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The Gratton effect remains after controlling for contingencies and stimulus repetitions

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The Gratton effect, the observation that the size of the Stroop effect is larger following a congruent trial compared to an incongruent trial, is one pivotal observation in support of

The Gratton effect, the observation that the size of the Stroop effect is larger following a congruent trial compared to an incongruent trial, is one pivotal observation in support of the conflict-monitoring hypothesis. Previous reports have demonstrated that non-conflict components, such as feature binding, also contribute to this effect. Critically, Schmidt and De Houwer (2011) report a flanker task and a button-press Stroop task suggesting that there is no conflict adaptation in the Gratton effect; it is entirely caused by feature binding. The current investigation attempts to replicate and extend this important finding across two experiments using a canonical four-choice Stroop task with vocal responses. In contrast to Schmidt and De Houwer, we observe reliable conflict adaptation after controlling for feature binding. We argue that the overall strength of conflict is critical for determining whether a conflict adaptation component will remain in the Gratton effect after explaining binding components.

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Date Created
  • 2014-10-24

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The recall dynamics of importance in delayed free recall

Description

An emerging literature on the relation between memory and importance has shown that people are able to selectively remember information that is more, relative to less important. Researchers in this

An emerging literature on the relation between memory and importance has shown that people are able to selectively remember information that is more, relative to less important. Researchers in this field have operationalized importance by assigning value to the different information that participants are asked to study and remember. In the present investigation I developed two experiments, using a slightly altered value-directed-remembering (VDR) paradigm, to investigate whether and how value modifies the dynamics of memory organization and search. Moreover, I asked participants to perform a surprise final free recall task in order to examine the effects of value in the recall dynamics of final free recall. In Experiment 1, I compared the recall dynamics of delayed and final free recall between a control and a value condition, in the latter of which numbers appeared next to words, in random order, denoting the value of remembering each word during recall. In Experiment 2, I manipulated the order of presentation of the values by adding an ascending and a descending condition where values were presented in either an ascending or a descending order, respectively. Overall, my results indicated that value affected several measures of delayed and final free recall, without, in most cases, taking away the serial position effects on those same measures.

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Date Created
  • 2015