of collaborating with a wearable Soft Poly-Limb, multiple versions of the Soft Poly-Limb are developed for assisting daily living tasks. The system is evaluated not only for performance, but also for safety, customizability, and modularity. Efforts were also made to monitor the position and orientation of the Soft Poly-Limbs components through embedded soft sensors and first steps were taken in developing self-powered compo-nents to bring the system out into the world. This work has pushed the boundaries of developing high powered-to-weight soft manipulators that can interact side-by-side with a human user and builds the foundation upon which researchers can investigate whether the brain can support additional limbs and whether these systems can truly allow users to augment their manipulation capabilities to improve their daily lives.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Using the phase angle oscillator controller for hopping robots

Description

As the robotic industry becomes increasingly present in some of the more extreme environments such as the battle field, disaster sites or extraplanetary exploration, it will be necessary to provide

As the robotic industry becomes increasingly present in some of the more extreme environments such as the battle field, disaster sites or extraplanetary exploration, it will be necessary to provide locomotive niche strategies that are optimal to each terrain. The hopping gait has been well studied in robotics and proven to be a potential method to fit some of these niche areas. There have been some difficulties in producing terrain following controllers that maintain robust, steady state, which are disturbance resistant.

The following thesis will discuss a controller which has shown the ability to produce these desired properties. A phase angle oscillator controller is shown to work remarkably well, both in simulation and with a one degree of freedom robotic test stand.

Work was also done with an experimental quadruped with less successful results, but which did show potential for stability. Additional work is suggested for the quadruped.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Load carrying assistance device: pogo suit

Description

Wearable robots including exoskeletons, powered prosthetics, and powered orthotics must add energy to the person at an appropriate time to enhance, augment, or supplement human performance. Adding energy while not

Wearable robots including exoskeletons, powered prosthetics, and powered orthotics must add energy to the person at an appropriate time to enhance, augment, or supplement human performance. Adding energy while not being in sync with the user can dramatically hurt performance making it necessary to have correct timing with the user. Many human tasks such as walking, running, and hopping are repeating or cyclic tasks and a robot can add energy in sync with the repeating pattern for assistance. A method has been developed to add energy at the appropriate time to the repeating limit cycle based on a phase oscillator. The phase oscillator eliminates time from the forcing function which is based purely on the motion of the user. This approach has been simulated, implemented and tested in a robotic backpack which facilitates carrying heavy loads. The device oscillates the load of the backpack, based on the motion of the user, in order to add energy at the correct time and thus reduce the amount of energy required for walking with a heavy load. Models were developed in Working Model 2-D, a dynamics simulation software, in conjunction with MATLAB to verify theory and test control methods. The control system developed is robust and has successfully operated on a range of different users, each with their own different and distinct gait. The results of experimental testing validated the corresponding models.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Human Activity Recognition and Control of Wearable Robots

Description

Wearable robotics has gained huge popularity in recent years due to its wide applications in rehabilitation, military, and industrial fields. The weakness of the skeletal muscles in the aging population

Wearable robotics has gained huge popularity in recent years due to its wide applications in rehabilitation, military, and industrial fields. The weakness of the skeletal muscles in the aging population and neurological injuries such as stroke and spinal cord injuries seriously limit the abilities of these individuals to perform daily activities. Therefore, there is an increasing attention in the development of wearable robots to assist the elderly and patients with disabilities for motion assistance and rehabilitation. In military and industrial sectors, wearable robots can increase the productivity of workers and soldiers. It is important for the wearable robots to maintain smooth interaction with the user while evolving in complex environments with minimum effort from the user. Therefore, the recognition of the user's activities such as walking or jogging in real time becomes essential to provide appropriate assistance based on the activity.

This dissertation proposes two real-time human activity recognition algorithms intelligent fuzzy inference (IFI) algorithm and Amplitude omega ($A \omega$) algorithm to identify the human activities, i.e., stationary and locomotion activities. The IFI algorithm uses knee angle and ground contact forces (GCFs) measurements from four inertial measurement units (IMUs) and a pair of smart shoes. Whereas, the $A \omega$ algorithm is based on thigh angle measurements from a single IMU.

This dissertation also attempts to address the problem of online tuning of virtual impedance for an assistive robot based on real-time gait and activity measurement data to personalize the assistance for different users. An automatic impedance tuning (AIT) approach is presented for a knee assistive device (KAD) in which the IFI algorithm is used for real-time activity measurements. This dissertation also proposes an adaptive oscillator method known as amplitude omega adaptive oscillator ($A\omega AO$) method for HeSA (hip exoskeleton for superior augmentation) to provide bilateral hip assistance during human locomotion activities. The $A \omega$ algorithm is integrated into the adaptive oscillator method to make the approach robust for different locomotion activities. Experiments are performed on healthy subjects to validate the efficacy of the human activities recognition algorithms and control strategies proposed in this dissertation. Both the activity recognition algorithms exhibited higher classification accuracy with less update time. The results of AIT demonstrated that the KAD assistive torque was smoother and EMG signal of Vastus Medialis is reduced, compared to constant impedance and finite state machine approaches. The $A\omega AO$ method showed real-time learning of the locomotion activities signals for three healthy subjects while wearing HeSA. To understand the influence of the assistive devices on the inherent dynamic gait stability of the human, stability analysis is performed. For this, the stability metrics derived from dynamical systems theory are used to evaluate unilateral knee assistance applied to the healthy participants.

Contributors

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Volitional control of a powered prosthetic ankle

Description

Approximately 1.7 million people in the United States are living with limb loss and are in need of more sophisticated devices that better mimic human function. In the Human Machine

Approximately 1.7 million people in the United States are living with limb loss and are in need of more sophisticated devices that better mimic human function. In the Human Machine Integration Laboratory, a powered, transtibial prosthetic ankle was designed and build that allows a person to regain ankle function with improved ankle kinematics and kinetics. The ankle allows a person to walk normally and up and down stairs, but volitional control is still an issue. This research tackled the problem of giving the user more control over the prosthetic ankle using a force/torque circuit. When the user presses against a force/torque sensor located inside the socket the prosthetic foot plantar flexes or moves downward. This will help the user add additional push-off force when walking up slopes or stairs. It also gives the user a sense of control over the device.

Contributors

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Design of a Knee Exoskeleton for Gait Assistance

Description

The world population is aging. Age-related disorders such as stroke and spinal cord injury are increasing rapidly, and such patients often suffer from mobility impairment. Wearable robotic exoskeletons are developed

The world population is aging. Age-related disorders such as stroke and spinal cord injury are increasing rapidly, and such patients often suffer from mobility impairment. Wearable robotic exoskeletons are developed that serve as rehabilitation devices for these patients. In this thesis, a knee exoskeleton design with higher torque output compared to the first version, is designed and fabricated.

A series elastic actuator is one of the many actuation mechanisms employed in exoskeletons. In this mechanism a torsion spring is used between the actuator and human joint. It serves as torque sensor and energy buffer, making it compact and

safe.

A version of knee exoskeleton was developed using the SEA mechanism. It uses worm gear and spur gear combination to amplify the assistive torque generated from the DC motor. It weighs 1.57 kg and provides a maximum assistive torque of 11.26 N·m. It can be used as a rehabilitation device for patients affected with knee joint impairment.

A new version of exoskeleton design is proposed as an improvement over the first version. It consists of components such as brushless DC motor and planetary gear that are selected to meet the design requirements and biomechanical considerations. All the other components such as bevel gear and torsion spring are selected to be compatible with the exoskeleton. The frame of the exoskeleton is modeled in SolidWorks to be modular and easy to assemble. It is fabricated using sheet metal aluminum. It is designed to provide a maximum assistive torque of 23 N·m, two times over the present exoskeleton. A simple brace is 3D printed, making it easy to wear and use. It weighs 2.4 kg.

The exoskeleton is equipped with encoders that are used to measure spring deflection and motor angle. They act as sensors for precise control of the exoskeleton.

An impedance-based control is implemented using NI MyRIO, a FPGA based controller. The motor is controlled using a motor driver and powered using an external battery source. The bench tests and walking tests are presented. The new version of exoskeleton is compared with first version and state of the art devices.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018