Matching Items (4)

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Ultrasonographic Diagnosis of Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Secondary to Brachial Plexus Piercing Variation

Description

Structural variations of the thoracic outlet create a unique risk for neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (nTOS) that is difficult to diagnose clinically. Common anatomical variations in brachial plexus (BP) branching

Structural variations of the thoracic outlet create a unique risk for neurogenic thoracic outlet syndrome (nTOS) that is difficult to diagnose clinically. Common anatomical variations in brachial plexus (BP) branching were recently discovered in which portions of the proximal plexus pierce the anterior scalene. This results in possible impingement of BP nerves within the muscle belly and, therefore, predisposition for nTOS. We hypothesized that some cases of disputed nTOS result from these BP branching variants. We tested the association between BP piercing and nTOS symptoms, and evaluated the capability of ultrasonographic identification of patients with clinically relevant variations. Eighty-two cadaveric necks were first dissected to assess BP variation frequency. In 62.1%, C5, superior trunk, or superior + middle trunks pierced the anterior scalene. Subsequently, 22 student subjects underwent screening with detailed questionnaires, provocative tests, and BP ultrasonography. Twenty-one percent demonstrated atypical BP branching anatomy on ultrasound; of these, 50% reported symptoms consistent with nTOS, significantly higher than subjects with classic BP anatomy (14%). This group, categorized as a typical TOS, would be missed by provocative testing alone. The addition of ultrasonography to nTOS diagnosis, especially for patients with BP branching variation, would allow clinicians to visualize and identify atypical patient anatomy.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-07-04

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Developmental Changes in Morphology of the Middle and Posterior External Cranial Base in Modern Homo sapiens

Description

The basicranium has been described as phylogenetically informative, developmentally stable, and minimally affected by external factors and consequently plays an important role in cranial size and shape in subadult humans.

The basicranium has been described as phylogenetically informative, developmentally stable, and minimally affected by external factors and consequently plays an important role in cranial size and shape in subadult humans. Here basicranial variation of subadults from several modern human populations was investigated and the impact of genetic relatedness on basicranial morphological similarities was investigated. Three-dimensional landmark data were digitized from subadult basicrania from seven populations. Published molecular data on short tandem repeats were statistically compared to morphological data from three ontogenetic stages. Basicranial and temporal bone morphology both reflect genetic distances in childhood and adolescence (5–18 years), but not in infancy (<5 years). The occipital bone reflects genetic distances only in adolescence (13–18 years). The sphenoid bone does not reflect genetic distances at any ontogenetic stage but was the most diagnostic region evaluated, resulting in high rates of correct classification among populations. These results suggest that the ontogenetic processes driving basicranial development are complex and cannot be succinctly summarized across populations or basicranial regions. However, the fact that certain regions reflect genetic distances suggests that the morphology of these regions may be useful in reconstructing population history in specimens for which direct DNA evidence is unavailable, such as archaeological sites.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05-24

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Morphological variation, phylogenetic relationships, and geographic distribution of the Baenidae (Testudines), based on new specimens from the Uinta Formation (Uinta Basin), Utah (USA)

Description

We described newly discovered baenid specimens from the Uintan North American Land Mammal Age (NALMA), in the Uinta Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah. These specimens include a partial skull and several

We described newly discovered baenid specimens from the Uintan North American Land Mammal Age (NALMA), in the Uinta Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah. These specimens include a partial skull and several previously undescribed postcranial elements of Baena arenosa, and numerous well-preserved shells of B. arenosa and Chisternon undatum. Baenids from the Uintan NALMA (46.5–40 Ma) are critical in that they provide valuable insight into the morphology and evolution of the diverse and speciose baenid family near the end of its extensive radiation, just prior to the disappearance of this clade from the fossil record. These Uintan specimens greatly increase the known variation in these late-surviving taxa and indicate that several characters thought to define these species should be reassessed. The partial cranium of B. arenosa, including portions of the basicranium, neurocranium, face, and lower jaw, was recently recovered from Uinta B sediments. While its morphology is consistent with known specimens of B. arenosa, we observed several distinct differences: a crescent-shaped condylus occipitalis that is concave dorsally, tuberculum basioccipitale that flare out laterally, and a distinct frontal-nasal suture. The current sample of plastral and carapacial morphology considerably expands the documented variation in the hypodigms of B. arenosa and C. undatum. Novel shell characters observed include sigmoidal extragular-humeral sulci, and small, subtriangular gular scutes. Subadult specimens reveal ontogenetic processes in both taxa, and demonstrate that diagnostic morphological differences between them were present from an early developmental age.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-07-07

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The relative correspondence of cranial and genetic distances in papionin taxa and the impact of allometric adjustments

Description

The reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships in the primate fossil record is dependent upon a thorough understanding of the phylogenetic utility of craniodental characters. Here, we test three previously proposed hypotheses

The reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships in the primate fossil record is dependent upon a thorough understanding of the phylogenetic utility of craniodental characters. Here, we test three previously proposed hypotheses for the propensity of primate craniomandibular data to exhibit homoplasy, using a study design based on the relative congruence between cranial distance matrices and a consensus genetic distance matrix (“genetic congruence”) for papionin taxa: 1) matrices based on cranial regions subjected to less masticatory strain are more genetically congruent than high-strain cranial matrices; 2) matrices based on cranial regions developing earlier in ontogeny are more genetically congruent than matrices based on regions that develop later; and 3) matrices based on cranial regions with greater anatomical/functional complexity are more genetically congruent than matrices based on anatomically simpler regions.
Morphological distance matrices based on the shape of 15 different cranial regions, delineated on the basis of previous catarrhine studies, were statistically compared to a matrix of known genetic distances in papionins. Since sexual dimorphism and allometry are known to characterize this clade, several analytical iterations were conducted: 1) mixed-sex, male-only, and female-only analyses and 2) with and without an allometric scaling adjustment. Across all datasets, the chondrocranium matrix was the most consistently correlated with genetic distances, which is also consistent with previous studies of cercopithecoid taxa; however, there was no support for the internal predictions of the three hypotheses tested. Allometric scaling corrections had the largest impact on the genetic congruence of facial shape matrices, a result consistent with previous studies that have described facial homoplasy in papionin taxa. These findings differ from patterns described for hominoid taxa, suggesting that no single predictive criterion can explain phylogenetic utility of cranial datasets across catarrhine primate taxa. Many of the differences in morphological-genetic matrix correlations could result from different levels of phenotypic integration and evolvability in cercopithecoids and hominoids, suggesting that further study of these phenomena in extant primates is warranted.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-08-01