Matching Items (8)

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Re-sonification of objects, events, and environments

Description

Digital sound synthesis allows the creation of a great variety of sounds. Focusing on interesting or ecologically valid sounds for music, simulation, aesthetics, or other purposes limits the otherwise vast digital audio palette. Tools for creating such sounds vary from

Digital sound synthesis allows the creation of a great variety of sounds. Focusing on interesting or ecologically valid sounds for music, simulation, aesthetics, or other purposes limits the otherwise vast digital audio palette. Tools for creating such sounds vary from arbitrary methods of altering recordings to precise simulations of vibrating objects. In this work, methods of sound synthesis by re-sonification are considered. Re-sonification, herein, refers to the general process of analyzing, possibly transforming, and resynthesizing or reusing recorded sounds in meaningful ways, to convey information. Applied to soundscapes, re-sonification is presented as a means of conveying activity within an environment. Applied to the sounds of objects, this work examines modeling the perception of objects as well as their physical properties and the ability to simulate interactive events with such objects. To create soundscapes to re-sonify geographic environments, a method of automated soundscape design is presented. Using recorded sounds that are classified based on acoustic, social, semantic, and geographic information, this method produces stochastically generated soundscapes to re-sonify selected geographic areas. Drawing on prior knowledge, local sounds and those deemed similar comprise a locale's soundscape. In the context of re-sonifying events, this work examines processes for modeling and estimating the excitations of sounding objects. These include plucking, striking, rubbing, and any interaction that imparts energy into a system, affecting the resultant sound. A method of estimating a linear system's input, constrained to a signal-subspace, is presented and applied toward improving the estimation of percussive excitations for re-sonification. To work toward robust recording-based modeling and re-sonification of objects, new implementations of banded waveguide (BWG) models are proposed for object modeling and sound synthesis. Previous implementations of BWGs use arbitrary model parameters and may produce a range of simulations that do not match digital waveguide or modal models of the same design. Subject to linear excitations, some models proposed here behave identically to other equivalently designed physical models. Under nonlinear interactions, such as bowing, many of the proposed implementations exhibit improvements in the attack characteristics of synthesized sounds.

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Date Created
2013

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Audio processing and loudness estimation algorithms with iOS simulations

Description

The processing power and storage capacity of portable devices have improved considerably over the past decade. This has motivated the implementation of sophisticated audio and other signal processing algorithms on such mobile devices. Of particular interest in this thesis is

The processing power and storage capacity of portable devices have improved considerably over the past decade. This has motivated the implementation of sophisticated audio and other signal processing algorithms on such mobile devices. Of particular interest in this thesis is audio/speech processing based on perceptual criteria. Specifically, estimation of parameters from human auditory models, such as auditory patterns and loudness, involves computationally intensive operations which can strain device resources. Hence, strategies for implementing computationally efficient human auditory models for loudness estimation have been studied in this thesis. Existing algorithms for reducing computations in auditory pattern and loudness estimation have been examined and improved algorithms have been proposed to overcome limitations of these methods. In addition, real-time applications such as perceptual loudness estimation and loudness equalization using auditory models have also been implemented. A software implementation of loudness estimation on iOS devices is also reported in this thesis. In addition to the loudness estimation algorithms and software, in this thesis project we also created new illustrations of speech and audio processing concepts for research and education. As a result, a new suite of speech/audio DSP functions was developed and integrated as part of the award-winning educational iOS App 'iJDSP." These functions are described in detail in this thesis. Several enhancements in the architecture of the application have also been introduced for providing the supporting framework for speech/audio processing. Frame-by-frame processing and visualization functionalities have been developed to facilitate speech/audio processing. In addition, facilities for easy sound recording, processing and audio rendering have also been developed to provide students, practitioners and researchers with an enriched DSP simulation tool. Simulations and assessments have been also developed for use in classes and training of practitioners and students.

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2013

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Techniques for soundscape retrieval and synthesis

Description

The study of acoustic ecology is concerned with the manner in which life interacts with its environment as mediated through sound. As such, a central focus is that of the soundscape: the acoustic environment as perceived by a listener. This

The study of acoustic ecology is concerned with the manner in which life interacts with its environment as mediated through sound. As such, a central focus is that of the soundscape: the acoustic environment as perceived by a listener. This dissertation examines the application of several computational tools in the realms of digital signal processing, multimedia information retrieval, and computer music synthesis to the analysis of the soundscape. Namely, these tools include a) an open source software library, Sirens, which can be used for the segmentation of long environmental field recordings into individual sonic events and compare these events in terms of acoustic content, b) a graph-based retrieval system that can use these measures of acoustic similarity and measures of semantic similarity using the lexical database WordNet to perform both text-based retrieval and automatic annotation of environmental sounds, and c) new techniques for the dynamic, realtime parametric morphing of multiple field recordings, informed by the geographic paths along which they were recorded.

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Date Created
2013

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Waveform mapping and time-frequency processing of biological sequences and structures

Description

Genomic and proteomic sequences, which are in the form of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and amino acids respectively, play a vital role in the structure, function and diversity of every living cell. As a result, various genomic and proteomic sequence processing

Genomic and proteomic sequences, which are in the form of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and amino acids respectively, play a vital role in the structure, function and diversity of every living cell. As a result, various genomic and proteomic sequence processing methods have been proposed from diverse disciplines, including biology, chemistry, physics, computer science and electrical engineering. In particular, signal processing techniques were applied to the problems of sequence querying and alignment, that compare and classify regions of similarity in the sequences based on their composition. However, although current approaches obtain results that can be attributed to key biological properties, they require pre-processing and lack robustness to sequence repetitions. In addition, these approaches do not provide much support for efficiently querying sub-sequences, a process that is essential for tracking localized database matches. In this work, a query-based alignment method for biological sequences that maps sequences to time-domain waveforms before processing the waveforms for alignment in the time-frequency plane is first proposed. The mapping uses waveforms, such as time-domain Gaussian functions, with unique sequence representations in the time-frequency plane. The proposed alignment method employs a robust querying algorithm that utilizes a time-frequency signal expansion whose basis function is matched to the basic waveform in the mapped sequences. The resulting WAVEQuery approach is demonstrated for both DNA and protein sequences using the matching pursuit decomposition as the signal basis expansion. The alignment localization of WAVEQuery is specifically evaluated over repetitive database segments, and operable in real-time without pre-processing. It is demonstrated that WAVEQuery significantly outperforms the biological sequence alignment method BLAST for queries with repetitive segments for DNA sequences. A generalized version of the WAVEQuery approach with the metaplectic transform is also described for protein sequence structure prediction. For protein alignment, it is often necessary to not only compare the one-dimensional (1-D) primary sequence structure but also the secondary and tertiary three-dimensional (3-D) space structures. This is done after considering the conformations in the 3-D space due to the degrees of freedom of these structures. As a result, a novel directionality based 3-D waveform mapping for the 3-D protein structures is also proposed and it is used to compare protein structures using a matched filter approach. By incorporating a 3-D time axis, a highly-localized Gaussian-windowed chirp waveform is defined, and the amino acid information is mapped to the chirp parameters that are then directly used to obtain directionality in the 3-D space. This mapping is unique in that additional characteristic protein information such as hydrophobicity, that relates the sequence with the structure, can be added as another representation parameter. The additional parameter helps tracking similarities over local segments of the structure, this enabling classification of distantly related proteins which have partial structural similarities. This approach is successfully tested for pairwise alignments over full length structures, alignments over multiple structures to form a phylogenetic trees, and also alignments over local segments. Also, basic classification over protein structural classes using directional descriptors for the protein structure is performed.

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Date Created
2011

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Efficient perceptual super-resolution

Description

Super-Resolution (SR) techniques are widely developed to increase image resolution by fusing several Low-Resolution (LR) images of the same scene to overcome sensor hardware limitations and reduce media impairments in a cost-effective manner. When choosing a solution for the SR

Super-Resolution (SR) techniques are widely developed to increase image resolution by fusing several Low-Resolution (LR) images of the same scene to overcome sensor hardware limitations and reduce media impairments in a cost-effective manner. When choosing a solution for the SR problem, there is always a trade-off between computational efficiency and High-Resolution (HR) image quality. Existing SR approaches suffer from extremely high computational requirements due to the high number of unknowns to be estimated in the solution of the SR inverse problem. This thesis proposes efficient iterative SR techniques based on Visual Attention (VA) and perceptual modeling of the human visual system. In the first part of this thesis, an efficient ATtentive-SELective Perceptual-based (AT-SELP) SR framework is presented, where only a subset of perceptually significant active pixels is selected for processing by the SR algorithm based on a local contrast sensitivity threshold model and a proposed low complexity saliency detector. The proposed saliency detector utilizes a probability of detection rule inspired by concepts of luminance masking and visual attention. The second part of this thesis further enhances on the efficiency of selective SR approaches by presenting an ATtentive (AT) SR framework that is completely driven by VA region detectors. Additionally, different VA techniques that combine several low-level features, such as center-surround differences in intensity and orientation, patch luminance and contrast, bandpass outputs of patch luminance and contrast, and difference of Gaussians of luminance intensity are integrated and analyzed to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed selective SR frameworks. The proposed AT-SELP SR and AT-SR frameworks proved to be flexible by integrating a Maximum A Posteriori (MAP)-based SR algorithm as well as a fast two-stage Fusion-Restoration (FR) SR estimator. By adopting the proposed selective SR frameworks, simulation results show significant reduction on average in computational complexity with comparable visual quality in terms of quantitative metrics such as PSNR, SNR or MAE gains, and subjective assessment. The third part of this thesis proposes a Perceptually Weighted (WP) SR technique that incorporates unequal weighting parameters in the cost function of iterative SR problems. The proposed approach is inspired by the unequal processing of the Human Visual System (HVS) to different local image features in an image. Simulation results show an enhanced reconstruction quality and faster convergence rates when applied to the MAP-based and FR-based SR schemes.

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2011

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Asymptotic techniques for space and multi-user diversity analysis in wireless communications

Description

To establish reliable wireless communication links it is critical to devise schemes to mitigate the effects of the fading channel. In this regard, this dissertation analyzes two types of systems: point-to-point, and multiuser systems. For point-to-point systems with multiple antennas,

To establish reliable wireless communication links it is critical to devise schemes to mitigate the effects of the fading channel. In this regard, this dissertation analyzes two types of systems: point-to-point, and multiuser systems. For point-to-point systems with multiple antennas, switch and stay diversity combining offers a substantial complexity reduction for a modest loss in performance as compared to systems that implement selection diversity. For the first time, the design and performance of space-time coded multiple antenna systems that employ switch and stay combining at the receiver is considered. Novel switching algorithms are proposed and upper bounds on the pairwise error probability are derived for different assumptions on channel availability at the receiver. It is proved that full spatial diversity is achieved when the optimal switching threshold is used. Power distribution between training and data codewords is optimized to minimize the loss suffered due to channel estimation error. Further, code design criteria are developed for differential systems. Also, for the special case of two transmit antennas, new codes are designed for the differential scheme. These proposed codes are shown to perform significantly better than existing codes. For multiuser systems, unlike the models analyzed in literature, multiuser diversity is studied when the number of users in the system is random. The error rate is proved to be a completely monotone function of the number of users, while the throughput is shown to have a completely monotone derivative. Using this it is shown that randomization of the number of users always leads to deterioration of performance. Further, using Laplace transform ordering of random variables, a method for comparison of system performance for different user distributions is provided. For Poisson users, the error rates of the fixed and random number of users are shown to asymptotically approach each other for large average number of users. In contrast, for a finite average number of users and high SNR, it is found that randomization of the number of users deteriorates performance significantly.

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2010

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Dynamic Modeling, System Identification, and Control Engineering Approaches for Designing Optimized and Perpetually Adaptive Behavioral Health Interventions

Description

Behavior-driven obesity has become one of the most challenging global epidemics since the 1990s, and is presently associated with the leading causes of death in the U.S. and worldwide, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, strokes, and some forms of cancer. The

Behavior-driven obesity has become one of the most challenging global epidemics since the 1990s, and is presently associated with the leading causes of death in the U.S. and worldwide, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, strokes, and some forms of cancer. The use of system identification and control engineering principles in the design of novel and perpetually adaptive behavioral health interventions for promoting physical activity and healthy eating has been the central theme in many recent contributions. However, the absence of experimental studies specifically designed with the purpose of developing control-oriented behavioral models has restricted prior efforts in this domain to the use of hypothetical simulations to demonstrate the potential viability of these interventions. In this dissertation, the use of first-of-a-kind, real-life experimental results to develop dynamic, participant-validated behavioral models essential for the design and evaluation of optimized and adaptive behavioral interventions is examined. Following an intergenerational approach, the first part of this work aims to develop a dynamical systems model of intrauterine fetal growth with the prime goal of predicting infant birth weight, which has been associated with subsequent childhood and adult-onset obesity. The use of longitudinal input-output data from the “Healthy Mom Zone” intervention study has enabled the estimation and validation of this fetoplacental model. The second part establishes a set of data-driven behavioral models founded on Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). The “Just Walk” intervention experiment, developed at Arizona State University using system identification principles, has lent a unique opportunity to estimate and validate both black-box and semiphysical SCT models for predicting physical activity behavior. Further, this dissertation addresses some of the model estimation challenges arising from the limitations of “Just Walk”, including the need for developing nontraditional modeling approaches for short datasets, as well as delivers a new theoretical and algorithmic framework for structured state-space model estimation that can be used in a broader set of application domains. Finally, adaptive closed-loop intervention simulations of participant-validated SCT models from “Just Walk” are presented using a Hybrid Model Predictive Control (HMPC) control law. A simple HMPC controller reconfiguration strategy for designing both single- and multi-phase intervention designs is proposed.

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2021

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Image reconstruction, classification, and tracking for compressed sensing imaging and video

Description

Compressed sensing (CS) is a novel approach to collecting and analyzing data of all types. By exploiting prior knowledge of the compressibility of many naturally-occurring signals, specially designed sensors can dramatically undersample the data of interest and still achieve

Compressed sensing (CS) is a novel approach to collecting and analyzing data of all types. By exploiting prior knowledge of the compressibility of many naturally-occurring signals, specially designed sensors can dramatically undersample the data of interest and still achieve high performance. However, the generated data are pseudorandomly mixed and must be processed before use. In this work, a model of a single-pixel compressive video camera is used to explore the problems of performing inference based on these undersampled measurements. Three broad types of inference from CS measurements are considered: recovery of video frames, target tracking, and object classification/detection. Potential applications include automated surveillance, autonomous navigation, and medical imaging and diagnosis.

Recovery of CS video frames is far more complex than still images, which are known to be (approximately) sparse in a linear basis such as the discrete cosine transform. By combining sparsity of individual frames with an optical flow-based model of inter-frame dependence, the perceptual quality and peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) of reconstructed frames is improved. The efficacy of this approach is demonstrated for the cases of \textit{a priori} known image motion and unknown but constant image-wide motion.

Although video sequences can be reconstructed from CS measurements, the process is computationally costly. In autonomous systems, this reconstruction step is unnecessary if higher-level conclusions can be drawn directly from the CS data. A tracking algorithm is described and evaluated which can hold target vehicles at very high levels of compression where reconstruction of video frames fails. The algorithm performs tracking by detection using a particle filter with likelihood given by a maximum average correlation height (MACH) target template model.

Motivated by possible improvements over the MACH filter-based likelihood estimation of the tracking algorithm, the application of deep learning models to detection and classification of compressively sensed images is explored. In tests, a Deep Boltzmann Machine trained on CS measurements outperforms a naive reconstruct-first approach.

Taken together, progress in these three areas of CS inference has the potential to lower system cost and improve performance, opening up new applications of CS video cameras.

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Date Created
2016