Matching Items (33)

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Jumping in with Both Feet: How Involvement and Use of Resources Relates to College Freshmen's Satisfaction and GPA

Description

Researchers suggests that college students' involvement and use of resources on campus are important for success, in the form of satisfaction and GPA, in the first year. College officials invest substantial resources in activities to encourage freshmen students to become

Researchers suggests that college students' involvement and use of resources on campus are important for success, in the form of satisfaction and GPA, in the first year. College officials invest substantial resources in activities to encourage freshmen students to become involved in campus activities and utilize resources that promote successful outcomes, yet we do not know which activities best relate to success. Using a self-report survey, we sought to corroborate previous research that has shown that overall levels of involvement and use of resources relate to satisfaction/GPA. Furthermore, we disentangled which individual types of involvement and use of resources are most highly correlated with satisfaction and GPA. And finally, we identified the barriers and benefits to involvement and resource use, according to the students themselves. We found evidence that higher levels of involvement were related to satisfaction and attending faculty office hours appears to be particularly important, given a significant relation to both satisfaction and GPA. Implications for program promotion and resource allocation are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
2017-12

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Predicting Sympathy and Prosocial Behavior From Young Children's Dispositional Sadness

Description

The purpose of this study was to examine whether dispositional sadness predicted children's prosocial behavior and if sympathy mediated this relation. Constructs were measured when children (n = 256 at time 1) were 18, 30, and 42 months old. Mothers and

The purpose of this study was to examine whether dispositional sadness predicted children's prosocial behavior and if sympathy mediated this relation. Constructs were measured when children (n = 256 at time 1) were 18, 30, and 42 months old. Mothers and non-parental caregivers rated children's sadness; mothers, caregivers, and fathers rated children's prosocial behavior; sympathy (concern and hypothesis testing) and prosocial behavior (indirect and direct, as well as verbal at older ages) were assessed with a task in which the experimenter feigned injury. In a panel path analysis, 30-month dispositional sadness predicted marginally higher 42-month sympathy; in addition, 30-month sympathy predicted 42-month sadness. Moreover, when controlling for prior levels of prosocial behavior, 30-month sympathy significantly predicted reported and observed prosocial behavior at 42 months. Sympathy did not mediate the relation between sadness and prosocial behavior (either reported or observed).

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Created

Date Created
2015-01-01

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Parent-Adolescent Conflict as Sequences of Reciprocal Negative Emotion: Links with Conflict Resolution and Adolescents' Behavior Problems

Description

Although conflict is a normative part of parent–adolescent relationships, conflicts that are long or highly negative are likely to be detrimental to these relationships and to youths’ development. In the present article, sequential analyses of data from 138 parent–adolescent dyads

Although conflict is a normative part of parent–adolescent relationships, conflicts that are long or highly negative are likely to be detrimental to these relationships and to youths’ development. In the present article, sequential analyses of data from 138 parent–adolescent dyads (adolescents’ mean age was 13.44, SD = 1.16; 52 % girls, 79 % non-Hispanic White) were used to define conflicts as reciprocal exchanges of negative emotion observed while parents and adolescents were discussing “hot,” conflictual issues. Dynamic components of these exchanges, including who started the conflicts, who ended them, and how long they lasted, were identified. Mediation analyses revealed that a high proportion of conflicts ended by adolescents was associated with longer conflicts, which in turn predicted perceptions of the “hot” issue as unresolved and adolescent behavior problems. The findings illustrate advantages of using sequential analysis to identify patterns of interactions and, with some certainty, obtain an estimate of the contingent relationship between a pattern of behavior and child and parental outcomes. These interaction patterns are discussed in terms of the roles that parents and children play when in conflict with each other, and the processes through which these roles affect conflict resolution and adolescents’ behavior problems.

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Created

Date Created
2015-08-01

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Interactions among catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype, parenting, and sex predict children's internalizing symptoms and inhibitory control: Evidence for differential susceptibility

Description

We used sex, observed parenting quality at 18 months, and three variants of the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (Val[superscript 158]Met [rs4680], intron1 [rs737865], and 3′-untranslated region [rs165599]) to predict mothers' reports of inhibitory and attentional control (assessed at 42, 54, 72, and

We used sex, observed parenting quality at 18 months, and three variants of the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (Val[superscript 158]Met [rs4680], intron1 [rs737865], and 3′-untranslated region [rs165599]) to predict mothers' reports of inhibitory and attentional control (assessed at 42, 54, 72, and 84 months) and internalizing symptoms (assessed at 24, 30, 42, 48, and 54 months) in a sample of 146 children (79 male). Although the pattern for all three variants was very similar, Val[superscript 158]Met explained more variance in both outcomes than did intron1, the 3′-untranslated region, or a haplotype that combined all three catechol-O-methyltransferase variants. In separate models, there were significant three-way interactions among each of the variants, parenting, and sex, predicting the intercepts of inhibitory control and internalizing symptoms. Results suggested that Val[superscript 158]Met indexes plasticity, although this effect was moderated by sex. Parenting was positively associated with inhibitory control for methionine–methionine boys and for valine–valine/valine–methionine girls, and was negatively associated with internalizing symptoms for methionine–methionine boys. Using the “regions of significance” technique, genetic differences in inhibitory control were found for children exposed to high-quality parenting, whereas genetic differences in internalizing were found for children exposed to low-quality parenting. These findings provide evidence in support of testing for differential susceptibility across multiple outcomes.

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Created

Date Created
2015-08-01

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Children’s Quantification with Every Over Time

Description

This article looks closely at two types of errors children have been shown to make with universal quantification—Exhaustive Pairing (EP) errors and Underexhaustive errors—and asks whether they reflect the same underlying phenomenon. In a large-scale, longitudinal study, 140 children were

This article looks closely at two types of errors children have been shown to make with universal quantification—Exhaustive Pairing (EP) errors and Underexhaustive errors—and asks whether they reflect the same underlying phenomenon. In a large-scale, longitudinal study, 140 children were tested 4 times from ages 4 to 7 on sentences involving the universal quantifier every. We find an interesting inverse relationship between EP errors and Underexhaustive errors over development: the point at which children stop making Underexhaustive errors is also when they begin making EP errors. Underexhaustive errors, common at early stages in our study, may be indicative of a non-adult, non-exhaustive semantics for every. EP errors, which emerge later, and remain frequent even at age 7, are progressive in nature and were also found with adults in a control study. Following recent developmental work (Drozd and van Loosbroek 2006; Smits 2010), we suggest that these errors do not signal lack of knowledge, but may stem from independent difficulties appropriately restricting the quantifier domain in the presence of a salient, but irrelevant, extra object.

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Created

Date Created
2017-05-09

Through My Eyes: A Video Preparation Tool for Patients With Autism Spectrum Disorder

Description

Child life specialists work in a health care setting work alongside patients and families to provide coping strategies, preparation, education, and comfort to promote well-being and reduce fear and anxiety in the health care environment. They also serve as advocates

Child life specialists work in a health care setting work alongside patients and families to provide coping strategies, preparation, education, and comfort to promote well-being and reduce fear and anxiety in the health care environment. They also serve as advocates for children's developmental needs, specifically in terms of their reactions to stress, and support the active involvement of families in the child's care. In this work, development of fear, coping, and medical preparation are reviewed. In order to further the mission of family-centered care, all types of patient populations must be studied. This reviews children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in order to explore their needs and how they best interpret information. With this in mind, a proposed tool, video modeling is introduced as a way to prepare children, increase their coping skills, and reduce fear and anxiety related to the medical environment.

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Created

Date Created
2014-05

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Item Analysis of the Late Adolescent Home Observation for Measure of the Environment Inventory

Description

This thesis was an analysis of items in the Late Adolescent Home Observation for Measure of the Environment (LA HOME) after the first wave of N = 138 interviews. The purpose of this project was to learn how to utilize

This thesis was an analysis of items in the Late Adolescent Home Observation for Measure of the Environment (LA HOME) after the first wave of N = 138 interviews. The purpose of this project was to learn how to utilize a statistical software such as SPSS to analyze items and interpret results. Frequency analysis, inter-rater reliability (IRR), correlation analysis, internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha, and feedback from research assistants were considered when deciding which items should be eliminated from the measure. After running these analyses, ten items were suggested for deletion including: clean, adolescent's room allows for privacy, reference materials, news, family encourages adolescent to think independently, community service, parent knows where adolescent spends time, weekly household responsibilities, school/career planning, and dentist. Future interviews generating a larger sample size as well as discussions and subsequent revisions to the manual will clarify additional items that may be eliminated from the final version of the instrument.

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Created

Date Created
2015-05

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Dynamics of Dyadic Parent-Child Interactions and Predicting Internalizing and Externalizing Behavioral Outcomes

Description

The relationship between parent and child is one that has been studied intensively for years. Much of the previous research in this field has quantified the parent-child relationship through self-report measures, with a subsample coding behavior from videotape and averaging

The relationship between parent and child is one that has been studied intensively for years. Much of the previous research in this field has quantified the parent-child relationship through self-report measures, with a subsample coding behavior from videotape and averaging individual scores across the entire parent-child interaction. Using a dynamic systems approach, we attempted to gain a deeper understanding of the parent-child relationship by quantifying the relationship in terms of dyadic patterns using the software Gridware. We then used these dyadic patterns to predict internalizing and externalizing behaviors in eight-year-old twin children. Dyadic relationship patterns predicted externalizing behaviors such as aggression and conduct disorder (i.e., frequency and stability within negative attractor states, and infrequency and low stability in positive attractor states), but not internalizing behaviors. Findings provide a method for capturing variance in parent-child interactions that is important for children's externalizing behaviors. Future studies should utilize these patterns in understanding risk and resilience family processes for children's mental health and well being.

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Created

Date Created
2015-05

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Understanding the Predictors of School Engagement and Implications for Intervention

Description

The predictors of school engagement in early childhood were examined, and mechanisms to improve classroom engagement levels were proposed for interventionists to consider. Literature was reviewed on the relations of child characteristics (i.e. effortful control, negative emotionality) and environmental characteristics

The predictors of school engagement in early childhood were examined, and mechanisms to improve classroom engagement levels were proposed for interventionists to consider. Literature was reviewed on the relations of child characteristics (i.e. effortful control, negative emotionality) and environmental characteristics (i.e. teacher-child relationship quality, classroom environment) to children's school engagement. Finally, a logic model was developed to guide future intervention work.

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Created

Date Created
2013-05

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In Andy's Shoes: A Children's Book and Manual on the Expression of Autism Spectrum Disorder

Description

The purpose of this project was to research the expression of Autism Spectrum Disorder in children and create a children’s book that can help the peers of individuals with a diagnosis to understand what the disorder entails and potentially gain

The purpose of this project was to research the expression of Autism Spectrum Disorder in children and create a children’s book that can help the peers of individuals with a diagnosis to understand what the disorder entails and potentially gain a new sense of empathy for peers of all levels of physical and mental abilities. The research component includes interviews with individuals deemed knowledgeable about ASD, including occupational therapists, behavioral analysts, and parents, as well as a literature review of research studies on the expression of Autism in children. This written portion of the project may also serve as a manual for individuals who have little to no knowledge of ASD, as it dives deeper into the content of the book and research, while remaining easily understandable and clear to those without any prior knowledge or experience with ASD. It could prove especially useful for those in professions that come into contact with individuals with Autism, but do not necessarily require psychology courses or training as a prerequisite for the role, such as teachers and some health professionals.

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Created

Date Created
2021-05