Matching Items (3)

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MEMS Drug Delivery Using Pulsed Voltage Waveforms

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Abstract: The delivery of a drug or gene payload inside an individual neuron has been highly sought after and studied as a means of treating a large variety of

Abstract: The delivery of a drug or gene payload inside an individual neuron has been highly sought after and studied as a means of treating a large variety of neurological diseases and disorders such as cancer and Alzheimer’s. Current technology for these applications remains imperfect particularly with respect to matters of precision and cell viability. Thus, the use of MEMS (micro electro mechanical systems) based systems have become more prevalent in order to conduct these processes with higher precision and automation. Penetrating these specific cells while also maintaining their structural integrity during the process, remain as two major hurdles still being explored today. Electrical stimulation has been used to drive the delivery of a payload at the microscale but to do so with a voltage that keeps the neuron viable is imperative. In order to find a means for optimizing the voltage and ejection of the payload while maintaining cell viability, the goal of this project is to explore the use of pulsed waveforms for driving the delivery. In doing so, lower to moderate voltage amplitudes may potentially be used while also avoiding hydrolysis of the cell. This study was done by ejecting dye dextran from glass micropipettes with an agar and artificial seawater well using both DC and pulsed waveforms. Successful ejection of the payload was achieved and confirmed using fluorescent microscopy. While the methods used for this voltage based delivery require further optimization, the successful ejection utilizing pulsed voltages suggest that this may lead to an improved technique for MEMS based delivery of payloads into single cells in the future.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Novel injection molding technique for coating soft-siloxanes on neural microelectrodes for stable pO2 sensing using MR imaging

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There is a critical need for creating an implantable microscale neural interface that can chronically monitor neural activity and oxygenation. These are key aspects for understating the development of impaired

There is a critical need for creating an implantable microscale neural interface that can chronically monitor neural activity and oxygenation. These are key aspects for understating the development of impaired neural circuits and their functions. A technology with such capability would foster new insights in the studies of brain diseases and disorders. The propose is that MR-PISTOL (Proton imaging of Siloxane to Map Tissue Oxygenation Levels) imaging technique can be used for direct measurements of oxygen partial pressure at microelectrode-tissue interface. The strategy consists of coating microelectrodes with soft-silicone, a ultra-soft conductive PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane), as a carrier for liquid siloxanes MR-PISTOL contrast agents. This work presents a proof-of-concept of an injection molding technique for batch fabricate microelectrodes with such coating. Also, reports stability studies of soft-silicone loaded with liquid polydimethylsiloxane (PDMSO) in rodent brains. A batch of thirty coated carbon electrodes was achieved using candy molds. Coating uniformity was evaluated in twelve probes. They were randomly chosen and imaged with a custom image setup that allows 90o rotation of the probes. The total average coating thickness before and after rotation were 0.397 millimeters with standard deviation of 0.070 millimeters and 0.442 millimeters with standard deviation of 0.062 millimeters. Therefore, data confirms that this technique yields uniform coating. Stability of fabricated coated carbon electrodes unloaded (n= 3) and loaded with PDMSO (n= 3) was assessed. 3D X-ray imaging using Zeiss Xradia 520 machine was chosen for studying coatings mechanical stability in ex-vivo rat brain. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis (EDS) detector were used to investigate their chemical stability in in vivo mouse brain. Initial EDS analysis from TEM and SEM of acute (6 hours) and chronic (2 weeks) brain slices suggest that PDMSO does not leach into brain. More experiments should be done to confirm and endorse this finding. The mechanical study shows that coating loaded with PDMSO delaminated during insertion. This was not observed with electrodes used in the chemical stability studies. Further experiments need to be done to identify possible causes of mechanical failures.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Biomechanical Micromotion at the Neural Interface Modulates Intercellular Membrane Potential In-Vivo

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Brain micromotion is a phenomenon that arises from basic physiological functions such as respiration (breathing) and vascular pulsation (pumping blood or heart rate). These physiological processes cause small micro displacements

Brain micromotion is a phenomenon that arises from basic physiological functions such as respiration (breathing) and vascular pulsation (pumping blood or heart rate). These physiological processes cause small micro displacements of 2-4µm for vascular pulsation and 10-30µm for respiration, in rat models. One problem related to micromotion is the instability of the probe and its ability to acquire stable neural recordings in chronic studies. It has long been thought the membrane potential (MP) changes due to micromotion in the presence of brain implants were an artefact caused by the implant. Here is shown that intracellular membrane potential changes are a consequence of the activation of mechanosensitive ion channels at the neural interface. A combination of aplysia and rat animal models were used to show activation of mechanosensitive ion channels is occurring during a neural recording. During simulated micromotion of displacements of 50μm and 100μm at a frequency of 1 Hz, showed a change of 8 and 10mV respectively and that the addition of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) inhibited the membrane potential changes. The application of EDTA showed a 71% decrease in changes in membrane potential changes due to micromotion. Simulation of breathing using periodic motion of a probe in an Aplysia model showed that there were no membrane potential changes for <1.5kPa and action potentials were observed at >3.1kPa. Drug studies utilizing 5-HT showed an 80% reduction in membrane potentials. To validate the electrophysiological changes due to micromotion in a rat model, a double barrel pipette for simultaneous recording and drug delivery was designed, the drug delivery tip was recessed from the recording tip no greater than 50μm on average. The double barrel pipette using iontophoresis was used to deliver 30 μM of Gadolinium Chloride (Gd3+) into the microenvironment of the cell. Here is shown a significant reduction in membrane potential for n = 13 cells across 4 different rats tested using Gd3+. Membrane potential changes related to breathing and vascular pulsation were reduced between approximately 0.25-2.5 mV for both breathing and heart rate after the addition of Gd3+, a known mechanosensitive ion channel blocker.

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Date Created
  • 2020