Matching Items (11)

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The difference in attributions of success and failure, out-of-class engagement, and predictions of future success of middle school band students in open and closed composition tasks

Description

The purpose of this study was to compare perceptions of success and failure, attributions of success and failure, predictions of future success, and reports of out-of-class engagement in composition among middle school band students composing in open task conditions (n

The purpose of this study was to compare perceptions of success and failure, attributions of success and failure, predictions of future success, and reports of out-of-class engagement in composition among middle school band students composing in open task conditions (n = 32) and closed task conditions (n = 31). Two intact band classes at the same middle school were randomly assigned to treatment groups. Both treatment groups composed music once a week for eight weeks during their regular band time. In Treatment A (n = 32), the open task group, students were told to compose music however they wished. In Treatment B (n = 31), the closed task group, students were given specific, structured composition assignments to complete each week. At the end of each session, students were asked to complete a Composing Diary in which they reported what they did each week. Their responses were coded for evidence of perceptions of success and failure as well as out-of-class engagement in composing. At the end of eight weeks, students were given three additional measures: the Music Attributions Survey to measure attributions of success and failure on 11 different subscales; the Future Success survey to measure students' predictions of future success; and the Out-of-Class Engagement Letter to measure students' engagement with composition outside of the classroom. Results indicated that students in the open task group and students in the closed task group behaved similarly. There were no significant differences between treatment groups in terms of perceptions of success or failure as composers, predictions of future success composing music, and reports of out-of-class engagement in composition. Students who felt they failed at composing made similar attributions for their failure in both treatment groups. Students who felt they succeeded also made similar attributions for their success in both treatment groups, with one exception. Successful students in the closed task group rated Peer Influence significantly higher than the successful students in the open task group. The findings of this study suggest that understanding individual student's attributions and offering a variety of composing tasks as part of music curricula may help educators meet students' needs.

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Created

Date Created
2014

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Perceptions of meaningfulness among high school instrumental musicians

Description

The purpose of this multiple case study was to investigate what students in three high school music groups perceived as most meaningful about their participation. I also examined the role that context played in shaping students' perceptions, and sought potential

The purpose of this multiple case study was to investigate what students in three high school music groups perceived as most meaningful about their participation. I also examined the role that context played in shaping students' perceptions, and sought potential principles underlying meaning and value in instrumental ensembles. Over the course of six months I conducted a series of in-depth, semi-structured interviews with six student wind ensemble members, five student guitar class members, and six jazz band members at three high schools in Winnipeg, Canada. I interviewed the participants' music teachers and school principals, observed rehearsals and performances, and spoke informally with parents and peers. Drawing upon praxial and place philosophies, I examined students' experiences within the context of each music group, and looked for themes across the three groups. What students perceived to be meaningful about their participation was multifaceted and related to fundamental human concerns. Students valued opportunities to achieve, to form and strengthen relationships, to construct identities as individuals and group members, to express themselves and communicate with others, and to engage with and through music. Although these dimensions were common to students in all three groups, students experienced and made sense of them differently, and thus experienced meaningful participation in multiple, variegated ways. Context played a substantial role in shaping not only the dimensions of meanings most salient to participants but also the ways that music experiences became meaningful for those involved. What students value and find meaningful about their participation in instrumental music education has been neither well documented nor thoroughly explored. This study raises questions about the ways that meaningful musical engagement might extend beyond the boundaries of school, and contributes student perspectives sorely needed in ongoing conversations concerning the relevance of music education in students' lives.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2012

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Learning in an online jazz history class

Description

This study examines the experiences of participants enrolled in an online community college jazz history course. I surveyed the participants before the course began and observed them in the online space through the duration of the course. Six students also

This study examines the experiences of participants enrolled in an online community college jazz history course. I surveyed the participants before the course began and observed them in the online space through the duration of the course. Six students also participated in interviews during and after the course. Coded data from the interviews, surveys, and recorded discussion posts and journal entries provided evidence about the nature of interaction and engagement in learning in an online environment. I looked for evidence either supporting or detracting from a democratic online learning environment, concentrating on the categories of student engagement, freedom of expression, and accessibility. The data suggested that the participants' behaviors in and abilities to navigate the online class were influenced by their pre-existing native media habits. Participants' reasons for enrolling in the online course, which included convenience and schedule flexibility, informed their actions and behaviors in the class. Analysis revealed that perceived positive student engagement did not contribute to a democratic learning environment but rather to an easy, convenient experience in the online class. Finally, the data indicated that participants' behaviors in their future lives would not be affected by the online class in that their learning experiences were not potent enough to alter or inform their behavior in society. As online classes gain popularity, the ability of these classes to provide meaningful learning experiences must be questioned. Students in this online jazz history class presented, at times, a façade of participation and community building but demonstrated a lack of sincerity and interest in the course. The learning environment supported accessibility and freedom of expression to an extent, but students' engagement with their peers was limited. Overall, this study found a need for more research into the quality of online classes as learning platforms that support democracy, student-to-student interaction, and community building.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

Modern technology in the service of music therapy

Description

In the last few decades, the rapid development of electronic music technologies has changed the way society interacts with music, which in turn impacts the profession of music therapy. Except for a few cases, music therapy has not extensively explored

In the last few decades, the rapid development of electronic music technologies has changed the way society interacts with music, which in turn impacts the profession of music therapy. Except for a few cases, music therapy has not extensively explored the integration of new technology. However, current research trends show a willingness and excitement to explore the possibilities (Nagler, 2011; Ramsey, 2011; Magee, et al., 2011; Magee & Burland, 2008; Magee 2006). The project described in this paper intends to demonstrate one of these possibilities by combining modern technologies to create an interactive musical system with practical applications in music therapy. In addition to designing a practical tool, the project aims to question the role of technology in music therapy and to initiate dialogue between technologists and music therapists. The project, entitled MIST: A Musical Interactive Space for Therapy, uses modern gestural technology (the Microsoft® Kinect®) to capture body movements and turn them into music. It is intended for use in a clinical setting with children with mild to moderate disabilities. The system is a software/hardware package that is inexpensive, user-friendly, and portable. There are two functional modes of the system: the first sonifies specific movement tasks of reaching and balancing; the second is an interactive musical play space in which an entire room becomes responsive to presence and movement, creating a sonic playground. The therapeutic goals of the system are to motivate and train physical movement, encourage exploration of space and the body, and allow for musical expression, play, auditory perception, and social interaction.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

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Six beginning music teachers' music teacher role identities

Description

ABSTRACT In this study, I used a qualitative approach to explore the music teacher role identities of six beginning music teachers prior to, during, and after their student teaching experience. Data collection included participant-observation, interviews, and e-mail communication. Specifically, I

ABSTRACT In this study, I used a qualitative approach to explore the music teacher role identities of six beginning music teachers prior to, during, and after their student teaching experience. Data collection included participant-observation, interviews, and e-mail communication. Specifically, I looked at what each of these beginning music teachers discussed when describing themselves in the role of music teacher. These participants' music teacher role identities appeared to focus on four main components, while also remaining unique from one another. Those four components were: musical selves, instructional selves, professional selves, and ideological selves. Further, the participants' role identities appeared to change from the period prior to student teaching through student teaching to the time after their student teaching experience. Based on data gleaned from the participants in this study, I created my own definition of music teacher role identity. This study's findings suggest further research using a longitudinal approach to explore the role identities of music teachers at various stages of their careers.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2010

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The effects of a movement-based after-school music program on music underachievers' musical achievement, social development and self-esteem

Description

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an after-school music program on music underachievers' musical achievement, social development and self-esteem. A true-experimental pretest-posttest design was used and included 14 hours of treatment time. The subjects (N

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an after-school music program on music underachievers' musical achievement, social development and self-esteem. A true-experimental pretest-posttest design was used and included 14 hours of treatment time. The subjects (N = 66), fifth-grade students were randomly selected from the lowest quartile of scores on Colwell's Music Achievement Test (MAT), which was administered to all fifth-grade students (N = 494) in three Korean elementary schools. The treatment group (n =33) experienced a movement-based after-school music program (MAMP); the control group (n = 33) did not receive the after-school music program. Measurements included sections of Colwell's Music Achievement Test (MAT), Kim's Social Development Scale (SDS), and Hare's Self-Esteem Scale (HSS). The researcher and music teachers of each school administered all measurements. Fourteen treatment lessons occurred over fourteen weeks. One-way analyses of covariance tests were used to test for post-test differences between groups. A significant difference was found in music achievement total scores of the MAT with the treatment group scoring higher scores than the control group. There were no significant differences for interval and meter discrimination tests of MAT. There were no significant differences between treatment and control groups in the post-test scores of the Social Development Scale (SDS) and the Self-Esteem Scale (HSS). However, for both tests, mean scores increased for the treatment group and decreased for the control group. Results from this study suggest that a movement-based after-school music program promotes music underachievers' musical growth and may also support music underachievers' social development and self-esteem.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2011

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An investigation of the perceptions of music teachers related to interactions with peers in online professional development courses

Description

The purpose of this study was to investigate the experiences and opinions of Arizona music teachers related to interactions with peers in formal online professional development (OPD) courses approved for recertification of their teacher credential. The target population (N =

The purpose of this study was to investigate the experiences and opinions of Arizona music teachers related to interactions with peers in formal online professional development (OPD) courses approved for recertification of their teacher credential. The target population (N = 584) was current music teachers in K-12 schools who are members of the 2014 Arizona Music Educators Association. Ultimately 279 respondents completed a researcher-constructed online survey (response rate = 48%).

The survey instrument explored four primary research questions; (1) Do music teachers in Arizona participate in formal OPD related to recertification of their teacher credential? (2) Do music teachers in Arizona who participate in OPD courses interact with their peers during OPD? (3) What is the nature of self-reported peer interactions among Arizona music teachers who participate in OPD courses? (4) What are Arizona music teachers' opinions regarding peer interaction in OPD courses?

Almost half of the 279 respondents participated in OPD courses for their recertification. Some participated in music-specific OPD courses such as online music classes, webinars, or online degree programs. Many respondents considered OPD courses to be effective because of convenience, location, time savings, and flexibility. Most who took online classes participated in multiple OPD courses.

Of the respondents who took OPD courses, nearly two-thirds indicated that they interacted with peers during those courses. Most of these respondents reported that required interactions were effective. Some benefits were sharing ideas and acquiring information from others. Participants preferred asynchronous interaction with peers to synchronous interaction. Factors that may have prevented these music teachers from interacting in OPD courses were superficial level message content in discussion boards or low participation from peers. Teachers also reported using informal online interactions in social networks not related to recertification hours.

Findings from this study may help improve teacher interactions with peers in OPD courses. This study may serve to influence instructors in OPD courses, administrators, policy-makers, and online course developers to improve OPD by integrating peer interactions into online courses for music teachers. Additional research on many aspects of OPD for music teachers is needed to improve educational practice.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2015

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The Music Relationships of Children Experiencing Homelessness

Description

Over a million children who attend American public schools experience homelessness every year. This study investigates the musical lives of children experiencing homelessness through the lens of the ecological systems theory (Bronfenbrenner, 1979). Children encounter music in a variety of

Over a million children who attend American public schools experience homelessness every year. This study investigates the musical lives of children experiencing homelessness through the lens of the ecological systems theory (Bronfenbrenner, 1979). Children encounter music in a variety of ways and develop their own lexicon of meaning that depicts the relationships they have in, through, and around music. Relationship connections in this study were depicted through a system of relationship networks (Neal & Neal, 2013).

In this study I present and analyze the cases of nine participants who attended an after-school care program at a homeless shelter for families in the southwestern United States. Participants were 8 to 12 years old and represented diverse ethnicities and genders. Data were gathered over a period of two to eight months, depending on participant, via interviews, music and art making, and observations. Research questions in this study included: What are the relationships, as experienced in, through, and around music, in the lives of children experiencing homelessness; and, What do music experiences tell us about the lives of children experiencing homelessness?

Some children experienced fractured music relationships and could not continue to engage with music in comparison to their lives before homelessness. Some children continued to make music regularly before and during their shelter stay. A few children discovered new connections through music interactions at the shelter and hoped to engage with music in new ways in their new homes. Multiple children faced barriers to music making in their respective school music programs. Children preferred to engage in music consistent with current popular culture, accessed through the radio, smart phone, and computer. Use of hands-on activities that fostered active engagement engendered the most participation and connection to music.

Recommendations include examination of current procedures and practices to ensure alignment with the McKinney-Vento Homeless Act federal mandate, development of a supportive environment to foster social and emotional growth, facilitating communication with parents, and the inclusion of music from the child’s background in the classroom repertoire. Performance and interactive music opportunities can mitigate the effects of homelessness and restore a sense of dignity, relationship, and autonomy. All stakeholders in the wellbeing of children should include conversations about student experience of homelessness in current dialogue on educational policy and practice.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2019

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A phenomenological investigation of competition in high school bands

Description

This study investigates the lived experience of competition in high school band and the manner in which competition influences and frames band curricula. A hermeneutic phenomenological method based on the works of van Manen and Vagle was used to investigate

This study investigates the lived experience of competition in high school band and the manner in which competition influences and frames band curricula. A hermeneutic phenomenological method based on the works of van Manen and Vagle was used to investigate what it was like for participants to be in competition. A theoretical framework organized around Schwab's commonplaces of education was used to interpret findings related to the curricular areas of the teacher, learner, subject matter, and milieu. I examined data through a lens incorporating principles of John Dewey's philosophy related to each of the commonplaces.

Twelve individuals participated in the study representing experiences had both as students and as music educators. Participants lived and taught in communities throughout the United States and brought differing levels of teaching and competitive experience. Data were generated through in-depth interviews and collaborative phenomenological texts. Research questions included: What is the lived experience of competing in a high school band like?; and, How does competition frame and influence high school band curricula?

Findings indicate that competition was a meaningful and influential part of participants' work as band directors and educational experiences as students. Competition was approached with tension as participants acknowledged negative concerns over the influence of competitions on their students, yet chose to engage in competitive activities. Marching band contests offered a creative outlet where directors could develop custom materials and they did so with a significant motivation to win. Competition was perceived as an influence on band directors' professional reputations, feelings of competence, and how band programs were viewed in the community. Students were motivated by competitions and reacted strongly to competitive results such as rankings, ratings, and other distinctions.

Findings also indicate that band curricula emphasizing competition share similar curricular facets: (a) teachers carefully control and manage classroom activities and curricular choices; (b) students are viewed as skilled performers who are dependent upon their teachers for learning; (c) subject matter is narrowly considered around measurable behavioral objectives and repertoire selection; and, (d) the educational environment is dominated by the teacher who may use competition to motivate students to work and practice more.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2016

Troubling disability: experiences of disability in, through, and around music

Description

The purpose of this study was to trouble existing conceptions of disability that ground music education literature and practice. I sought plausible insights into how disability is experienced in, through, and/or around music by participants who are disabled persons/persons with

The purpose of this study was to trouble existing conceptions of disability that ground music education literature and practice. I sought plausible insights into how disability is experienced in, through, and/or around music by participants who are disabled persons/persons with disabilities (DP/PwD). Insights gained might allow readers to complexify and trouble taken-for-granted assumptions about disability. Questions included: (a) How do participants experience disability in, through, and around music? (b) What plausible insights related to disability can be gained by attending to participants’ experiences of disability in, through, and around music? (c) What plausible insights related to inclusion can be gained by attending to participants’ experiences of disability in, through, and around music? The inquiry approach was grounded in Buberian relational ontology, phenomenology, interactional theories of disability, and narrative.

Seven DP/PwD participated in this study: (a) Erica, a 14-year-old diagnosed with a developmental disability of unknown etiology; (b) Duke, a drummer diagnosed with Williams syndrome; (c) Birdie, an abstract visual artist with epilepsy who used music to inform her art; (d) Daren, a b-boy/breakdancer diagnosed with Tourette syndrome, (e) Sienna, a legally blind social work college student who played banjo in a music therapy-based bluegrass band and participated in musical theatre; (f) Ice Queen, an undergraduate flute player recently diagnosed with Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); and (g) Culann, an adult counselor and music listener with ADHD and mood disorders. Data generation included conversational interviews, observations, artmaking, and serendipitous data.

Data co-generated with participants were crafted into narratives of their lifeworlds, including description of their experiences with disability in, through, and around music and in other aspects of their lives. An envisioned conversation among all participants demonstrates the shifts and complexities in the meanings of disability and unpacks different ways participants describe and understand disability and the myriad roles that music plays in their lifeworlds. The final chapter of the study offers discussions and suggestions regarding thinking about and approaching disability (i.e., interactional theories, intersectionality, and identity), inclusion (i.e., belonging, suggestions by participants, and anti-ableist pedagogy), and research/writing.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
2019