Matching Items (30)

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A Simple Platform for the Rapid Development of Antimicrobials

Description

Recent infectious outbreaks highlight the need for platform technologies that can be quickly deployed to develop therapeutics needed to contain the outbreak. We present a simple concept for rapid development

Recent infectious outbreaks highlight the need for platform technologies that can be quickly deployed to develop therapeutics needed to contain the outbreak. We present a simple concept for rapid development of new antimicrobials. The goal was to produce in as little as one week thousands of doses of an intervention for a new pathogen. We tested the feasibility of a system based on antimicrobial synbodies. The system involves creating an array of 100 peptides that have been selected for broad capability to bind and/or kill viruses and bacteria. The peptides are pre-screened for low cell toxicity prior to large scale synthesis. Any pathogen is then assayed on the chip to find peptides that bind or kill it. Peptides are combined in pairs as synbodies and further screened for activity and toxicity. The lead synbody can be quickly produced in large scale, with completion of the entire process in one week.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12-14

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Entropy is a Simple Measure of the Antibody Profile and is an Indicator of Health Status: A Proof of Concept

Description

We have previously shown that the diversity of antibodies in an individual can be displayed on chips on which 130,000 peptides chosen from random sequence space have been synthesized. This

We have previously shown that the diversity of antibodies in an individual can be displayed on chips on which 130,000 peptides chosen from random sequence space have been synthesized. This immunosignature technology is unbiased in displaying antibody diversity relative to natural sequence space, and has been shown to have diagnostic and prognostic potential for a wide variety of diseases and vaccines. Here we show that a global measure such as Shannon’s entropy can be calculated for each immunosignature. The immune entropy was measured across a diverse set of 800 people and in 5 individuals over 3 months. The immune entropy is affected by some population characteristics and varies widely across individuals. We find that people with infections or breast cancer, generally have higher entropy values than non-diseased individuals. We propose that the immune entropy as measured from immunosignatures may be a simple method to monitor health in individuals and populations.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12-22

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Scalable high-density peptide arrays for comprehensive health monitoring

Description

There is an increasing awareness that health care must move from post-symptomatic treatment to presymptomatic intervention. An ideal system would allow regular inexpensive monitoring of health status using circulating antibodies

There is an increasing awareness that health care must move from post-symptomatic treatment to presymptomatic intervention. An ideal system would allow regular inexpensive monitoring of health status using circulating antibodies to report on health fluctuations. Recently, we demonstrated that peptide microarrays can do this through antibody signatures (immunosignatures). Unfortunately, printed microarrays are not scalable. Here we demonstrate a platform based on fabricating microarrays (~10 M peptides per slide, 330,000 peptides per assay) on silicon wafers using equipment common to semiconductor manufacturing. The potential of these microarrays for comprehensive health monitoring is verified through the simultaneous detection and classification of six different infectious diseases and six different cancers. Besides diagnostics, these high-density peptide chips have numerous other applications both in health care and elsewhere.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-09-03

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Spaceflight modulates gene expression in the whole blood of astronauts

Description

Astronauts are exposed to a unique combination of stressors during spaceflight, which leads to alterations in their physiology and potentially increases their susceptibility to disease, including infectious diseases. To evaluate

Astronauts are exposed to a unique combination of stressors during spaceflight, which leads to alterations in their physiology and potentially increases their susceptibility to disease, including infectious diseases. To evaluate the potential impact of the spaceflight environment on the regulation of molecular pathways mediating cellular stress responses, we performed a first-of-its-kind pilot study to assess spaceflight-related gene-expression changes in the whole blood of astronauts. Using an array comprised of 234 well-characterized stress-response genes, we profiled transcriptomic changes in six astronauts (four men and two women) from blood preserved before and immediately following the spaceflight. Differentially regulated transcripts included those important for DNA repair, oxidative stress, and protein folding/degradation, including HSP90AB1, HSP27, GPX1, XRCC1, BAG-1, HHR23A, FAP48, and C-FOS. No gender-specific differences or relationship to number of missions flown was observed. This study provides a first assessment of transcriptomic changes occurring in the whole blood of astronauts in response to spaceflight.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12-08

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The Ketogenic Diet Is an Effective Adjuvant to Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Malignant Glioma

Description

Introduction
The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that alters metabolism by increasing the level of ketone bodies in the blood. KetoCal® (KC) is a nutritionally complete, commercially

Introduction
The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that alters metabolism by increasing the level of ketone bodies in the blood. KetoCal® (KC) is a nutritionally complete, commercially available 4∶1 (fat∶ carbohydrate+protein) ketogenic formula that is an effective non-pharmacologic treatment for the management of refractory pediatric epilepsy. Diet-induced ketosis causes changes to brain homeostasis that have potential for the treatment of other neurological diseases such as malignant gliomas.
Methods
We used an intracranial bioluminescent mouse model of malignant glioma. Following implantation animals were maintained on standard diet (SD) or KC. The mice received 2×4 Gy of whole brain radiation and tumor growth was followed by in vivo imaging.
Results
Animals fed KC had elevated levels of β-hydroxybutyrate (p = 0.0173) and an increased median survival of approximately 5 days relative to animals maintained on SD. KC plus radiation treatment were more than additive, and in 9 of 11 irradiated animals maintained on KC the bioluminescent signal from the tumor cells diminished below the level of detection (p<0.0001). Animals were switched to SD 101 days after implantation and no signs of tumor recurrence were seen for over 200 days.
Conclusions
KC significantly enhances the anti-tumor effect of radiation. This suggests that cellular metabolic alterations induced through KC may be useful as an adjuvant to the current standard of care for the treatment of human malignant gliomas.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012-05-01

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Time-Frequency Analysis of Peptide Microarray Data: Application to Brain Cancer Immunosignatures

Description

One of the gravest dangers facing cancer patients is an extended symptom-free lull between tumor initiation and the first diagnosis. Detection of tumors is critical for effective intervention. Using the

One of the gravest dangers facing cancer patients is an extended symptom-free lull between tumor initiation and the first diagnosis. Detection of tumors is critical for effective intervention. Using the body’s immune system to detect and amplify tumor-specific signals may enable detection of cancer using an inexpensive immunoassay. Immunosignatures are one such assay: they provide a map of antibody interactions with random-sequence peptides. They enable detection of disease-specific patterns using classic train/test methods. However, to date, very little effort has gone into extracting information from the sequence of peptides that interact with disease-specific antibodies. Because it is difficult to represent all possible antigen peptides in a microarray format, we chose to synthesize only 330,000 peptides on a single immunosignature microarray. The 330,000 random-sequence peptides on the microarray represent 83% of all tetramers and 27% of all pentamers, creating an unbiased but substantial gap in the coverage of total sequence space. We therefore chose to examine many relatively short motifs from these random-sequence peptides. Time-variant analysis of recurrent subsequences provided a means to dissect amino acid sequences from the peptides while simultaneously retaining the antibody–peptide binding intensities. We first used a simple experiment in which monoclonal antibodies with known linear epitopes were exposed to these random-sequence peptides, and their binding intensities were used to create our algorithm. We then demonstrated the performance of the proposed algorithm by examining immunosignatures from patients with Glioblastoma multiformae (GBM), an aggressive form of brain cancer. Eight different frameshift targets were identified from the random-sequence peptides using this technique. If immune-reactive antigens can be identified using a relatively simple immune assay, it might enable a diagnostic test with sufficient sensitivity to detect tumors in a clinically useful way.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-06-18

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Characterization of Therapeutic Monoclonals by Targeted Epitope

Description

Monoclonal antibody therapy focuses on engineering immune cells to target specific peptide sequences indicative of disease. An impediment in the continued advancement of this market is the lack of an

Monoclonal antibody therapy focuses on engineering immune cells to target specific peptide sequences indicative of disease. An impediment in the continued advancement of this market is the lack of an efficient, inexpensive means of characterization that can be broadly applied to any antibody while still providing high-density data. Many characterization methods address an antibody's affinity for its cognate sequence but overlook other important aspects of binding behavior such as off-target binding interactions. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate how the binding intensity between an antibody and a library of random-sequence peptides, otherwise known as an immunosignature, can be evaluated to determine antibody specificity and polyreactivity. A total of 24 commercially available monoclonal antibodies were assayed on 125K and 330K peptide microarrays and analyzed using a motif clustering program to predict candidate epitopes within each antigen sequence. The results support the further development of immunosignaturing as an antibody characterization tool that is relevant to both therapeutic and non-therapeutic antibodies.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Portable and Low-Cost Detection Platform for Hepatitis B Virus Infections

Description

Approximately 248 million people in the world are currently living with chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. HBV and HCV infections are the primary cause of liver diseases such as

Approximately 248 million people in the world are currently living with chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. HBV and HCV infections are the primary cause of liver diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinomas in the world with an estimated 1.4 million deaths annually. HBV in the Republic of Peru was used as a case study of an emerging and rapidly spreading disease in a developing nation. Wherein, clinical diagnosis of HBV infections in at-risk communities such the Amazon Region and the Andes Mountains are challenging due to a myriad of reasons. High prices of clinical diagnosis and limited access to treatment are alone the most significant deterrent for individuals living in at-risk communities to get the much need help. Additionally, limited testing facilities, lack of adequate testing policies or national guidelines, poor laboratory capacity, resource-limited settings, geographical isolation, and public mistrust are among the chief reasons for low HBV testing. Although, preventative vaccination programs deployed by the Peruvian health officials have reduced the number of infected individuals by year and region. To significantly reduce or eradicate HBV in hyperendemic areas and countries such as Peru, preventative clinical diagnosis and vaccination programs are an absolute necessity. Consequently, the need for a portable low-priced diagnostic platform for the detection of HBV and other diseases is substantial and urgent not only in Peru but worldwide. Some of these concerns were addressed by designing a low-cost, rapid detection platform. In that, an immunosignature technology (IMST) slide used to test for reactivity against the presence of antibodies in the serum-sample was used to test for picture resolution and clarity. IMST slides were scanned using a smartphone camera placed on top of the designed device housing a circuit of 32 LED lights at 647 nm, an optical magnifier at 15X, and a linear polarizing film sheet. Tow 9V batteries powered the scanning device LED circuit ensuring enough lighting. The resulting pictures from the first prototype showed that by lighting the device at 647 nm and using a smartphone camera, the camera could capture high-resolution images. These results conclusively indicate that with any modern smartphone camera, a small box lighted to 647 nm, and optical magnifier; a powerful and expensive laboratory scanning machine can be replaced by another that is inexpensive, portable and ready to use anywhere.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Analysis for antitumor antibody signatures in lung cancer using two different random peptide libraries

Description

Cancer remains one of the leading killers throughout the world. Death and disability due to lung cancer in particular accounts for one of the largest global economic burdens a

Cancer remains one of the leading killers throughout the world. Death and disability due to lung cancer in particular accounts for one of the largest global economic burdens a disease presents. The burden on third-world countries is especially large due to the unusually large financial stress that comes from late tumor detection and expensive treatment options. Early detection using inexpensive techniques may relieve much of the burden throughout the world, not just in more developed countries. I examined the immune responses of lung cancer patients using immunosignatures – patterns of reactivity between host serum antibodies and random peptides. Immunosignatures reveal disease-specific patterns that are very reproducible. Immunosignaturing is a chip-based method that has the ability to display the antibody diversity from individual sera sample with low cost. Immunosignaturing is a medical diagnostic test that has many applications in current medical research and in diagnosis. From a previous clinical study, patients diagnosed for lung cancer were tested for their immunosignature vs. healthy non-cancer volunteers. The pattern of reactivity against the random peptides (the ‘immunosignature’) revealed common signals in cancer patients, absent from healthy controls. My study involved the search for common amino acid motifs in the cancer-specific peptides. My search through the hundreds of ‘hits’ revealed certain motifs that were repeated more times than expected by random chance. The amino acids that were the most conserved in each set include tryptophan, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, proline, alanine, serine, and lysine. The most overall conserved amino acid observed between each set was D - aspartic acid. The motifs were short (no more than 5-6 amino acids in a row), but the total number of motifs I identified was large enough to assure significance. I utilized Excel to organize the large peptide sequence libraries, then CLUSTALW to cluster similar-sequence peptides, then GLAM2 to find common themes in groups of peptides. In so doing, I found sequences that were also present in translated cancer expression libraries (RNA) that matched my motifs, suggesting that immunosignatures can find cancer-specific antigens that can be both diagnostic and potentially therapeutic.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-12

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Evaluation of Norovirus Detection in Dilute Solutions

Description

In this project, biochemical characteristics of peptide binding agents, synthetic antibodies or synbodies, were examined with respect to the capture efficiency and specific binding ability to norovirus. Norovirus, although generally

In this project, biochemical characteristics of peptide binding agents, synthetic antibodies or synbodies, were examined with respect to the capture efficiency and specific binding ability to norovirus. Norovirus, although generally not a deadly pathogen, is the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis and outbreaks present a large social and financial burden to the healthcare and food service industries. With Dr. Diehnelt's laboratory group, a platform has been developed that enables us to rapidly construct peptide-based affinity ligands that can be characterized for binding to norovirus. The design needed to display clear results, be simple to operate, and be inexpensive to produce and use. Four synbodies, originally engineered with a specificity to the GII.4 Minerva genotype were tested with different virus strains varying in similarity to the GII.4 Minerva between 43% and 95.4%. Initial assays utilized norovirus-like particles to qualitatively compare the capture efficiency of the different synbodies without utilizing limited resources. To quantify the amount of actual virus captured by the synbodies, western blots with RT-PCR and RT-qPCR were utilized. The results indicated the synbodies were able to enrich the dilute solutions of the different noroviruses utilizing a magnetic bead pull-down assay. The capture efficiencies of the synbodies were comparable to currently utilized binding agents such as aptamers and porcine gastric mucine magnetic beads. This thesis presents data collected over nearly two years of research at the Center for Innovations in Medicine at the Biodesign Institute located at Arizona State University.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05