Matching Items (60)

Diversity Promoting Online Sampling for Streaming Video Summarization

Description

Video summarization is gaining popularity in the technological culture, where positioning the mouse pointer on top of a video results in a quick overview of what the video is about.

Video summarization is gaining popularity in the technological culture, where positioning the mouse pointer on top of a video results in a quick overview of what the video is about. The algorithm usually selects frames in a time sequence through systematic sampling. Invariably, there are other applications like video surveillance, web-based video surfing and video archival applications which can benefit from efficient and concise video summaries. In this project, we explored several clustering algorithms and how these can be combined and deconstructed to make summarization algorithm more efficient and relevant. We focused on two metrics to summarize: reducing error and redundancy in the summary. To reduce the error online k-means clustering algorithm was used; to reduce redundancy we applied two different methods: volume of convex hulls and the true diversity measure that is usually used in biological disciplines. The algorithm was efficient and computationally cost effective due to its online nature. The diversity maximization (or redundancy reduction) using technique of volume of convex hulls showed better results compared to other conventional methods on 50 different videos. For the true diversity measure, there has not been much work done on the nature of the measure in the context of video summarization. When we applied it, the algorithm stalled due to the true diversity saturating because of the inherent initialization present in the algorithm. We explored the nature of this measure to gain better understanding on how it can help to make summarization more intuitive and give the user a handle to customize the summary.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Evaluation of an Original Design for a Cost-Effective Wheel-Mounted Dynamometer for Road Vehicles

Description

This thesis evaluates the viability of an original design for a cost-effective wheel-mounted dynamometer for road vehicles. The goal is to show whether or not a device that generates torque

This thesis evaluates the viability of an original design for a cost-effective wheel-mounted dynamometer for road vehicles. The goal is to show whether or not a device that generates torque and horsepower curves by processing accelerometer data collected at the edge of a wheel can yield results that are comparable to results obtained using a conventional chassis dynamometer. Torque curves were generated via the experimental method under a variety of circumstances and also obtained professionally by a precision engine testing company. Metrics were created to measure the precision of the experimental device's ability to consistently generate torque curves and also to compare the similarity of these curves to the professionally obtained torque curves. The results revealed that although the test device does not quite provide the same level of precision as the professional chassis dynamometer, it does create torque curves that closely resemble the chassis dynamometer torque curves and exhibit a consistency between trials comparable to the professional results, even on rough road surfaces. The results suggest that the test device provides enough accuracy and precision to satisfy the needs of most consumers interested in measuring their vehicle's engine performance but probably lacks the level of accuracy and precision needed to appeal to professionals.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Photovoltaic Array Fault Detection and Optimization Using Machine Learning

Description

The increasing demand for clean energy solutions requires more than just expansion, but also improvements in the efficiency of renewable sources, such as solar. This requires analytics for each panel

The increasing demand for clean energy solutions requires more than just expansion, but also improvements in the efficiency of renewable sources, such as solar. This requires analytics for each panel regarding voltage, current, temperature, and irradiance. This project involves the development of machine learning algorithms along with a data logger for the purpose of photovoltaic (PV) monitoring and control. Machine learning is used for fault classification. Once a fault is detected, the system can change its reconfiguration to minimize the power losses. Accuracy in the fault detection was demonstrated to be at a level over 90% and topology reconfiguration showed to increase power output by as much as 5%.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Within and cross-corpus speech emotion recognition using latent topic model-based features

Description

Owing to the suprasegmental behavior of emotional speech, turn-level features have demonstrated a better success than frame-level features for recognition-related tasks. Conventionally, such features are obtained via a brute-force collection

Owing to the suprasegmental behavior of emotional speech, turn-level features have demonstrated a better success than frame-level features for recognition-related tasks. Conventionally, such features are obtained via a brute-force collection of statistics over frames, thereby losing important local information in the process which affects the performance. To overcome these limitations, a novel feature extraction approach using latent topic models (LTMs) is presented in this study. Speech is assumed to comprise of a mixture of emotion-specific topics, where the latter capture emotionally salient information from the co-occurrences of frame-level acoustic features and yield better descriptors. Specifically, a supervised replicated softmax model (sRSM), based on restricted Boltzmann machines and distributed representations, is proposed to learn naturally discriminative topics. The proposed features are evaluated for the recognition of categorical or continuous emotional attributes via within and cross-corpus experiments conducted over acted and spontaneous expressions. In a within-corpus scenario, sRSM outperforms competing LTMs, while obtaining a significant improvement of 16.75% over popular statistics-based turn-level features for valence-based classification, which is considered to be a difficult task using only speech. Further analyses with respect to the turn duration show that the improvement is even more significant, 35%, on longer turns (>6 s), which is highly desirable for current turn-based practices. In a cross-corpus scenario, two novel adaptation-based approaches, instance selection, and weight regularization are proposed to reduce the inherent bias due to varying annotation procedures and cultural perceptions across databases. Experimental results indicate a natural, yet less severe, deterioration in performance - only 2.6% and 2.7%, thereby highlighting the generalization ability of the proposed features.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-01-25

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Investigation and Analysis of Music Genre Identification via Machine Learning

Description

Modern audio datasets and machine learning software tools have given researchers a deep understanding into Music Information Retrieval (MIR) applications. In this paper, we investigate the accuracy and viability of

Modern audio datasets and machine learning software tools have given researchers a deep understanding into Music Information Retrieval (MIR) applications. In this paper, we investigate the accuracy and viability of using a machine learning based approach to perform music genre recognition using the Free Music Archive (FMA) dataset. We compare the classification accuracy of popular machine learning models, implement various tuning techniques including principal components analysis (PCA), as well as provide an analysis of the effect of feature space noise on classification accuracy.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Low complexity differential geometric computations with applications to human activity analysis

Description

In this thesis, we consider the problem of fast and efficient indexing techniques for time sequences which evolve on manifold-valued spaces. Using manifolds is a convenient way to work with

In this thesis, we consider the problem of fast and efficient indexing techniques for time sequences which evolve on manifold-valued spaces. Using manifolds is a convenient way to work with complex features that often do not live in Euclidean spaces. However, computing standard notions of geodesic distance, mean etc. can get very involved due to the underlying non-linearity associated with the space. As a result a complex task such as manifold sequence matching would require very large number of computations making it hard to use in practice. We believe that one can device smart approximation algorithms for several classes of such problems which take into account the geometry of the manifold and maintain the favorable properties of the exact approach. This problem has several applications in areas of human activity discovery and recognition, where several features and representations are naturally studied in a non-Euclidean setting. We propose a novel solution to the problem of indexing manifold-valued sequences by proposing an intrinsic approach to map sequences to a symbolic representation. This is shown to enable the deployment of fast and accurate algorithms for activity recognition, motif discovery, and anomaly detection. Toward this end, we present generalizations of key concepts of piece-wise aggregation and symbolic approximation for the case of non-Euclidean manifolds. Experiments show that one can replace expensive geodesic computations with much faster symbolic computations with little loss of accuracy in activity recognition and discovery applications. The proposed methods are ideally suited for real-time systems and resource constrained scenarios.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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On the dynamics of epileptic spikes and focus localization in temporal lobe epilepsy

Description

Interictal spikes, together with seizures, have been recognized as the two hallmarks of epilepsy, a brain disorder that 1% of the world's population suffers from. Even though the presence of

Interictal spikes, together with seizures, have been recognized as the two hallmarks of epilepsy, a brain disorder that 1% of the world's population suffers from. Even though the presence of spikes in brain's electromagnetic activity has diagnostic value, their dynamics are still elusive. It was an objective of this dissertation to formulate a mathematical framework within which the dynamics of interictal spikes could be thoroughly investigated. A new epileptic spike detection algorithm was developed by employing data adaptive morphological filters. The performance of the spike detection algorithm was favorably compared with others in the literature. A novel spike spatial synchronization measure was developed and tested on coupled spiking neuron models. Application of this measure to individual epileptic spikes in EEG from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy revealed long-term trends of increase in synchronization between pairs of brain sites before seizures and desynchronization after seizures, in the same patient as well as across patients, thus supporting the hypothesis that seizures may occur to break (reset) the abnormal spike synchronization in the brain network. Furthermore, based on these results, a separate spatial analysis of spike rates was conducted that shed light onto conflicting results in the literature about variability of spike rate before and after seizure. The ability to automatically classify seizures into clinical and subclinical was a result of the above findings. A novel method for epileptogenic focus localization from interictal periods based on spike occurrences was also devised, combining concepts from graph theory, like eigenvector centrality, and the developed spike synchronization measure, and tested very favorably against the utilized gold rule in clinical practice for focus localization from seizures onset. Finally, in another application of resetting of brain dynamics at seizures, it was shown that it is possible to differentiate with a high accuracy between patients with epileptic seizures (ES) and patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES). The above studies of spike dynamics have elucidated many unknown aspects of ictogenesis and it is expected to significantly contribute to further understanding of the basic mechanisms that lead to seizures, the diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Signal processing and robust statistics for fault detection in photovoltaic arrays

Description

Photovoltaics (PV) is an important and rapidly growing area of research. With the advent of power system monitoring and communication technology collectively known as the "smart grid," an opportunity exists

Photovoltaics (PV) is an important and rapidly growing area of research. With the advent of power system monitoring and communication technology collectively known as the "smart grid," an opportunity exists to apply signal processing techniques to monitoring and control of PV arrays. In this paper a monitoring system which provides real-time measurements of each PV module's voltage and current is considered. A fault detection algorithm formulated as a clustering problem and addressed using the robust minimum covariance determinant (MCD) estimator is described; its performance on simulated instances of arc and ground faults is evaluated. The algorithm is found to perform well on many types of faults commonly occurring in PV arrays. Among several types of detection algorithms considered, only the MCD shows high performance on both types of faults.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Undergraduate signal processing laboratories on the Android platform

Description

The field of education has been immensely benefited by major breakthroughs in technology. The arrival of computers and the internet made student-teacher interaction from different parts of the world viable,

The field of education has been immensely benefited by major breakthroughs in technology. The arrival of computers and the internet made student-teacher interaction from different parts of the world viable, increasing the reach of the educator to hitherto remote corners of the world. The arrival of mobile phones in the recent past has the potential to provide the next paradigm shift in the way education is conducted. It combines the universal reach and powerful visualization capabilities of the computer with intimacy and portability. Engineering education is a field which can exploit the benefits of mobile devices to enhance learning and spread essential technical know-how to different parts of the world. In this thesis, I present AJDSP, an Android application evolved from JDSP, providing an intuitive and a easy to use environment for signal processing education. AJDSP is a graphical programming laboratory for digital signal processing developed for the Android platform. It is designed to provide utility; both as a supplement to traditional classroom learning and as a tool for self-learning. The architecture of AJDSP is based on the Model-View-Controller paradigm optimized for the Android platform. The extensive set of function modules cover a wide range of basic signal processing areas such as convolution, fast Fourier transform, z transform and filter design. The simple and intuitive user interface inspired from iJDSP is designed to facilitate ease of navigation and to provide the user with an intimate learning environment. Rich visualizations necessary to understand mathematically intensive signal processing algorithms have been incorporated into the software. Interactive demonstrations boosting student understanding of concepts like convolution and the relation between different signal domains have also been developed. A set of detailed assessments to evaluate the application has been conducted for graduate and senior-level undergraduate students.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Energy-efficient distributed estimation by utilizing a nonlinear amplifier

Description

Distributed estimation uses many inexpensive sensors to compose an accurate estimate of a given parameter. It is frequently implemented using wireless sensor networks. There have been several studies on optimizing

Distributed estimation uses many inexpensive sensors to compose an accurate estimate of a given parameter. It is frequently implemented using wireless sensor networks. There have been several studies on optimizing power allocation in wireless sensor networks used for distributed estimation, the vast majority of which assume linear radio-frequency amplifiers. Linear amplifiers are inherently inefficient, so in this dissertation nonlinear amplifiers are examined to gain efficiency while operating distributed sensor networks. This research presents a method to boost efficiency by operating the amplifiers in the nonlinear region of operation. Operating amplifiers nonlinearly presents new challenges. First, nonlinear amplifier characteristics change across manufacturing process variation, temperature, operating voltage, and aging. Secondly, the equations conventionally used for estimators and performance expectations in linear amplify-and-forward systems fail. To compensate for the first challenge, predistortion is utilized not to linearize amplifiers but rather to force them to fit a common nonlinear limiting amplifier model close to the inherent amplifier performance. This minimizes the power impact and the training requirements for predistortion. Second, new estimators are required that account for transmitter nonlinearity. This research derives analytically and confirms via simulation new estimators and performance expectation equations for use in nonlinear distributed estimation. An additional complication when operating nonlinear amplifiers in a wireless environment is the influence of varied and potentially unknown channel gains. The impact of these varied gains and both measurement and channel noise sources on estimation performance are analyzed in this paper. Techniques for minimizing the estimate variance are developed. It is shown that optimizing transmitter power allocation to minimize estimate variance for the most-compressed parameter measurement is equivalent to the problem for linear sensors. Finally, a method for operating distributed estimation in a multipath environment is presented that is capable of developing robust estimates for a wide range of Rician K-factors. This dissertation demonstrates that implementing distributed estimation using nonlinear sensors can boost system efficiency and is compatible with existing techniques from the literature for boosting efficiency at the system level via sensor power allocation. Nonlinear transmitters work best when channel gains are known and channel noise and receiver noise levels are low.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013