Matching Items (21)

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Novel Single-Stranded DNA Virus Genomes Recovered from Chimpanzee Feces Sampled from the Mambilla Plateau in Nigeria

Description

Metagenomic approaches are rapidly expanding our knowledge of the diversity of viruses. In the fecal matter of Nigerian chimpanzees we recovered three gokushovirus genomes, one circular replication-associated protein encoding single-stranded DNA virus (CRESS), and a CRESS DNA molecule.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-03-02

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Genome Sequences of Beet Curly Top Iran Virus, Oat Dwarf Virus, Turnip Curly Top Virus, and Wheat Dwarf Virus Identified in Leafhoppers

Description

Implementation of a vector-enabled metagenomics approach resulted in the identification of various gemini viruses. We identified the genome sequences of beet curly top Iran virus, turnip curly top viruses, oat

Implementation of a vector-enabled metagenomics approach resulted in the identification of various gemini viruses. We identified the genome sequences of beet curly top Iran virus, turnip curly top viruses, oat dwarf viruses, the first from Iran, and wheat dwarf virus from leafhoppers feeding on beet, parsley, pumpkin, and turnip plants.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-02-23

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Genome Sequence of Cauliflower Mosaic Virus Identified in Earwigs (Doru Luteipes) Through a Metagenomic Approach

Description

Here we report the first complete genome sequence of a cauliflower mosaic virus from Brazil, obtained from the gut content of the predator earwig (Doru luteipes). This virus has a

Here we report the first complete genome sequence of a cauliflower mosaic virus from Brazil, obtained from the gut content of the predator earwig (Doru luteipes). This virus has a genome of 8,030 nucleotides (nt) and shares 97% genome-wide identity with an isolate from Argentina.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-03-16

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Sequence-based taxonomic framework for the classification of uncultured single-stranded DNA viruses of the family Genomoviridae

Description

With the advent of metagenomics approaches, a large diversity of known and unknown viruses has been identified in various types of environmental, plant, and animal samples. One such widespread virus

With the advent of metagenomics approaches, a large diversity of known and unknown viruses has been identified in various types of environmental, plant, and animal samples. One such widespread virus group is the recently established family Genomoviridae which includes viruses with small (∼2–2.4 kb), circular ssDNA genomes encoding rolling-circle replication initiation proteins (Rep) and unique capsid proteins. Here, we propose a sequence-based taxonomic framework for classification of 121 new virus genomes within this family. Genomoviruses display ∼47% sequence diversity, which is very similar to that within the well-established and extensively studied family Geminiviridae (46% diversity). Based on our analysis, we establish a 78% genome-wide pairwise identity as a species demarcation threshold. Furthermore, using a Rep sequence phylogeny-based analysis coupled with the current knowledge on the classification of geminiviruses, we establish nine genera within the Genomoviridae family. These are Gemycircularvirus (n = 73), Gemyduguivirus (n = 1), Gemygorvirus (n = 9), Gemykibivirus (n = 29), Gemykolovirus (n = 3), Gemykrogvirus (n = 3), Gemykroznavirus (n = 1), Gemytondvirus (n = 1), Gemyvongvirus (n = 1). The presented taxonomic framework offers rational classification of genomoviruses based on the sequence information alone and sets an example for future classification of other groups of uncultured viruses discovered using metagenomics approaches.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-02-02

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Genomovirus Genomes Recovered From Echinothrips Americanus Sampled in Florida, USA

Description

Four genomovirus genomes were recovered from thrips (Echinothrips americanus) collected in Florida, USA. These represent four new species which are members of the Gemycircularvirus (n = 2), Gemyduguivirus (n =

Four genomovirus genomes were recovered from thrips (Echinothrips americanus) collected in Florida, USA. These represent four new species which are members of the Gemycircularvirus (n = 2), Gemyduguivirus (n = 1), and Gemykibivirus (n = 1) genera. This is the first record, to our knowledge, of genomoviruses associated with a phytophagous insect.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05-25

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Complete Genome Sequence of a Genomovirus Associated With Common Bean Plant Leaves in Brazil

Description

A new genomovirus has been identified in three common bean plants in Brazil. This virus has a circular genome of 2,220 nucleotides and 3 major open reading frames. It shares

A new genomovirus has been identified in three common bean plants in Brazil. This virus has a circular genome of 2,220 nucleotides and 3 major open reading frames. It shares 80.7% genome-wide pairwise identity with a genomovirus recovered from Tongan fruit bat guano.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-11-10

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Occurrence of a novel mastrevirus in sugarcane germplasm collections in Florida, Guadeloupe and Réunion

Description

Background
In Africa and Asia, sugarcane is the host of at least seven different virus species in the genus Mastrevirus of the family Geminiviridae. However, with the exception of Sugarcane

Background
In Africa and Asia, sugarcane is the host of at least seven different virus species in the genus Mastrevirus of the family Geminiviridae. However, with the exception of Sugarcane white streak virus in Barbados, no other sugarcane-infecting mastrevirus has been reported in the New World. Conservation and exchange of sugarcane germplasm using stalk cuttings facilitates the spread of sugarcane-infecting viruses.
Methods
A virion-associated nucleic acids (VANA)-based metagenomics approach was used to detect mastrevirus sequences in 717 sugarcane samples from Florida (USA), Guadeloupe (French West Indies), and Réunion (Mascarene Islands). Contig assembly was performed using CAP3 and sequence searches using BLASTn and BLASTx. Mastrevirus full genomes were enriched from total DNA by rolling circle amplification, cloned and sequenced. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence identities were determined using SDT v1.2. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using MEGA6 and PHYML3.
Results
We identified a new sugarcane-infecting mastrevirus in six plants sampled from germplasm collections in Florida and Guadeloupe. Full genome sequences were determined and analyzed for three virus isolates from Florida, and three from Guadeloupe. These six genomes share >88% genome-wide pairwise identity with one another and between 89 and 97% identity with a recently identified mastrevirus (KR150789) from a sugarcane plant sampled in China. Sequences similar to these were also identified in sugarcane plants in Réunion.
Conclusions
As these virus isolates share <64% genome-wide identity with all other known mastreviruses, we propose classifying them within a new mastrevirus species named Sugarcane striate virus. This is the first report of sugarcane striate virus (SCStV) in the Western Hemisphere, a virus that most likely originated in Asia. The distribution, vector, and impact of SCStV on sugarcane production remains to be determined.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-07-28

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Genome Sequence of a Podovirus (AAPEc6) Isolated From Wastewater in New Zealand That Infects Escherichia Coli O45: H10

Description

Bacteriophages are ideal candidates for pathogen biocontrol to mitigate outbreaks of prevalent foodborne pathogens, such as Escherichia coli. We identified a bacteriophage (AAPEc6) from wastewater that infects E. coli O45:H10.

Bacteriophages are ideal candidates for pathogen biocontrol to mitigate outbreaks of prevalent foodborne pathogens, such as Escherichia coli. We identified a bacteriophage (AAPEc6) from wastewater that infects E. coli O45:H10. The AAPEc6 genome sequence shares 93% identity (with 92% coverage) to enterobacterial phage K1E (Sp6likevirus) in the Autographivirinae subfamily (Podoviridae).

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-08-03

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Human Papillomavirus specific immune responses as biomarkers for the early detection of cervical cancer

Description

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of cervical cancer. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV 16, 18 or 45 species is associated with the development and progression of cervical cancer.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of cervical cancer. Persistent infection with high-risk HPV 16, 18 or 45 species is associated with the development and progression of cervical cancer. HPV genotyping and Pap smear tests are the regular methods used to detect pre-invasive cervical lesions, but there is a need for developing a rapid biomarker to profile immunity to these viruses. The viral E7 oncogene is expressed in most HPV-associated cancers and anti-E7 antibodies can be detected in the blood of patients with cervical cancer. This research was focused on viral E7 oncogene expression to be used in development of low-cost point of care tests, enabling patients from low resource settings to detect the asymptotic stage of cervical cancer and be able to seek treatment early. In order to produce the E7 protein in vitro to measure antibody levels, GST tagged E7 genes from HPV 16, 18 and 45 species were inserted into the pDEST15 vector and expressed in E. coli BL21DE3 cells that were induced with 1mM of IPTG. The E7-GST fused expressed protein was then purified using glutathione beads and resolved on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Protein expression was 5.8 \u03bcg/ml for HPV 16E7 in 500 ml culture and for the 500 ml culture of HPV 18 E7 and 45 E7 were 10.5 \u03bcg/ml and 10.5 \u03bcg/ml for HPV 18E7 and 45E7 respectively. High yield values are showing high expression levels of GST-tagged E7 recombinant protein which can be used for serotyping a number of individuals. This shows that HPV E7 can be produced in large quantities that can potentially be used in point of care tests that can help identify women at risk of cervical cancer. In conclusion, the E7 protein produced in this study can potentially be used to induce humoral responses in patients\u2019 sera for understanding the immune response of cervical cancer.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-12

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Toxin Level Analysis in Dogs Envenomated by Pit Vipers in Arizona

Description

To date, there have been few, if any, studies evaluating the venom toxin levels in dogs that have been naturally envenomated by pit vipers. Understanding venom toxin pharmacokinetics in a

To date, there have been few, if any, studies evaluating the venom toxin levels in dogs that have been naturally envenomated by pit vipers. Understanding venom toxin pharmacokinetics in a clinical setting is important for a variety of reasons, including the potential to better elucidate treatment options, prognosis, and other factors associated with pit viper envenomation. In addition, dogs serve as a comparative species to humans for evaluating pit viper envenomations. This pilot study’s primary objective was to address the question of “What do we see?” in dogs presenting for rattlesnake envenomation. To answer this question, we obtained serum from envenomated dogs presenting at three veterinary clinics, then used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot analysis to measure total venom and key toxins in sera. Phospholipase A2, a primary venom toxin, was identified in a few samples by the western blot, and contributed to the positive correlation between percent echinocytes in the blood and venom concentration. Medical data records were compared to venom concentrations measured using ELISA to determine whether there were any significant correlations. First, the hematological results were compared. Clotting times showed a strong positive correlation, clotting times and platelets showed a negative correlation, while echinocytes and platelets showed no correlation. When compared to venom concentration, clotting times showed a negative correlation, while age showed a positive correlation. Weight and platelets were also compared to venom concentration, but no significant correlations were found. The logistics of this study provided a real-world model where time elapsed between envenomation and hospital admission, thus giving a realistic look at what occurs in both animal and human medicine.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05