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Techno-economic analysis of a concentrating solar power plant using reduction/oxidation metal oxides for thermochemical energy storage

Description

Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plant technology can produce reliable and dispatchable electric power from an intermittent solar resource. Recent advances in thermochemical energy storage (TCES) can offer further improvements to

Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) plant technology can produce reliable and dispatchable electric power from an intermittent solar resource. Recent advances in thermochemical energy storage (TCES) can offer further improvements to increase off-sun operating hours, improve system efficiency, and the reduce cost of delivered electricity. This work describes a 111.7 MWe CSP plant with TCES using a mixed ionic-electronic conducting metal oxide, CAM28, as both the heat transfer and thermal energy storage media. Turbine inlet temperatures reach 1200 °C in the combined cycle power block. A techno-economic model of the CSP system is developed to evaluate design considerations to meet targets for low-cost and renewable power with 6-14 hours of dispatchable storage for off-sun power generation. Hourly solar insolation data is used for Barstow, California, USA. Baseline design parameters include a 6-hour storage capacity and a 1.8 solar multiple. Sensitivity analyses are performed to evaluate the effect of engineering parameters on total installed cost, generation capacity, and levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Calculated results indicate a full-scale 111.7 MWe system at $274 million in installed cost can generate 507 GWh per year at a levelized cost of $0.071 per kWh. Expected improvements to design, performance, and costs illustrate options to reduce energy costs to less than $0.06 per kWh.

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  • 2017

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A Steady State Thermodynamic Model of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermochemical Energy Storage

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Fluids such as steam, oils, and molten salts are commonly used to store and transfer heat in a concentrating solar power (CSP) system. Metal oxide materials have received increasing attention

Fluids such as steam, oils, and molten salts are commonly used to store and transfer heat in a concentrating solar power (CSP) system. Metal oxide materials have received increasing attention for their reversible reduction-oxidation (redox) reaction that permits receiving, storing, and releasing energy through sensible and chemical potential. This study investigates the performance of a 111.7 MWe CSP system coupled with a thermochemical energy storage system (TCES) that uses a redox active metal oxide acting as the heat transfer fluid. A one-dimensional thermodynamic model is introduced for the novel CSP system design, with detailed designs of the underlying nine components developed from first principles and empirical data of the heat transfer media. The model is used to (a) size components, (b) examine intraday operational behaviors of the system against varying solar insolation, (c) calculate annual productivity and performance characteristics over a simulated year, and (d) evaluate factors that affect system performance using sensitivity analysis. Time series simulations use hourly direct normal irradiance (DNI) data for Barstow, California, USA. The nominal system design uses a solar multiple of 1.8 with a storage capacity of six hours for off-sun power generation. The mass of particles to achieve six hours of storage weighs 5,140 metric tonnes. Capacity factor increases by 3.55% for an increase in storage capacity to eight hours which requires an increase in storage volume by 33% or 737 m3, or plant design can be improved by decreasing solar multiple to 1.6 to increase the ratio of annual capacity factor to solar multiple. The solar reduction receiver is the focal point for the concentrated solar energy for inducing an endothermic reaction in the particles under low partial pressure of oxygen, and the reoxidation reactor induces the opposite exothermic reaction by mixing the particles with air to power an air Brayton engine. Stream flow data indicate the solar receiver experiences the largest thermal loss of any component, excluding the solar field. Design and sensitivity analysis of thermal insulation layers for the solar receiver show that additional RSLE-57 insulation material achieves the greatest increase in energetic efficiency of the five materials investigated.

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  • 2017

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Investigation of heat-driven polygeneration and adsorption cooling systems

Description

Just for a moment! Imagine you live in Arizona without air-conditioning systems!

Air-conditioning and refrigeration systems are one of the most crucial systems in anyone’s house and car these days. Energy

Just for a moment! Imagine you live in Arizona without air-conditioning systems!

Air-conditioning and refrigeration systems are one of the most crucial systems in anyone’s house and car these days. Energy resources are becoming more scarce and expensive. Most of the currently used refrigerants have brought an international concern about global warming. The search for more efficient cooling/refrigeration systems with environmental friendly refrigerants has become more and more important so as to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and ensure sustainable and affordable energy systems. The most widely used air-conditioning and refrigeration system, based on the vapor compression cycle, is driven by converting electricity into mechanical work which is a high quality type of energy. However, these systems can instead be possibly driven by heat, be made solid-state (i.e., thermoelectric cooling), consist entirely of a gaseous working fluid (i.e., reverse Brayton cycle), etc. This research explores several thermally driven cooling systems in order to understand and further overcome some of the major drawbacks associated with their performance as well as their high capital costs. In the second chapter, we investigate the opportunities for integrating single- and double-stage ammonia-water (NH3–H2O) absorption refrigeration systems with multi-effect distillation (MED) via cascade of rejected heat for large-scale plants. Similarly, in the third chapter, we explore a new polygeneration cooling-power cycle’s performance based on Rankine, reverse Brayton, ejector, and liquid desiccant cycles to produce power, cooling, and possibly fresh water for various configurations. Different configurations are considered from an energy perspective and are compared to stand-alone systems. In the last chapter, a new simple, inexpensive, scalable, environmentally friendly cooling system based on an adsorption heat pump system and evacuated tube solar collector is experimentally and theoretically studied. The system is destined as a small-scale system to harness solar radiation to provide a cooling effect directly in one system.

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Date Created
  • 2018