Matching Items (30)

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A Prediction of Academic Achievement from Child Emotionality and School Quality: A Case for Differential Susceptibility

Description

Early academic adjustment has been found to be predictive of later academic success. This study sought to determine how child emotionality at school, specifically positive and negative emotions, as well

Early academic adjustment has been found to be predictive of later academic success. This study sought to determine how child emotionality at school, specifically positive and negative emotions, as well as the quality of the school, might affect child's academic achievement. Further, the possibility that emotionality and school quality interact was tested. Two hundred and twenty eight second grade children's expressions of positive and negative emotions were observed in the school setting. Teachers also submitted questionnaires on the children's positive emotionality. Academic adjustment was measured by standardized tests and teacher reports. School quality scores were based on multiple indicators obtained from online public information data. Regression analyses and multi-level modeling (when necessary) were used to predict academic performance from children's emotions, school quality, and their interaction. Results demonstrated that school quality was at least marginally positively related to all aspects of children's academic competence. Further, teacher-reported positive emotion positively predicted all scores of academic competence, and teacher-reported dispositional positive emotion positively predicted Woodcock Johnson III applied problems subtest scores. Further, interaction effects showed that teacher-reported positive emotion and school quality significantly predicted teacher-reported academic competence and Woodcock Johnson III applied problems subtest scores. Using both statistical strategies (MLM & regressions), observer-reported positive emotion and school quality marginally significantly predicted Woodcock Jonson III applied problems subtest scores. The results indicate that children's emotional behaviors at school, as well as school quality, play a role in the development of children's academic achievement.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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What Happens When They Become Disabled: An Examination of Adolescent Development While Living With Muscular Dystrophy

Description

Using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA), a qualitative research method, combined with quantitative data, this study was designed to examine what it means to be an adolescent living with muscular dystrophy,

Using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA), a qualitative research method, combined with quantitative data, this study was designed to examine what it means to be an adolescent living with muscular dystrophy, a life-limiting disease. A sample of twelve adolescents with Duchenne (eight), limb-girdle (two), and friedreich's ataxia (two) as subsets of muscular dystrophy were interviewed one-on-one, as were their parent or adult guardian. Interviews consisted of 16 opened-ended questions for adolescents, and 17 open-ended questions for parents or guardians. Participants also completed a pre-interview online survey consisting of 38 closed-ended questions using a Likert-type scale to gather demographic and treatment information. The focus of these interviews included peer relationships, self-concepts, and family dynamics in the lives of adolescents with muscular dystrophy. Each of these categories was examined in relation to participants' processes of making meaning of their experiences. It was discovered that parent and child attitudes towards disability run parallel, whether that be positive, negative, or neutral in regards to quality of life with a disability. It was also determined that at least one parent must be a stay-at-home job or be able to work from home in order to be the caliber of caregiver required for their child. Adolescents in this study all had a strong support system in place, with the predominant support system being their family. Self-reports on whether or not adolescents worried about how their muscular dystrophy affected their families were split. Families planned activities within their family unit by utilizing a complete activity inclusion approach, separate opportunities for siblings approach, or activity elimination approach. Regardless of level of family support, it was found that the majority of adolescents in this sample try not to think about muscular dystrophy, or have neutral feelings towards these thoughts. They also thought that people who do not have muscular dystrophy do not know what it is like to live with this disease, and felt neutrally towards the way that they look. Medically speaking, the majority of adolescents reported feeling neutral towards the support that they receive from their medical providers, and that their providers do not talk directly to them but rather to the rest of their family or caregiver instead. These adolescents could not manage their own medical needs and their medical appointments were made by a parent or other type of caregiver. A strong misperception that a physical disability also signals the presence of an intellectual disability when at school was evident. Adolescents were also quick to point out the social stigma that comes with having the assistance of an aid at school with able-bodied peers. However, a small few, particularly those younger in age, reported a lack of peer stigma, and even the social benefit of having an adult friend at school. While the Muscular Dystrophy Association is trusted in coordinating patient care, their treatment advisements are perceived to be outdated, and Goodwill Ambassador program considered manipulative by patients. Application to the Muscular Dystrophy Association (MDA) Transitions Program are named so that the organization formerly relied upon most to serve these families and who has a program designed to serve this exact population can benefit from them. With zero families interviewed having heard of or utilized this program, a clear change in their programs and practices need to take place. The information gathered from this study provides insight for developing and to guide new programs to assist this population in making the difference the MDA Transitions Program aims to do.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Jumping in with Both Feet: How Involvement and Use of Resources Relates to College Freshmen's Satisfaction and GPA

Description

Researchers suggests that college students' involvement and use of resources on campus are important for success, in the form of satisfaction and GPA, in the first year. College officials invest

Researchers suggests that college students' involvement and use of resources on campus are important for success, in the form of satisfaction and GPA, in the first year. College officials invest substantial resources in activities to encourage freshmen students to become involved in campus activities and utilize resources that promote successful outcomes, yet we do not know which activities best relate to success. Using a self-report survey, we sought to corroborate previous research that has shown that overall levels of involvement and use of resources relate to satisfaction/GPA. Furthermore, we disentangled which individual types of involvement and use of resources are most highly correlated with satisfaction and GPA. And finally, we identified the barriers and benefits to involvement and resource use, according to the students themselves. We found evidence that higher levels of involvement were related to satisfaction and attending faculty office hours appears to be particularly important, given a significant relation to both satisfaction and GPA. Implications for program promotion and resource allocation are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12

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Cultural Competency in Child Life: Is There a Gap Between Cultures in Pediatric Care That We Can Fill?

Description

Intercultural competency is becoming more crucial for effective communication as the world becomes more global and interconnected. This issue is particularly true in health care settings, where effective communication is

Intercultural competency is becoming more crucial for effective communication as the world becomes more global and interconnected. This issue is particularly true in health care settings, where effective communication is essential for providing the best care possible. There is very little research about intercultural competence training for Child Life Specialists whose primary role is to communicate with the patients and parents. The purposes of this study was to investigate 1) the levels of cultural competency training Child Life Specialists (CLSs) report having received, as well as their interest in more training, 2) assessing the extent to which CLSs are providing culturally competent care (self-reported), 3) understanding the extent to which barriers to providing culturally competent care are present, 4) identifying relations between culturally competent practice, barriers, and perceived feelings of success, and 5) determining whether there are group differences on culturally competent practice, barriers, and perceived feelings of success between those who reported having received training and those who reported no training. A total of 42 Child Life Specialists completed an online survey. Results indicated a variety of training experiences, with those reporting more training perceiving fewer barriers to culturally competent care. A strong interest in more training was also revealed.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-12

Through My Eyes: A Video Preparation Tool for Patients With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Description

Child life specialists work in a health care setting work alongside patients and families to provide coping strategies, preparation, education, and comfort to promote well-being and reduce fear and anxiety

Child life specialists work in a health care setting work alongside patients and families to provide coping strategies, preparation, education, and comfort to promote well-being and reduce fear and anxiety in the health care environment. They also serve as advocates for children's developmental needs, specifically in terms of their reactions to stress, and support the active involvement of families in the child's care. In this work, development of fear, coping, and medical preparation are reviewed. In order to further the mission of family-centered care, all types of patient populations must be studied. This reviews children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in order to explore their needs and how they best interpret information. With this in mind, a proposed tool, video modeling is introduced as a way to prepare children, increase their coping skills, and reduce fear and anxiety related to the medical environment.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Understanding the Predictors of School Engagement and Implications for Intervention

Description

The predictors of school engagement in early childhood were examined, and mechanisms to improve classroom engagement levels were proposed for interventionists to consider. Literature was reviewed on the relations of

The predictors of school engagement in early childhood were examined, and mechanisms to improve classroom engagement levels were proposed for interventionists to consider. Literature was reviewed on the relations of child characteristics (i.e. effortful control, negative emotionality) and environmental characteristics (i.e. teacher-child relationship quality, classroom environment) to children's school engagement. Finally, a logic model was developed to guide future intervention work.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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When Learning to Play Becomes Playing to Learn

Description

Exploratory Play is a universal experience that occurs throughout different kinds of childhoods. This study investigates how children’s vocabulary and exploratory play are influenced by how the caregiver responds to

Exploratory Play is a universal experience that occurs throughout different kinds of childhoods. This study investigates how children’s vocabulary and exploratory play are influenced by how the caregiver responds to the child’s communicative bids. We hypothesize that if caregivers use more open-ended questions in response to their child’s communicative bids, children will show higher rates of exploration during free play.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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In Andy's Shoes: A Children's Book and Manual on the Expression of Autism Spectrum Disorder

Description

The purpose of this project was to research the expression of Autism Spectrum Disorder in children and create a children’s book that can help the peers of individuals with a

The purpose of this project was to research the expression of Autism Spectrum Disorder in children and create a children’s book that can help the peers of individuals with a diagnosis to understand what the disorder entails and potentially gain a new sense of empathy for peers of all levels of physical and mental abilities. The research component includes interviews with individuals deemed knowledgeable about ASD, including occupational therapists, behavioral analysts, and parents, as well as a literature review of research studies on the expression of Autism in children. This written portion of the project may also serve as a manual for individuals who have little to no knowledge of ASD, as it dives deeper into the content of the book and research, while remaining easily understandable and clear to those without any prior knowledge or experience with ASD. It could prove especially useful for those in professions that come into contact with individuals with Autism, but do not necessarily require psychology courses or training as a prerequisite for the role, such as teachers and some health professionals.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Predicting Sympathy and Prosocial Behavior From Young Children's Dispositional Sadness

Description

The purpose of this study was to examine whether dispositional sadness predicted children's prosocial behavior and if sympathy mediated this relation. Constructs were measured when children (n = 256 at time

The purpose of this study was to examine whether dispositional sadness predicted children's prosocial behavior and if sympathy mediated this relation. Constructs were measured when children (n = 256 at time 1) were 18, 30, and 42 months old. Mothers and non-parental caregivers rated children's sadness; mothers, caregivers, and fathers rated children's prosocial behavior; sympathy (concern and hypothesis testing) and prosocial behavior (indirect and direct, as well as verbal at older ages) were assessed with a task in which the experimenter feigned injury. In a panel path analysis, 30-month dispositional sadness predicted marginally higher 42-month sympathy; in addition, 30-month sympathy predicted 42-month sadness. Moreover, when controlling for prior levels of prosocial behavior, 30-month sympathy significantly predicted reported and observed prosocial behavior at 42 months. Sympathy did not mediate the relation between sadness and prosocial behavior (either reported or observed).

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-01-01

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Dynamics of Dyadic Parent-Child Interactions and Predicting Internalizing and Externalizing Behavioral Outcomes

Description

The relationship between parent and child is one that has been studied intensively for years. Much of the previous research in this field has quantified the parent-child relationship through self-report

The relationship between parent and child is one that has been studied intensively for years. Much of the previous research in this field has quantified the parent-child relationship through self-report measures, with a subsample coding behavior from videotape and averaging individual scores across the entire parent-child interaction. Using a dynamic systems approach, we attempted to gain a deeper understanding of the parent-child relationship by quantifying the relationship in terms of dyadic patterns using the software Gridware. We then used these dyadic patterns to predict internalizing and externalizing behaviors in eight-year-old twin children. Dyadic relationship patterns predicted externalizing behaviors such as aggression and conduct disorder (i.e., frequency and stability within negative attractor states, and infrequency and low stability in positive attractor states), but not internalizing behaviors. Findings provide a method for capturing variance in parent-child interactions that is important for children's externalizing behaviors. Future studies should utilize these patterns in understanding risk and resilience family processes for children's mental health and well being.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05