Matching Items (13)

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Life satisfaction in adulthood among those who experienced trauma in early childhood [electronic resource]: a qualitative study

Description

ABSTRACT The present study examined the relationship between the experience of trauma during childhood (ages birth -12 years) and life satisfaction in adulthood (ages of 30-45) in a sample of convenience consisting of eight (8) adults, six (6) women and

ABSTRACT The present study examined the relationship between the experience of trauma during childhood (ages birth -12 years) and life satisfaction in adulthood (ages of 30-45) in a sample of convenience consisting of eight (8) adults, six (6) women and two (2) men, who volunteered to participate in this qualitative study, and self-identified as having experienced trauma between birth and age 12 years. Participants were asked to describe the trauma(s) they experienced in childhood and to discuss their thoughts and feelings about present circumstances in their lives, and how their lives have been impacted by the trauma they experienced. Data were collected via in-person interviews that were audio-taped and transcribed. The data were analyzed using a process of thematic coding. Nine (9) emotional themes were identified: aggression, anger, fear, frustration, helplessness, insecurity, irritability, loneliness and sadness. Participants reported a variety of traumas experienced, and their responses to difficult experiences were varied. Participants reported being impacted differently in eight domains of life that were examined in the study: mood related problems, self-care, social support, primary partner relationship, career, decision to have children, parenting and adult life satisfaction. All participants stated they had been impacted by early life trauma, and all stated that early-experienced trauma(s) had an impact on their life satisfaction in adulthood. Inter-coder reliability for emotional thematic codes and domains of life impacted by early trauma was .82.

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Date Created
2013

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Integration of traditional assessment and response to intervention in psychoeducational evaluations of culturally and linguistically diverse students

Description

The popularity of response-to-intervention (RTI) frameworks of service delivery has increased in recent years. Scholars have speculated that RTI may be particularly relevant to the special education assessment process for culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students, due to its suspected

The popularity of response-to-intervention (RTI) frameworks of service delivery has increased in recent years. Scholars have speculated that RTI may be particularly relevant to the special education assessment process for culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students, due to its suspected utility in ruling out linguistic proficiency as the primary factor in learning difficulties. The present study explored how RTI and traditional assessment methods were integrated into the psychoeducational evaluation process for students suspected of having specific learning disabilities (SLD). The content of psychoeducational evaluation reports completed on students who were found eligible for special education services under the SLD category from 2009-2013 was analyzed. Two main research questions were addressed: how RTI influenced the psychoeducational evaluation process, and how this process differed for CLD and non-CLD students. Findings indicated variability in the incorporation of RTI in evaluation reports, with an increase across time in the tendency to reference the prereferral intervention process. However, actual RTI data was present in a minority of reports, with the inclusion of such data more common for reading than other academic areas, as well as more likely for elementary students than secondary students. Contrary to expectations, RTI did not play a larger role in evaluation reports for CLD students than reports for non-CLD students. Evaluations of CLD students also did not demonstrate greater variability in the use of traditional assessments, and were more likely to rely on nonverbal cognitive measures than evaluations of non-CLD students. Methods by which practitioners addressed linguistic proficiency were variable, with parent input, educational history, and individually-administered proficiency test data commonly used. Assessment practices identified in this study are interpreted in the context of best practice recommendations.

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Created

Date Created
2014

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The: Woodcock-Johnson Three and math learning disabilities

Description

This study investigated the link between the cognitive clusters from the Woodcock–Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Ability (WJ III COG) and Broad Math, Math Calculation Skills, and Math Reasoning clusters of the Woodcock–Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ III ACH)

This study investigated the link between the cognitive clusters from the Woodcock–Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Ability (WJ III COG) and Broad Math, Math Calculation Skills, and Math Reasoning clusters of the Woodcock–Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ III ACH) using data collected over seven years by a large elementary school district in the Southwest. The students in this study were all diagnosed with math learning disabilities. Multiple regression analyses were used to predict performance on the Broad Math, Math Calculation Skills, and Math Reasoning clusters from the WJ III ACH. Fluid Reasoning (Gf), Comprehension–Knowledge (Gc), Short–Term Memory (Gsm), and Long–term Retrieval (Glr) demonstrated strong relations with Broad Math and moderate relations with Math Calculation Skills. Auditory Processing (Ga) and Processing Speed (Gs) demonstrated moderate relations with Broad Math and Math Calculation Skills. Visual–Spatial Thinking (Gv) and Processing Speed (Gs) demonstrated moderate to strong relations with the mathematics clusters. The results indicate that the specific cognitive abilities of students with math learning disabilities may differ from their peers.

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Date Created
2010

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ITEM towards an integrated transformational experience model for design education

Description

Individuals' experiences, environment, and education greatly impact their entire being. Similarly, a designer is affected by these elements, which impacts how, what and why they design. In order for design education to generate designers who are more socially aware problem

Individuals' experiences, environment, and education greatly impact their entire being. Similarly, a designer is affected by these elements, which impacts how, what and why they design. In order for design education to generate designers who are more socially aware problem solvers, that education must introduce complex social matters and not just design skills. Traditionally designers learned through apprenticing a master. Most design education has moved away from this traditional model and has begun incorporating a well-rounded program of study, yet there are still more improvements to be made. This research proposes a new Integrated Transformational Experience Model, ITEM, for design education which will be rooted in sustainability, cultural integration, social embeddedness, and discipline collaboration. The designer will be introduced to new ideas and experiences from the immersion of current social issues where they will gain experience creating solutions to global problems enabling them to become catalysts of change. This research is based on interviews with industrial design students to gain insights, benefits and drawbacks of the current model of design education. This research will expand on the current model for design education, combining new ideas that will shed light on the future of design disciplines through the education and motivation of designers. The desired outcome of this study is to incorporate hands on learning through social issues in design classrooms, identify ways to educate future problem solvers, and inspire more research on this issue.

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Created

Date Created
2011

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Implementation of the Teamwork Skills Inventory among adolescents

Description

Individual and group accountability is an important part of productive group work. However, classroom evaluation of teamwork often relies on top-down assessment of group product by the teacher. Other methods include averaging group grades, group discussions, evaluative essays and random

Individual and group accountability is an important part of productive group work. However, classroom evaluation of teamwork often relies on top-down assessment of group product by the teacher. Other methods include averaging group grades, group discussions, evaluative essays and random selection and application of one member's grade to the entire team. In contrast, the Teamwork Skills Inventory (TSI) developed by Strom and Strom provides assessment of individual conduct and contributions as observed by peers. The instrument also affords students with the opportunity to judge their own performance. Team members are responsible for their own behavior and skill development but are not held accountable for the actions taken by others. The TSI provides criteria for productive teamwork skills and behaviors. Students know in advance the criteria by which they and their teammates will judge each other's behavior skills. In turn, students have the opportunity to practice self-evaluation as they apply the same criteria to assess their own conduct. Self-evaluation compared with peer-evaluation provides support for confidence in behavioral strengths and can guide goal setting in areas where skills are weak and need adjustment. The TSI gives teachers an insider's view of group dynamics: the obstacles and benefits groups may encounter. Since team members have the vantage point of close interaction with peers they are more likely to know how individuals affect the thinking of others in a group. This frees teachers from the difficult task of judging group dynamics. TSI results can guide teachers in developing lessons that address the needs of individuals and groups. Data derived from the TSI can help schools provide for the needs of subgroups, such as special education and gifted classes. It can also help schools detect in-service needs for faculty and provide schools with a method of community accountability for use with cooperative learning methods and social skill achievement.

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Date Created
2010

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Using Internet polls to understand student perspectives for school improvement: an exploration of adolescents' views on tutoring

Description

Meeting state and federal standards is a consistent challenge for schools and their students. Although states were mandated under the No Child Left Behind Act to provide Supplemental Educational Services, such as tutoring, to underperforming schools, the current education policy

Meeting state and federal standards is a consistent challenge for schools and their students. Although states were mandated under the No Child Left Behind Act to provide Supplemental Educational Services, such as tutoring, to underperforming schools, the current education policy under the Obama administration does not specifically address the issue of tutoring. Rather, the Recovery Act implemented in 2009, asks states to reform and improve their education systems and schools to increase success and achievement for all students. One method for increasing student achievement and decreasing the gap between groups--thereby meeting the standards mandated by local, state, and federal governments--is tutoring. Obtaining information about and seeking views on tutoring is crucial before it can be applied to school reform. The present study utilized an online poll about tutoring to obtain students' views and to examine meaningful outcomes with regard to demographic variables. Results indicated that the polls' response items had more significant relationships with the variables of age, grade, and school than with those of gender and ethnicity. The response rate for items exhibited the most differences within ethnic groups and age, grade, and school. Each question provided insights to help inform school decision-making and improvement plans; for example, students in younger grades needed more support in spelling and math, whereas adolescents in upper grades reported more difficulty with science and math. Using the results of the present study, schools and districts can tailor and implement changes accordingly; for example, they can develop the best method for a particular demographic group to relay information about tutoring. In this way, strategies can be created and applied for individualized subgroups, thereby maximizing success for all students. The insights gained about tutoring from the ones who have the most at stake--the students--will provide the basis for designing and implementing effective tutoring programs in the schools. Electronic polls are an effective method for gathering student perceptions, providing the foundation for successful school reform and student success, in addition to building a learning community for all stakeholders.

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Created

Date Created
2010

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Who am I now?: distress and growth after trauma

Description

This study examined four research questions investigating relationships among the experience of trauma, identity development, distress, and positive change. There were 908 participants in the study, ranging in age from 18 to 24 which is known as the period of

This study examined four research questions investigating relationships among the experience of trauma, identity development, distress, and positive change. There were 908 participants in the study, ranging in age from 18 to 24 which is known as the period of emerging adulthood. Participants completed an online survey regarding their exposure to trauma and reactions to these experiences. The first research question examined the experience of trauma for the sample. The second question examined group differences among the participant's identity status, gender, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnostic status on the hypothesized variables. In general, comparisons among the four identity status groups found participants who experienced greater identity exploration (diffused and moratorium) experienced more distress, whereas the identity status groups that reported greater identity commitments (foreclosed and achieved) were associated with positive change. Similar findings were found for PTSD diagnostic status indicating more distress and identity exploration for participants with the diagnosis and more positive change and identity commitments for participants without the diagnosis. Female participants were found to experience more PTS symptoms, centrality of the trauma event, and positive growth than males. Examination of the relationships between trauma severity and posttraumatic growth revealed an inverted U-shaped relationship (quadratic) that was a significant improvement from the linear model. An S-shaped relationship (cubic) was found for the relationship between trauma exposure and posttraumatic growth. Regression analyses found the centrality of the trauma event to one's identity predicted identity distress above and beyond the experience of trauma. In addition, identity distress and the centrality of the trauma contributed to the variance for identity exploration, while only identity distress contributed to identity commitments. Finally, identity development significantly predicted positive change above and beyond, identity distress, centrality of the trauma event, and the experience of trauma. Collectively, these results found both distress and growth to be related to the experience of trauma. Distress within one's identity can contribute to difficulties in the psychosocial stage of identity development among emerging adults. However, the resolution of identity exploration towards commitments to goals, roles, and beliefs, can help trauma survivors experience resilience and growth after stressful experiences.

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Created

Date Created
2013

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The Effects of Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports on Student and Teacher Outcomes

Description

Student behavior problems continue to be a nationwide concern, despite decades of practice with a myriad of disciplinary systems. Students who frequently engage in problematic behaviors are at-risk for a variety of negative life outcomes. School-wide positive behavior interventions and

Student behavior problems continue to be a nationwide concern, despite decades of practice with a myriad of disciplinary systems. Students who frequently engage in problematic behaviors are at-risk for a variety of negative life outcomes. School-wide positive behavior interventions and supports (PBIS) is an evidence-based system of school-wide reinforcement and disciplinary procedures that relies on a problem-solving model from a systems perspective. Research based on the implementation of PBIS in schools has found positive effects pertaining to decreases in problem behaviors, increases in academics and attendance, and improved school safety and staff satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of PBIS systems change at varying years of implementation in three middle schools using a cross-sectional design on student outcome variables including office discipline referrals, major disciplinary actions, attendance rates, and academic achievement, along with school climate factors related to teacher burnout. Analysis of variance, non-parametric analysis of variance, and visual analyses were used to evaluate the effects of PBIS at varying years of PBIS implementation. The number of ODRs and major disciplinary decisions issued were greatly decreased with each year of PBIS implementation. Analyses of student academic performance and attendance varied by school and level of PBIS implementation and appeared to be influenced by additional variables, such as socioeconomic status. The length of PBIS implementation was associated with lower teacher ratings of emotional exhaustion and higher school climate ratings. Implications for research and educational practice are addressed.

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Date Created
2014

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Response to intervention universal math fluency screenings: their predictive value for student performance on national and state standardized achievement tests in Arizona

Description

The most recent reauthorizations of No Child Left Behind and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act served to usher in an age of results and accountability within American education. States were charged with developing more rigorous systems to specifically address

The most recent reauthorizations of No Child Left Behind and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act served to usher in an age of results and accountability within American education. States were charged with developing more rigorous systems to specifically address areas such as critical academic skill proficiency, empirically validated instruction and intervention, and overall student performance as measured on annual statewide achievement tests. Educational practice has shown that foundational math ability can be easily assessed through student performance on Curriculum-Based Measurements of Math Computational Fluency (CBM-M). Research on the application of CBM-M's predictive validity across specific academic math abilities as measured by state standardized tests is currently limited. In addition, little research is available on the differential effects of ethnic subgroups and gender in this area. This study investigated the effectiveness of using CBM-M measures to predict achievement on high stakes tests, as well as whether or not there are significant differential effects of ethnic subgroups and gender. Study participants included 358 students across six elementary schools in a large suburban school district in Arizona that utilizes the Response to Intervention (RTI) model. Participants' CBM-M scores from the first through third grade years and their third grade standardized achievement test scores were collected. Pearson product-moment and Spearman correlations were used to determine how well CBM-M scores and specific math skills are related. The predictive validity of CBM-M scores from the third-grade school year was also assessed to determine whether the fall, winter, or spring screening was most related to third-grade high-stakes test scores.

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Date Created
2014

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Elementary teachers' concerns regarding students showing characteristics of a chromosomal disorder

Description

The presence of certain chromosomal disorders is not always immediately apparent at birth. Children with relatively high-incidence, but non-heritable disorders may receive delayed identification due to the sometimes subtle manifestation of their disorder. Delayed identification may result in various undesirable

The presence of certain chromosomal disorders is not always immediately apparent at birth. Children with relatively high-incidence, but non-heritable disorders may receive delayed identification due to the sometimes subtle manifestation of their disorder. Delayed identification may result in various undesirable outcomes for affected children and their families. In addition to parents, teachers can be valuable participants in the identification process. Chromosomal disorders are associated with generally predictable physical and behavioral characteristics, known as phenotype. In the present study, the influence of phenotype on teachers' student-related concerns was examined. Teachers looked at a photo and read a vignette about a fictional elementary-age student who, although not identified, showed varying degrees of the Turner syndrome phenotype. A follow-up questionnaire indicated significantly greater concerns when a student showed many versus few characteristics of behavioral phenotype. However, the effect of morphological phenotype on teacher responses was not significant. The implications for identification of chromosomal disorders are discussed.

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Date Created
2013