Matching Items (3)

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Plasma Exosome Profiling of Cancer Patients by a Next Generation Systems Biology Approach

Description

Technologies capable of characterizing the full breadth of cellular systems need to be able to measure millions of proteins, isoforms, and complexes simultaneously. We describe an approach that fulfils this

Technologies capable of characterizing the full breadth of cellular systems need to be able to measure millions of proteins, isoforms, and complexes simultaneously. We describe an approach that fulfils this criterion: Adaptive Dynamic Artificial Poly-ligand Targeting (ADAPT). ADAPT employs an enriched library of single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODNs) to profile complex biological samples, thus achieving an unprecedented coverage of system-wide, native biomolecules. We used ADAPT as a highly specific profiling tool that distinguishes women with or without breast cancer based on circulating exosomes in their blood. To develop ADAPT, we enriched a library of ~10[superscript 11] ssODNs for those associating with exosomes from breast cancer patients or controls. The resulting 10[superscript 6] enriched ssODNs were then profiled against plasma from independent groups of healthy and breast cancer-positive women. ssODN-mediated affinity purification and mass spectrometry identified low-abundance exosome-associated proteins and protein complexes, some with known significance in both normal homeostasis and disease. Sequencing of the recovered ssODNs provided quantitative measures that were used to build highly accurate multi-analyte signatures for patient classification. Probing plasma from 500 subjects with a smaller subset of 2000 resynthesized ssODNs stratified healthy, breast biopsy-negative, and -positive women. An AUC of 0.73 was obtained when comparing healthy donors with biopsy-positive patients.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-02-20

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Leveraging Artificial Intelligence to Find Previously Undiscovered Patterns in Tumor Molecular Data to Aid in Diagnosis and Therapy Selection

Description

Cancer researchers have traditionally used a handful of markers to understand the origin of tumors and to predict therapeutic response. Additionally, performing machine learning activities on disparate data sources

Cancer researchers have traditionally used a handful of markers to understand the origin of tumors and to predict therapeutic response. Additionally, performing machine learning activities on disparate data sources of varying quality is fraught with inherent bias. The Caris Life Sciences Molecular Database (CMD) is an immense resource for discovery as it contains over 215,000 molecular profiles of tumors with consistently gathered clinical grade molecular data along with immense amounts of clinical outcomes data. This resource was leveraged to generate two artificial intelligence algorithms aiding in diagnosis and one for therapy selection.

The Molecular Disease Classifier (MDC) was trained on 34,352 cases and tested on 15,473 unambiguously diagnosed cases. The MDC predicted the correct tumor type out of thirteen possibilities in the labeled data set with sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of 90.5%, 99.2%, 90.5% and 99.2% respectively when considering up to 5 predictions for a case.

The availability of whole transcriptome data in the CMD prompted its inclusion into a new platform called MI GPSai (MI Genomic Prevalence Score). The algorithm trained on genomic data from 34,352 cases and genomic and transcriptomic data from 23,137 cases and was validated on 19,555 cases. MI GPSai can predict the correct tumor type out of 21 possibilities on 93% of cases with 94% accuracy. When considering the top two predictions for a case, the accuracy increases to 97%.

Finally, a 67 gene molecular signature predictive of efficacy of oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer was developed - FOLFOXai. The signature was predictive of survival in an independent real-world evidence (RWE) dataset of 412 patients who had received FOLFOX/BV in 1st line and inversely predictive of survival in RWE data from 55 patients who had received 1st line FOLFIRI. Blinded analysis of TRIBE2 samples confirmed that FOLFOXai was predictive of OS in both oxaliplatin-containing arms (FOLFOX HR=0.629, p=0.04 and FOLFOXIRI HR=0.483, p=0.02).

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

Molecular profiling plasma extracellular vesicles from breast cancer patients

Description

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent a heterogeneous population of small vesicles, consisting of a phospholipidic bilayer surrounding a soluble interior cargo. These vesicles play an important role in cellular communication by

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) represent a heterogeneous population of small vesicles, consisting of a phospholipidic bilayer surrounding a soluble interior cargo. These vesicles play an important role in cellular communication by virtue of their protein, RNA, and lipid content, which can be transferred among cells. Peripheral blood is a rich source of circulating EVs. An analysis of EVs in peripheral blood could provide access to unparalleled amounts of biomarkers of great diagnostic, prognostic as well as therapeutic value. In the current study, a plasma EV enrichment method based on pluronic co-polymer was first established and characterized. Plasma EVs from breast cancer patients were then enriched, profiled and compared to non-cancer controls. Proteins signatures that contributed to the prediction of cancer samples from non-cancer controls were created by a random-forest based cross-validation approach. We found that a large portion of these signatures were related to breast cancer aggression. To verify such findings, KIAA0100, one of the features identified, was chosen for in vitro molecular and cellular studies in the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. We found that KIAA0100 regulates cancer cell aggression in MDA-MB-231 in an anchorage-independent manner and is particularly associated with anoikis resistance through its interaction with HSPA1A. Lastly, plasma EVs contain not only individual proteins, but also numerous molecular complexes. In order to measure millions of proteins, isoforms, and complexes simultaneously, Adaptive Dynamic Artificial Poly-ligand Targeting (ADAPT) platform was applied. ADAPT employs an enriched library of single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides to profile complex biological samples, thus achieving a deep coverage of system-wide, native biomolecules. Profiling of EVs from breast cancer patients was able to obtain a prediction AUC performance of 0.73 when compared biopsy-positive cancer patient to healthy controls and 0.64 compared to biopsy-negative controls and such performance was not associated with the physical breast condition indicated by BIRAD scores. Taken together, current research demonstrated the potential of profiling plasma EVs in searching for therapeutic targets as well as diagnostic signatures.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018