Matching Items (34)

130387-Thumbnail Image.png

Ab-Initio Phasing Using Nanocrystal Shape Transforms With Incomplete Unit Cells

Description

X-ray free electron lasers are used in measuring diffraction patterns from nanocrystals in the 'diffract-before-destroy' mode by outrunning radiation damage. The finite-sized nanocrystals provide an opportunity to recover intensity between

X-ray free electron lasers are used in measuring diffraction patterns from nanocrystals in the 'diffract-before-destroy' mode by outrunning radiation damage. The finite-sized nanocrystals provide an opportunity to recover intensity between Bragg spots by removing the modulating function that depends on crystal shape, i.e. the transform of the crystal shape. This shape-transform dividing-out scheme for solving the phase problem has been tested using simulated examples with cubic crystals. It provides a phasing method which does not require atomic resolution data, chemical modification to the sample, or modelling based on the protein databases. It is common to find multiple structural units (e.g. molecules, in symmetry-related positions) within a single unit cell, therefore incomplete unit cells (e.g. one additional molecule) can be observed at surface layers of crystals. In this work, the effects of such incomplete unit cells on the 'dividing-out' phasing algorithm are investigated using 2D crystals within the projection approximation. It is found that the incomplete unit cells do not hinder the recovery of the scattering pattern from a single unit cell (after dividing out the shape transforms from data merged from many nanocrystals of different sizes), assuming that certain unit-cell types are preferred. The results also suggest that the dynamic range of the data is a critical issue to be resolved in order to apply the shape transform method practically.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-01-01

130253-Thumbnail Image.png

Merging single-shot XFEL diffraction data from inorganic nanoparticles: a new approach to size and orientation determination

Description

X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) provide new opportunities for structure determination of biomolecules, viruses and nanomaterials. With unprecedented peak brilliance and ultra-short pulse duration, XFELs can tolerate higher X-ray doses by

X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) provide new opportunities for structure determination of biomolecules, viruses and nanomaterials. With unprecedented peak brilliance and ultra-short pulse duration, XFELs can tolerate higher X-ray doses by exploiting the femtosecond-scale exposure time, and can thus go beyond the resolution limits achieved with conventional X-ray diffraction imaging techniques. Using XFELs, it is possible to collect scattering information from single particles at high resolution, however particle heterogeneity and unknown orientations complicate data merging in three-dimensional space. Using the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), synthetic inorganic nanocrystals with a core–shell architecture were used as a model system for proof-of-principle coherent diffractive single-particle imaging experiments. To deal with the heterogeneity of the core–shell particles, new computational methods have been developed to extract the particle size and orientation from the scattering data to assist data merging. The size distribution agrees with that obtained by electron microscopy and the merged data support a model with a core–shell architecture.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-08-27

130269-Thumbnail Image.png

X-ray lasers and crystallography

Description

The invention of the laser in the 1950 s for visible light and microwaves, and the slow but steady recognition of its manifold uses, is a truly remarkable story in the

The invention of the laser in the 1950 s for visible light and microwaves, and the slow but steady recognition of its manifold uses, is a truly remarkable story in the history of science. But the severe λ[superscript 3] dependence of the ratio of stimulated (mostly coherent) to spontaneous (incoherent) emission meant that efforts to build an X-ray laser seemed hopeless for decades. As so often happens in the history of science, the breakthrough eventually occurred at the interface of several fields – synchrotron science (and especially their insertion devices), laser physics, and work on microwave tubes for radar, emerging from the second world war. Synchrotrons themselves were an outgrowth of the particle accelerators of nuclear physics, whose X-ray radiation was considered a nuisance. All of this culminated recently in the construction of the first hard-X-ray laser, the US Department of Energy's Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), at their SLAC laboratory near Stanford. The first X-ray lasing occurred in that two-mile long tunnel on April 21, 2009, at about 2 kV, in an all-or-nothing moment of intense excitement, as theoretical predictions proved spot-on. The new laser principle needed for hard-X-ray lasing, the free-electron laser (FEL), was first demonstrated in the infra-red region at Stanford in 1975 in John Madey's group, following earlier theoretical work by Motz and Phillips on microwave tubes. Other FELs soon followed, in the microwave and visible region, leading to the LCLS. The XFEL method provides brief pulses of X-ray laser radiation by the SASE (self-amplified spontaneous emission) process, using a resonant undulator driven by a LINAC electron accelerator. Each LCLS pulse, of 10 fs duration (repeated 120 times a second) contains about 10[superscript 12] hard-X-ray photons, about the same number that a synchrotron might generate in a second.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-04-30

130270-Thumbnail Image.png

Femtosecond X-ray diffraction from two-dimensional protein crystals

Description

X-ray diffraction patterns from two-dimensional (2-D) protein crystals obtained using femtosecond X-ray pulses from an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) are presented. To date, it has not been possible to acquire

X-ray diffraction patterns from two-dimensional (2-D) protein crystals obtained using femtosecond X-ray pulses from an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) are presented. To date, it has not been possible to acquire transmission X-ray diffraction patterns from individual 2-D protein crystals due to radiation damage. However, the intense and ultrafast pulses generated by an XFEL permit a new method of collecting diffraction data before the sample is destroyed. Utilizing a diffract-before-destroy approach at the Linac Coherent Light Source, Bragg diffraction was acquired to better than 8.5 Å resolution for two different 2-D protein crystal samples each less than 10 nm thick and maintained at room temperature. These proof-of-principle results show promise for structural analysis of both soluble and membrane proteins arranged as 2-D crystals without requiring cryogenic conditions or the formation of three-dimensional crystals.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-02-28

130274-Thumbnail Image.png

Coherent soft X-ray diffraction imaging of coliphage PR772 at the Linac coherent light source

Description

Single-particle diffraction from X-ray Free Electron Lasers offers the potential for molecular structure determination without the need for crystallization. In an effort to further develop the technique, we present a

Single-particle diffraction from X-ray Free Electron Lasers offers the potential for molecular structure determination without the need for crystallization. In an effort to further develop the technique, we present a dataset of coherent soft X-ray diffraction images of Coliphage PR772 virus, collected at the Atomic Molecular Optics (AMO) beamline with pnCCD detectors in the LAMP instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source. The diameter of PR772 ranges from 65–70 nm, which is considerably smaller than the previously reported ~600 nm diameter Mimivirus. This reflects continued progress in XFEL-based single-particle imaging towards the single molecular imaging regime. The data set contains significantly more single particle hits than collected in previous experiments, enabling the development of improved statistical analysis, reconstruction algorithms, and quantitative metrics to determine resolution and self-consistency.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-06-27

130278-Thumbnail Image.png

XFELs for structure and dynamics in biology

Description

The development and application of the free-electron X-ray laser (XFEL) to structure and dynamics in biology since its inception in 2009 are reviewed. The research opportunities which result from the

The development and application of the free-electron X-ray laser (XFEL) to structure and dynamics in biology since its inception in 2009 are reviewed. The research opportunities which result from the ability to outrun most radiation-damage effects are outlined, and some grand challenges are suggested. By avoiding the need to cool samples to minimize damage, the XFEL has permitted atomic resolution imaging of molecular processes on the 100 fs timescale under near-physiological conditions and in the correct thermal bath in which molecular machines operate. Radiation damage, comparisons of XFEL and synchrotron work, single-particle diffraction, fast solution scattering, pump–probe studies on photosensitive proteins, mix-and-inject experiments, caged molecules, pH jump and other reaction-initiation methods, and the study of molecular machines are all discussed. Sample-delivery methods and data-analysis algorithms for the various modes, from serial femtosecond crystallo­graphy to fast solution scattering, fluctuation X-ray scattering, mixing jet experiments and single-particle diffraction, are also reviewed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05-10

130279-Thumbnail Image.png

Serial millisecond crystallography of membrane and soluble protein microcrystals using synchrotron radiation

Description

Crystal structure determination of biological macromolecules using the novel technique of serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) is severely limited by the scarcity of X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) sources. However, recent and

Crystal structure determination of biological macromolecules using the novel technique of serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) is severely limited by the scarcity of X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) sources. However, recent and future upgrades render microfocus beamlines at synchrotron-radiation sources suitable for room-temperature serial crystallography data collection also. Owing to the longer exposure times that are needed at synchrotrons, serial data collection is termed serial millisecond crystallography (SMX). As a result, the number of SMX experiments is growing rapidly, with a dozen experiments reported so far. Here, the first high-viscosity injector-based SMX experiments carried out at a US synchrotron source, the Advanced Photon Source (APS), are reported. Microcrystals (5–20 µm) of a wide variety of proteins, including lysozyme, thaumatin, phycocyanin, the human A[subscript 2A] adenosine receptor (A[subscript 2A]AR), the soluble fragment of the membrane lipoprotein Flpp3 and proteinase K, were screened. Crystals suspended in lipidic cubic phase (LCP) or a high-molecular-weight poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO; molecular weight 8 000 000) were delivered to the beam using a high-viscosity injector. In-house data-reduction (hit-finding) software developed at APS as well as the SFX data-reduction and analysis software suites Cheetah and CrystFEL enabled efficient on-site SMX data monitoring, reduction and processing. Complete data sets were collected for A[subscript 2A]AR, phycocyanin, Flpp3, proteinase K and lysozyme, and the structures of A[subscript 2A]AR, phycocyanin, proteinase K and lysozyme were determined at 3.2, 3.1, 2.65 and 2.05 Å resolution, respectively. The data demonstrate the feasibility of serial millisecond crystallography from 5–20 µm crystals using a high-viscosity injector at APS. The resolution of the crystal structures obtained in this study was dictated by the current flux density and crystal size, but upcoming developments in beamline optics and the planned APS-U upgrade will increase the intensity by two orders of magnitude. These developments will enable structure determination from smaller and/or weakly diffracting microcrystals.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05-24

130282-Thumbnail Image.png

The indexing ambiguity in serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) resolved using an expectation maximization algorithm

Description

Crystallographic auto-indexing algorithms provide crystal orientations and unit-cell parameters and assign Miller indices based on the geometric relations between the Bragg peaks observed in diffraction patterns. However, if the Bravais

Crystallographic auto-indexing algorithms provide crystal orientations and unit-cell parameters and assign Miller indices based on the geometric relations between the Bragg peaks observed in diffraction patterns. However, if the Bravais symmetry is higher than the space-group symmetry, there will be multiple indexing options that are geometrically equivalent, and hence many ways to merge diffraction intensities from protein nanocrystals. Structure factor magnitudes from full reflections are required to resolve this ambiguity but only partial reflections are available from each XFEL shot, which must be merged to obtain full reflections from these `stills'. To resolve this chicken-and-egg problem, an expectation maximization algorithm is described that iteratively constructs a model from the intensities recorded in the diffraction patterns as the indexing ambiguity is being resolved. The reconstructed model is then used to guide the resolution of the indexing ambiguity as feedback for the next iteration. Using both simulated and experimental data collected at an X-ray laser for photosystem I in the P63 space group (which supports a merohedral twinning indexing ambiguity), the method is validated.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-09-23

130284-Thumbnail Image.png

Expression, purification and crystallization of CTB-MPR, a candidate mucosal vaccine component against HIV-1

Description

CTB-MPR is a fusion protein between the B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB) and the membrane-proximal region of gp41 (MPR), the transmembrane envelope protein of Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1),

CTB-MPR is a fusion protein between the B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB) and the membrane-proximal region of gp41 (MPR), the transmembrane envelope protein of Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), and has previously been shown to induce the production of anti-HIV-1 antibodies with antiviral functions. To further improve the design of this candidate vaccine, X-ray crystallography experiments were performed to obtain structural information about this fusion protein. Several variants of CTB-MPR were designed, constructed and recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli. The first variant contained a flexible GPGP linker between CTB and MPR, and yielded crystals that diffracted to a resolution of 2.3 Å, but only the CTB region was detected in the electron-density map. A second variant, in which the CTB was directly attached to MPR, was shown to destabilize pentamer formation. A third construct containing a polyalanine linker between CTB and MPR proved to stabilize the pentameric form of the protein during purification. The purification procedure was shown to produce a homogeneously pure and monodisperse sample for crystallization. Initial crystallization experiments led to pseudo-crystals which were ordered in only two dimensions and were disordered in the third dimension. Nanocrystals obtained using the same precipitant showed promising X-ray diffraction to 5 Å resolution in femtosecond nanocrystallography experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The results demonstrate the utility of femtosecond X-ray crystallography to enable structural analysis based on nano/microcrystals of a protein for which no macroscopic crystals ordered in three dimensions have been observed before.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-08-20

130302-Thumbnail Image.png

Structural enzymology using X-ray free electron lasers

Description

Mix-and-inject serial crystallography (MISC) is a technique designed to image enzyme catalyzed reactions in which small protein crystals are mixed with a substrate just prior to being probed by an

Mix-and-inject serial crystallography (MISC) is a technique designed to image enzyme catalyzed reactions in which small protein crystals are mixed with a substrate just prior to being probed by an X-ray pulse. This approach offers several advantages over flow cell studies. It provides (i) room temperature structures at near atomic resolution, (ii) time resolution ranging from microseconds to seconds, and (iii) convenient reaction initiation. It outruns radiation damage by using femtosecond X-ray pulses allowing damage and chemistry to be separated. Here, we demonstrate that MISC is feasible at an X-ray free electron laser by studying the reaction of M. tuberculosis ß-lactamase microcrystals with ceftriaxone antibiotic solution. Electron density maps of the apo-ß-lactamase and of the ceftriaxone bound form were obtained at 2.8 Å and 2.4 Å resolution, respectively. These results pave the way to study cyclic and non-cyclic reactions and represent a new field of time-resolved structural dynamics for numerous substrate-triggered biological reactions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12-15